African daisy

Family • Asteraceae - Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. f. - GERBERA DAISY Scientific names Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Hook. f. Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex Adlam Common names African daisy (Engl.) Barbeton daisy (Engl.) Gerbera daisy (Engl.) Gerber daisy (Engl.) Transvaal daisy (Engl.) Other vernacular names SRI LANKA: Barbendesiya, Babandesiya. VIETNAMESE: Cúc đồng tiền; Cúc nhật bản. Gen info  - Genus Gerbera was named in honor of the German naturalist Traugott Gerber and the species named after Robert Jameson who collected the species. - Gerbera daisy is one of the 15 plants that NASA as beneficial in purifying indoor air by removing indoor air toxins: TCE (trichlorethylene) and benzene. Botany African daisy is a tufted perennial herb growing to 40 centimeters. Leaves form a rosette, pinnately lobed, pale green above, light green beneath. Striking inflorescence is borne on a long stalk of up to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, red, yellow, or white with cream disc florets. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Top 15 NASA's Plants That Can Save Your Life! / Softpedia (2) Anticancer Activity of Gerbera Jamesonii on A549-Adeno-Carcinomic Human Alveolar Basal Epithelial Cell Line-An In Vitro Study / Agarwal, Pooja; Chettiar, Shiva / Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine;May2014, Vol. 20 Issue 5, pA36 (3) Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook.f. / The Plant List (4) Gerbera jamesonii Adlam / plantzafrica (5) Effect of different explants on in vitro propagation of gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii) / Shagufta Naz, Fozia Naz, Amina Tariq, Farah Aslam, Aamir Ali and Mohammad Athar* / African [...]


Family • Verbenaceae / Lamiaceae - Premna odorata Blanco - FRAGRANT PREMNA Quisumbing's compilation lists Premna integrifolia Blanco as a separate specie from Premna serratifolia L. Other compilations list them as synonymous species. Some compilations list Premna serratifolia Linn.as separate species from P. serratifolia Blanco. Scientific names Premna curranii H. Lam. Premna oblongata Miq, Premna pubescens Blume Premna serratiflolia Blanco Premna vestita Schauer Botany Alagau is a small hairy tree, 3 to 8 meters high. Leaves are ovate to broadly ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with broad, rounded, or somewhat heart-shaped base, and pointed tips. Under surface of the blade is usually covered with short hairs, aromatic when crushed. Flowers are greenish-white or nearly white, 4 to 5 millimeters long and borne on terminal inflorescences (cymes) 8 to 20 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is fleshy, dark purple, rounded, about 5 millimeters in diameter. Common names Abgau (P. Bis.) Duragau (Sub.) Adgau (P. Bis., Bik.) Guachal (Ig.) Adiyo (Tag.) Lagau (Mag.) Aggau (C. Bis.) Lassi (Ibn.) Alagau (Tag., Ilk.) Pumuhat tangli (Pang.) Alagaw (Tag.) Saliargao (C. Bis.) Anobran (Ilk.) Tibangñgen (Bon.) Argau (P, Bis.) Fragrant premna (Engl.) Atiñgi (Gad.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A Collagen Network Formation Effector from Leaves of Premna subscandens / September 1999 / Hirokazu SUDO, Kaori KIJIMA et al / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 47(9) 1341—1343 (1999) (2) Antiviral and Cytotoxic Activities of Som.e Plants Used in Malaysian Indigenous Medicine / Ali, Abdul Manaf and Mackeen et al / Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci., 19 (2/3). pp. 129-136. (3) Two iridoid glycoside caffeoyl esters from [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Tagetes patula L. - MARIGOLD - Xiao wan shou ju Some compilations list Tagetes erecta and Tagetes patula as synonyms. Quisumbing's and other compilations list them as separate species. Both share the common name marigold and amarillo. Scientific names Tagetes patula L. Kong que cao (Chin.) Common names Amarillo (Span., Tag.) Dwarf marigold (Engl.) French marigold (Engl.) Marigold (Engl.) Xiao wan shou ju (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Hong huang cao, Xi fan ju, Chou ju hua, Duan zi hua GERMAN: Studentenblume SPANISH: Amapola amarilla, Copetes, Copetillo Botany Amarillo is an erect, smooth, branched, rank-smelling herb, 0.3 to 0.8 meters high. Leaves are 4 to 7 centimeters long, deeply pinnatifid with linear-lanceolate segments. Heads are solitary, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, borne on long peduncles, which are thickened upward. Flowers are pale to deep yellow, sometimes red. Species is similar to ahito (Tagetes erecta) except that it is smaller, with finer leaves and smaller heads. Distribution - Cultivated for ornamental purposes in the Philippines. - Thoroughly naturalized in Lepanto and the Benguet Subprovinces, along gravel banks and streams, at altitudes of 1,200 to 1,500 meters. - Native of Mexico. - Now widely distributed in cultivation. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Tagetes patula - L. / Plants For A Future (2) Chemical constituents of Tagetes Patula L / Husan Bano et al / Pak J Pharm Sci Jul 2002;15(2):1-12. (3) Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Different Parts of Tagetes patula.: Preparation of Patuletin Derivatives / Shaheen Faizi, Humaira Siddiqi et al / Pharmaceutical [...]


Family - Moraceae - Artocarpus cumingiana Trec. Scientific names Artocarpus cumingiana Trec. Artocarpus ovata Blanco Common names Anobion (Pamp.) Buriuas (Tagb.) Kanubling (Bik.) Anobling (Tag.) Indang (Tag.) Koliung (Ting.) Anobung (Tag.) Kalauahan (Bon.) Kubi (Bis., Tag.) Anubing (Tag., Bik., Bis.) Kamandag (Neg.) Obien (Ilk.) Anubling (Tag.) Kanabling (Bik.) Tugap (Neg.) Bayuko (P. Bis.) Kanet (Tag.) Ubien (Ilk., Ibn.) Botany Anubing is a tree reaching a height of 30 meters and a diameter of about 100 cm. Leaves are oblong or subelliptic, 20 to 30 cm long, and 6 to 10 cm wide, hairy, pointed or slightly heart-shaped at the base. Petioles are 1 to 2 cm long. Male spikes are pear-shaped and 1 to 2 cm long. Female heads are rounded and nearly 2 cm in diameter. Fruit is about 10 cm long, with the anthocarp extending into brownish, hairy appendages or tails. Seeds are ellipsoid and embeded in whitish, more or less gummy meat. Distribution Species found only in the Philippines. In forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. Parts utilized Bark Uses Folkloric - Bark is boiled and used for stomach aches. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Apiaceae / Umbelliferae - Angelica keiskei (Miq.) Koidz. - TOMORROW'S LEAF Scientific names Angelica keiskei (Miq.) Koidz. Archangelica keiskei Miq. Common names Ashitaba (Jap.) Botany Ashitaba is a herbaceous, perennial plant growing to a height of 50 to 120 centimeters. Roots are stout, conic, or cylindric. Flowers are hermaphrodite (having both male and female organs). Plant is self-fertile and regenerative. Harvesting a leaf at the break of day often results in a new sprout gorwing overnight Distribution - Endemic to Japan; especially in the Seven Islands of Izu. - Of recent interest and cultivation in the Philippines for its herbal medicinal benefits. Constituents - Substantial in vitamin B12 and chalconoids. - All genus members contain furocoumarins. - Roots have yielded psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, and angelicin. - Study isolated seven compounds: 1-cerotol, daucosterol, stigmasterol, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranside, luteolin-7-rhamno-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-α-D-glucpyranoside and steviol-l3-O-β-glucopyranoside 19-β-glucopyranosyl ester octaacetate Properties - Considered tonic, diuretic, appetite stimulant, wound healing and anti-infective. - Fumocourmarin increases sensitivity to sunlight and may cause photodermatitis. - Studies have suggest anti-cancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, antidiabetic activities. Parts used Roots, leaves, stems. Uses Edibility / Culinary / Nutrition - Consumed as vegetable and medicine for hundreds of years. - Leaves, roots and stems are edible. - Leaves are eaten raw or cooked. - Roots are cooked or pickled. - In Japan, used in the preparation of soba, tempura, socho, tea, ice cream, etc. - Rich in vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ashitaba / Wikipedia (2) Comparison of the toxicity of aqueous and [...]

