Family • Lauraceae - Persea americana Mill. - AVOCADO - You li Scientific names Persea gratissima Gaertn. Persea americana Mill. Laurus persea Linn. E li (Chin.) Common names Abukado (Tag.) Abokado (Ceb.) Aguacate (Span.) Alligator pear (Engl.) Avocado (Engl.) You li (Chin.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Htaw bat. CHINESE:Zhang li, Huang you li, Lao li, Xi yin du lao li. CROATIAN : Americhki avokado. DANISH: Avocado, Avogatpære. DUTCH: Advocaat. FRENCH: Avocat, Avocatier. GERMAN: Alligatorbirne, Avocado, Avocadobaum, Avocadobirne, Avocato-Birne. HUNGARIAN: Avokado. ITALIAN: Avocato. JAPANESE: Abokado, Perusea. KHMER: 'avôkaa. KOREAN: Ah bo k'a do . MALAY: Adpukat, Avocad, Aviokad, Bash apukaod, Buah mantega, Buah apokat. NORWEGIAN: Avokado. PORTUGUESE: Abacate, Abacateiro. RUSSIAN: Avokado. SPANISH: Aguacate, Cura, Cupandra, Devora, Okh, Palta, Sikia THAI: Awokhado. VIETNAMESE: Bó, Lê daù. Botany Abukado is a medium-sized tree reaching a height of up to 10 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, leathery, oblong to oval or obovate, about 20 centimeters long. Flowers are small, yellow, borne in naked, panicled hairy cymes. Stamens are 12, in groups of 3 in 4 whorls. Fruit is large, fleshy, elongated, of various sizes and shapes, often resembling a pear, 8 to 18 centimeters long, some weighing as much as two kilos, soft and edible, with a nutty flavor, color varying from yellow-green to purple.Distribution - Introduced from tropical America before the end of the sixteenth century. - Now extensively cultivated in the Philippines for its edible fruit. - Usually grown from seeds, but may be propagated by budding, grafting, and marketing.Constituents - Fruit: fixed oil, 6-10%; protein 1.3-6%. [...]


Family • Casuarinaceae - Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. - IRON WOOD - