Family • Pittosporaceae - Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl. - PETROLEUM NUT Scientific names Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl. Common names Abkel (Ig.) Diñgo (Ig.) Lañgis (Ig.) Abkol (Ig.) Hanga nut Obkol (Ig.) Apisang (Ig.) Kabilan (Ig.) Pilai (Bon.) Botiak (Ig.) Kalapakab (Bon.) Sagaga (Ting.) Dael (Ig.) Kiligto (Ig.) Petroleum nut (Engl.) Resin cheesewood (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Pittosporum resiniferum Hemsl / Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. (2) Petroleum Nut: Sustainable, Wonder Biofuel / Michael Bengwayan / Innovation Resources (3) Pittosporum resiniferum / World Agroforestry (4) Learning Together: Agriculture in the Phillipines / NGO Leads Fight to Conserve and Protect Petroleum Nut / Michael A. Bengwayan / PineTreePhil (5) Preparation of ointment from hanga nut (Pittosporum resiniferum) extract as muscle pain reliever / Sescon, Abigail Lenter S., Pilanga, Roanna Marie I., Tarrazo, Geraldine M. / STII / DOST ScINET-PHIL Botany Abkel is an epiphyte or pseudoepiphyte. Leaves crowded toward the ends of the branchlets, leathery,smooth, oblanceolate, averaging about 15 centimeters long and 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends. Flowers are fragrant, short-pedicelled, smooth, and borne in clusters on the stems. Calyx is thin and cupular. Petals are oblong. Fruit is yellow, ellipsoid, 3 to 3.5 centimeters long, and dehiscent at the apex. Seeds are shiny and black.Distribution - Grows as an epiphyte or pseudoepiphyte on trees in mossy forests at altitudes of 900 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc to the Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon, particularly in the wilderness surrounding the Mayon Volcano; and in Mindanao and Catanduanes. - Grown in the Kapangan [...]


Family • Agavaceae - Agave angustifolia Haw - SWORD AGAVE Common namers Agave (Engl.) Dwarf aloe (Engl.) Khetki (India) Sword agave (Engl.) Agave, derived from the scientific name is the adopted common name for most agave species: (1) Magey, maguey, agave, Agave americana (2) Agave, Agave angustifolia Botany Herb with dense rosette of sword-shaped, stiff and straight grayish green leaves with sharp-pointed tips and prickled margins. Some varieties have white-margined leaves. Distribution Introducted to the Philippines. Ornamental cultivation, providing a spiny accent to gardens. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Characterization of Five Typical Agave Plants Used To Produce Mezcal through Their Simple Lipid Composition Analysis by Gas Chromatography / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (5), pp 1933–1939 / DOI: 10.1021/jf802141d Constituents and properties Roots are considered diuretic and diaphoretic. Uses Folkloric No known folkloric use in the Philippines. In India, fresh juice of leaves applied externally to bruises. Others • Agave Nectar is a blend of two agave varieties: A salmiana and A. angustifolia. Study Findings • Studied as alternative gene pools to preserve Agave germplasm diversity for the production of traditional Agave spritis. source • Mezcal: Study of five agave plants used in Mexico for mezcal production yielded sixteen fatty acids, including capric and lignoceric. Lipids included free fatty acids, ß-sitosterol and groups of mono-, di-, and triacylglycerols. Availability Wildcrafted. Commerce: Agave Nectar, a low-glycemic sweetener, is a blend of two varieties: Agave salmiana and Agave angustifolia.

A las doce

Family • Malvaceae - Hibiscus cannabinus Linn. - BROWN INDIAN HEMP - Da ma jin Scientifric names HIbiscus cannabinus Linn. HIbiscus verrucosus Guill. & Perr. HIbiscus unidens Lindl. Abelmoschus verrucosus Walp. Furcaria cavanillesii Kostel. Da ma jin (Chin.) Common names Alas doce (Span., Tag.) Bastard jute (Engl.) Brown Indian hemp (Engl.) Guinea hemp (Engl.) Hemp hibiscus (Engl.) Hibiscus hemp (Engl.) Roselle hemp (Engl.) Thorny mallow (Engl.) Wild stockrose (Engl.) Fu rong ma (Chin.) Botany Alas doce is an herb with smooth and prickly stems. Lower leaves are entire and heart-shaped, the upper ones are deeply palmately-lobed. Sepals are bristly, lanceolate and connate below the middle, with a gland at the back of each. Corolla is large, spreading, yellow with a crimson center. Capsules are rounded and bristly. Seeds are nearly smooth. Distribution - Planted for ornamental purposes but is scarcely naturalized. - Found in the Bontoc and Pangasinan Provinces and in Manila. - Old World native. - Pantropic. Constituents - Seeds yield 23.5% fixed oil. - Whole plant has abundant polysaccharides, 9.7%; starch, dextrin, pectin, tannin, phosphatide, protein. Properties - Considered antibilious, aphrodisiac, purgative. - Seeds considered purgative. - Seed oil considered aphrodisiac. Parts used Leaves and flowers. Uses Edibility - Leaves used as pot-herb. - Seeds are roasted or ground into a flour. - Root is edible, although a bit fibrous. Folkloric - Leaves used as purgative. - In Gambia, infusion of leaves used for coughs. - Flowers used for biliousness and constipation. - Seeds oil used externally for pains and bruises; and internally as an [...]