African lily

Family • Agapanthaceae - Agapanthus africanus Linn. Common names African lily (Engl.) Lily-of-the-Nile (Engl.) Botany Herb with thick rhizomes. Leaves are basal, 2-ranked, linear-lanceolate, up to 50 cm long and 5 cm wide. Flowers are in umbels, 12- to 30-flowered, usually bright blue-violet, crowded at the end of a long stalk, Distribution  Usually cultivated for ornamental pot plants in the Philippines. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Agapanthus africanus (Linn) / Indian journal of chem / 2007, vol. 46, no7, pp. 1154-1158 Parts utilized Rhizomes, leaves and roots. Constituents and Characteristics Cardiac, stomachic, uterotonic. oxytoxic, pectoral, expectorant, aperient, purgative, nephritic. Saponins and sapogenins of the furostane and spirostane type, including agapanthegenin and steroid spirostan sapogenins. Anthycyanin gives the colors to the flowers. Different Agapanthus species are sued for similar medicinal purposes. Toxicology Leaf may cause mouth pain and ulcerations. May be irritating to the eyes and skin. Suspected but unproven hemolytic effects. Uses Folkloric No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. • A plant of fertility and pregnancy – used by South African traditional healers as phytomedicine to treat ailments related to pregnancy and to facilitate labor. Orally or rectally, as a decoction, to ensure an easy delivery and a healthy child. It may facilitate expulsion of the placenta and augment uterine contractions. Roots worn as necklace for easy childbirth and fertility. Decoction used in washing newborn babies; also, an infant tonic. • Considered an aphrodisiac, used for impotency and barrenness. • Leaves used around [...]


Family • Fabaceae - Alibangbang - Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. - MALABAR ORCHID Scientifric names Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. Bauhinia tomentosa Blanco Bauhinia purpurea Vidal Piliostigma acidum Benth. Piliostigma malabaricum (Roxb.) Benth. Common names Alambangbang (Tag.) Alibangbang (Tag., Bis., Pamp.) Balibamban (Pamp.) Kalibanbang (Pang., Tag.) Kalibangbang (Ilk.) Lilac bauhinia (Engl.) Malabar bauhinia (Engl.) Malabar orchid (Engl.) Gen info - Bauhinia is a genus of more than 200 species. The genus was named after the Bauhin brothers, Swiss-French botanists. The species share the 'butterfly' configuration of the leaves. - Alibangbang is an Ilongo word for butterfly. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves in Experimental Animals / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Loo Yi Wen, et al / Med Princ Pract 2007;16:443-449 (DOI: 10.1159/000107749) (2) Inhibition of Heinz body induction of six common Thai medicinal leaves and creeping stems in in vitro antioxidant study model./ Soogarun, S., Wiwanitkit, V., Suwansuksri, J. (3) Chemical composition and nutritional potential of the tribal pulse (Bauhinia malabarica Roxb). / Vijayakumari K, Siddhuraju P, Janardhanan K. / Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 Nov;44(3):291-8. (4) Preliminary phytochemical screening from different parts of Bauhinia tomentosa L. and Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. (Caesalpiniaceae) / Thenmozhi Krishnasamy, Manian S, Paulsamy S / Research & Reviews, Vol 1, No 1 (2012) Botany Alibangbang is a small but stocky tree growing to a height of 8 to 10 meters. Bark is yellowish-brown. Branches are freely rebranched, with a dense crown, the ultimate ones smooth. Leaves are broader than long, 5 to 10 centimeters in length, [...]