Family - Annonaceae - Goniothalamus amuyon (Blanco) Merr. - TAIWAN GONIOTHALAMUS - Tai wan ge na xiang Scientific names Goniothalamus amuyon (Blanco) Merr. Polyalthia sasakii Yamam. Uvaria amuyon Blanco Unona cauliflora Blanco Common names Amuyon (C. Bis.) Amuyong (Tag.) Bantana (Buk.) Sagiat (Ilk.) Grano del paraiso (Span.) Taiwan goniothalamus (Engl.) Tai wan ge na xiang (Chin.) Botany Amuyon is a small tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong, 15 to 25 centimeters long and about 5 centimeters wide, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are yellowish green, borne on the sides or at the axils of the leaves, nodding, upon 1-centimeter-long pedicels. Sepals are smooth and pointed. Outer petals are lanceolate, 3 to 5 centimeters long; the inner one are scarcely half as long. Fruit is smooth, cylindrically elongated or sausage-like, about 3 centimeters long, containing one to three seeds. Distribution - Found in forests at low and medium altitudes in Abra, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Pangasinan, Batangas, Rizal, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; in Negros, Bohol and Mindanao. - Also reported in Taiwan. Constituents - Phytochemical screening yielded five isoquinoline alkaloids. - Study of stems yielded two new compounds, goniothalesacetate  and goniothalesdiol A together with goniodiol-7-monoacetate, goniodiol-8-monoacetate, leiocarpin C, liriodenine, griffithazanone A, 4-methyl-2,9,10-(2H)-1-azaanthracencetrione, velutinam and aristolactam BII. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) The Crystal Structure and Cytotoxicity of Gonodiol-7-Monoacetate from Goniothalamus amuyon / Yang-Chang Wu, Chang-Yih Duh et al / Journal of Natural Products, Vol 54, No 4, Pp 1077-1081, Jul-Aug 1991 (2) Cytotoxic Styrylpyrones from Goniothalamus amuyon / Yu-Hsuan Lan, Fang-Rong Chang et al / [...]


Family • Leguminosae - Cassia nodosa Buch.- Ham. ex Roxb. - PALAWAN CHERRY - Zhao wa jue ming Philippine compilations list Cassia javanica (appleblossom shower, tindalo) as a separate species from Cassia nodosa (apostola, pink-and-white shower). Some compilations list them as synonymous species, with a sharing of common names. The botanical demarcations seem unclear. Cassia nodosa is very similar to Cassia javanica, differing mostly from the latter in the absence of spines on the trunk and branches. Scientific names Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb. Cassia bacillus Gaertn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jie guo juo ming, Fen hua shan bian dou. THAI: Chaiya phruek, Kanla phruek, Kanlapa phruek. Common names Ankohan (Tag.) Apostola (Tag.) Palawan cherry (Engl.) Pink shower (Engl.) Pink-and-white shower (Engl.) Zhao wa jue ming (Chin.) Botany Apostola is an unarmed tree, attaining a height of 10 meters or taller. Leaves are about 30 centimeters long, divided into 5 to 12 pairs of oblong to elliptic-ovate leaflets, with acute tip. Leaves shed before flowering starts. Flowers are clustered, pale pink at first, become bright pink, fading to white with age. Fruit is cylindrical, 40 to 60 centimeters long, 0.5 to 1 centimeter wide, green when young, becoming black as it ripens. Seeds are numerous along the entire length of the fruit. Cassia nodosa is very similar to Cassia javanica, differing mostly from the latter in the absence of spines on the trunk and branches. Distribution - Introduced. - Garden cultivation. - Indigenous in the Eastern Himalayas to the Malay Peninsula. Constituents - In [...]