Family - Menispermaceae - Pycnarrhena manillensis Vidal. Scientific names Pycnarrhena manillensis Vidal. Common names Ambal (Tag.) Haluot (C. Bis.) Huluot (Bis.) Mama�gal (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phaeanthine-2'a-N-oxide and Pycmanilline, New Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids from Pycnarrhena manillensis / Jacinto C. Regalado, Jr., Cong-yuan Gao, Emil Fu, Fu-tyan Lin, Mei-chao Lin, Lan K. Wong, and Paul L. Schiff, Jr. / Heterocycles, Vol 26, No 10, 1987 / DOI: 10.3987/R-1987-10-2573 Botany Ambal is a half-erect or climbing shrub growing to a height of one meter or more. Leaves are rather leathery, shining, elliptic-ovate to oblong-elliptic, 13 to 30 centimeters long, with a pointed tip. Flowers are crowded, small and yellowish. Fruit is ellipsoid-globose, 10 to 15 millimeters long. Distribution - Endemic in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes in Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, Batangas, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Alabat; Samar, Leyte; Negros; and Mindanao. Constituents and properties - Yields six alkaloids: Pycnarrhine, ambaline and ambalininine are non-phenolic; pycnaminde, pycnarrhinine, and pycnarrhenamine are phenolic. Properties - Root is tonic, cicatrizant, vulnerary, febrifuge and emmenagogue. Parts used and preparation Roots and stems. Uses Folkloric - Warm infusion applied on skin ulcers. - Powdered roots used to treat cholera and other intestinal diseases. - Powdered roots taken internally as a tonic. - Infusion used by pregnant women in parturition. - For wound healing: used as cicatrizant and vulnerary. - Used for fever and to stimulate menstruation. - Used for snakebites and wounds; also, as tonic. Study Findings - Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids: An ethanolic extract of [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. - JAPANESE THOROUGH-WORT - Chen gan cao Scientific names Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. E. chinense simplicifolium (Makino) Kitm.Thunb. Eupatorium fortunei Turcz. Eupatorium stoecdosum Hance. Common names Apanang-gubat (Tag.) Japanese bog orchid (Engl.) Japanese boneset (Engl.) Japanese thorough-wort (Engl.) Chen gan cao (Chin.) Bai tou po (Chin.) Botany Apanang-gubat is an erect, leafy branched, smooth herb, 60 to 90 meters high. Leaves are fragrant, up to 19 centimeters long, divided quite to the base into three segments - the upper leaves subtending the branches of the inflorescence being deeply divided. Segments are elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, up to 13 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Inflorescence is terminal, measuring up to 14 centimeters across. Flowering heads are 3 to 4 millimeters across. Flowers are white and fragrant. Distribution - In thickets at low altitudes in the Batan Islands. - Occurs in Japan to China and Taiwan. Parts used - Yields essential oil thymol. Constituents - Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids—class of hepatotoxic and tumorigenic compounds that have been detected in herbal plants and dietary supplements. - Study of flowers and leaves yielded volatile oils. Main constituents were germacrene D (27.3%, 37.1%), gemacrene B (12.4%, 11.7%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%, 10.1%). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition of three Chinese medicinal herbs, Eupatorium cannabinum, E. japonicum and Crotalaria assamica / Edgar JA, Lin HJ et al / Am J Chin Med. 1992;20(3-4):281-8. (2) A comparative study on the hepatic toxicity and metabolism of Crotalaria assamica and Eupatorium species / [...]


Family - Acanthaceae - Asystasia gangetica Linn. - CHINESE VIOLET Scientific names Asystasia coromandelina Nees Justicia gangetica Linn. Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders. Ruelia coromandeliana Nees Common names Asistasia (Tag.) Zamboangenita (Tag.) Chinese violet (Engl.) Coromandel (Engl.) Creeping foxglove (Engl.) Purple primrose (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Kuan ye shi wan cuo. FRENCH: Herbe le rail, Herbe piment, Herbe pistache. GUJARATI: Kaligharani. KANNADA: Lavana valli. MALAYALAM: Valli-upu-dali. MARATHI: Lavana valli. TAMIL: Miti-kirai. ZULU: Isihobo Gen info - Asystasia means inconsistency and refers to the corolla that is more or less regular, unusual for Acanthaceae members. Botany Asistasia is a procumbent herb, growing up to 1 meter or more in height. Leaves are ovate, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide, with pointed tips and rounded or narrowed base. Flowers are borne on one side of lax racemes 5 to 12 centimeters in length. Sepals are linear-lanceolate, about 5 millimeters long and hairy on the back. Corolla is hairy, 2 to 3 centimeters long, with a yellow and inflated tube, limb is pink or pale purple, usually dull or lurid, sometimes yellow altogether. Capsule is cylindric-compressed, about 2.5 centimeters long and hairy. Seeds are smooth, compressed, ovoid, angular, wrinkled or subtubercular, less than 5 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - In thickets near towns at A low altitude, often cultivated in Manila and Los Ba�os. - Also occurs in tropical Africa, Asia, and Malaya. Constituents - Phytochemical analysis yielded carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, steroidal aglycans, saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. Also yields, minerals: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, manganese, copper, zinc, [...]