Family - Anonaceae - Annona squamosa Linn. - SUGAR APPLE - Fan li zhi Scientific names Annona squamosa Linn. Annona asiatica Linn. Annona cinerea Dunal Annona forskahlii DC. Annona glabra Forssk. Common names Ates (Tag.) Atis (Tag.) Yates (Tag.) Custard apple seed (Engl.) Sugar apple (Engl.) Sweetsop (Engl.) Fan li zhi (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Lin qin, Ma luo tuo, Yang bo luo. DUTCH: Kaneelappel. FRENCH: Annone cailleuse, Cachiman cannelle (Haiti), Pomme cannelle (Antilles). GERMAN: Rahmapfel, Ssack, Schuppenannone (Rehm) , Schuppen-Annone, Zimtapfel, Zuckerapfel. HINDI: Raamaphal, Shariiphaa, Sitaphal. ITALIAN: Mela canella, Pomo canella. JAPANESE: Banreishi. LAOTIAN: Khib. MALAY: Buah nona, Sarikaya (Prosea) (Indonesia), Seri kaya, Srikaya (Prosea) (Indonesia). NEPALESE: Shariiphaa, Sariphal, Sitaaphal. PORTUGUESE: At, Ateira, Cabea-de-negro, Condessa, Corao-de-boi, Fruta da condessa, Fruta de condessa, Fruta do conde, Pinheira. SANSKRIT: Gandhagatra, Shubba. SPANISH: Ahate, Ann, Ann candonga, Anona blanca,Anona de Castilla, Chirimoya, Rinn. THAI: Noina. Botany Atis is a small tree 3 to 5 meters in height. Leaves are somewhat hairy when young, oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, with a petiole 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves, about 2.5 centimeters long, pendulous, hairy, three-angled, light green to yellow. Fruit is large, somewhat heart-shaped, 6 to 9 centimeters long, the outside marked with knobby polygonal tubercles. When ripe, the fruit is light yellowish-green. Flesh is white, sweet, soft, and juicy, with a mild and very agreeable flavor. Distribution - Cultivated throughout the Philippines; occasionally spontaneous. - Introduced from tropical America by the Spaniards. - Now pantropic. Constituents  - [...]


Family • Celastraceae - Lophopetalum toxicum Loher Scientific names Lophopetalum celebicus Koord. Lophopetalum toxicum Loher Lophopetalum fimbriatum F.-Vill. Lophopetalum fuscescens Kurz. Lophopetalum javanicum (Zoll.) Turcz. Lophopetalum oblongum King Lophopetalum paucinervium Merr.. Hippocratea maingayi Vidal Common names Abuab (Tag.) Abutab (Tag.) Butiñgi (Tag.) Buyum (Sul.) Dayandang (Tag.) Dita (Neg.) Kalibambañgan (Man.) Puti-i-babe (Lan.) Puti-i-lalaki (Lan.) Sudkad (P. Bis.) Botany Abuab is a tree growing to a height of 25 to 50 meters. Leaves are opposite or occasionally alternate, smooth, oblong, often 15 to 18 centimeters long but sometimes reaching a length of 25 centimeters, about 7 centimeters wide, and usually pointed at both ends. Flowers are greenish white, about 1 centimeter in diameter, with five petals, and borne in terminal or axillary panicles. Fruit is leathery and smooth, reaching a 12 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters wide, with three, broad, longitudinal wings. Distribution - In primary forests at low and medium altitudes up to 1000 meters, in Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; in Mindoro, Masbate, Leyte Mindanao, and the Sulu Archipelago. - Also reported in Thailand, Vietnam, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Moluccas and New Guinea. Constituents - Plant yields a physiologically active substance, a saponin which in poisonous in small quantities. - Study isolated a glucoside, lophopetalin. - Study yielded lophopetalin, 0.2%; saponin; phytosterine, 5%; luperol; betulin; and a new stearin. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Lophopetalum javanicum (Zoll.) Turcz. / AsianPlantNet (2) Phyto chemical investigation on Lophopetalum toxicum Loher (Fam celastraceae) [in the Philippines] / Castillo, A.V.; Enriquez, O.E. (University of the Philippines, Quezon [...]


Family • Moraceae - Ficus variegata Blume - RED-STEMMED FIG Other scientific names Ficus laevigata Blanco Ficus latsoni Elm Ficus ehretioides Benth. Common names Agi (Yak.) Laptai (Tag.) Tabgon (Bik.) Banakal (Bag.) Lapting (Ilk.) Tañgisang bayauak (Sbl., Tag.) Basikong (Bag.) Ligtug (Bon.) Tubol (Pang.) Duoyag (P. Bis.) Lita (Ibn.) Lansones matsin (Tag.) Dudang (Sul.) Payahan (Sbl.) Za se rong (Chin.) Dudu (Ig.) Rayaraya (Tag.) Red-stemmed fig (Engl.) Botany Tall, spreading tree with a pale bark. Leaves are broadly or elliptic-ovate, 10 to 17 cm long, the base rounded, notched or heart-shaped, the tip tapering to a point, the margins entire or toothed. Receptacles are about 1 cm in diameter, clustered on long branches. Distribution Common in primary forests at low and medium altitudes. Parts used Leaves, bark, latex. Uses Nutritional Young shoot-tips and young fruits eaten raw or cooked. Folkloric Leaves applied to boils. Bark used as decoction for dysentery. Latex of bark used externally on wounds. Availability Wildcrafted.


Family • Fabaceae - Bauhinia monandra Kurz - PINK BUTTERFLY TREE Alibangbang is a common name shared by (1) Bauhinia malabarica, alambangbang, malabar orchid, and (2) Bauhinia monandra, Napoleon's plume. Orchid tree is an English common names shared by several Bauhinia species: (1) B. variegata (2) B. purpurea and (3) B. monandra. Butterfly tree, derived from the "butterfly" shape of the leaves common to many Bauhinia species, is a common name shared by many Bauhinia species, among them: B. purpurea, B. monandra, B. variegata. Scientific names Bauhinia monandra Kurz Bauhinia kappleri Sagot Bauhinia krugii Urban Bauhinia porosa Baill. Bauhinia punctiflora Baker Caspareopsis monandra (Kurz) B & R Common names Alibangbang (Tag.) Butterfly flower (Engl.) Fringon (Span.) Pink bauhinia (Eng.) Pink butterfly tree (Engl.) Pink orchid tree (Engl.) Poor man's orchid (Engl.) Napoleon's plume (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHAMORRO: Flores mariposa. FRENCH: Bauhinia à fleurs roses. MAORI: Ipena, Pi, Pine, Pipi PORTUGUESE: Mariposa. SAMOAN: Vae povi. SPANISH: Fringon, Orquidea del pobre. TONGAN: Fehi, Napoleone. Gen info - Bauhinia is a genus of more than 200 species. The genus was named after the Bauhin brothers, Swiss-French botanists. The species share the 'butterfly' configuration of the leaves. - Alibangbang is an Ilongo word for butterfly. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Evaluation of the hypoglycaemic activity of Bauhinia monandra leaf in Alloxan- diabetic rats and INS-1 insulin cells / G.O Alade, O.R. Omobuwajo et al / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(2):506-521 (2) Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Bauhinia monandra leaf lectin (BmoLL) / Herbert Ary Arzabe Antezama Costa Nóbrega Sisenando, [...]


Family • Ulmaceae - Hanadiong - Trema orientalis Blume - PIGEON WOOD - Yi se shan huang ma Anabiong is a local name shared by (1) Artocarpus rubrovenia, kalulot, and (2) Tremna orientalis, hanadiong. Scientific names Celtis orientalis Linn. Celtis lima Blanco Sponia amboinensis Deene. Sponia velutina Planch, Trema amboinensis F.-Vill. Trema orientalis Blume Other vernacular names BEMBA: Mutumpu. BENGALI: Chickan, Chikan, Jiban, Jibon HINDI: Gio. INDONESIAN: Aanggerung, Kuray ,Lenggung. JAVANESE: Anggerung. KHMER: Srô:l. LAO: Po, Hu. MALAY: Menarong, Mengkirai, Randagong. SANSKRIT: Jivanti. SWAHILI: Mgendagenda, Mpesi, Msasa, Mzunguzungu. TAMIL: Ambaratthi, Chenkolam, Oma, Oman. THAI: Padang Po-haek, Takhai. TONGAN: Mululwe. VIETNAMESE: Hu dai, Hu l[as] nh[or], Hu las nhor. YORUBA: Afefe, Common names Agandang (Ibn.) Indai luging (Lan.) Alindagon (Sul.) Inugdon (Tag., Bis.) Anabiong (Bis., Tag.) Lagod (Tag.) Anadung (Bon.) Lamai (Ilk.) Anagdung (P. Bis.) Langong (Sub.) Anagum (Bik.) Malarurung (Tag.) Anariong (Iv.) Malarurang (Tag.) Anadung (Bon.) Malasiking durong (Pamp.) Anarong (Sbl.) Mandalogon (Bag.) Anaduiong (Buk.) Nagdon (P. Bis.) Arandon (Ilk.) Pangarandongen (Ilk.) Du-ung (Sul.) Pañgaranduñgin (Ilk.) Hagod (Tag.) Pitidan (Ig.) Hanadiong (Tag.) Pitikan (Ig.) Hanadgong (Bik., S. L. Bis.) Tatagtag (P. Bis.) Hanagdon (Tag.) Gunpowder tree (Engl.) Hanagdong (Tag.) Indian charcoal tree (Engl.) Hanarion (Tag.) Indian nettle tree (Engl.) Hinagdung (Tag.) Pigeon wood (Engl.) Hinlalaong (Pamp.) Oriental trema (Engl.) Hubulos (Bon.) Yi se shan huang ma (Chin.) Inandong (Tag.) Botany Anabiong is a small tree, 5 to 8 meters high, with elongated branches. Leaves are distichous, the upper surface rough; the lower, pale and covered with soft dense hairs, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 8 to 15 centimeters [...]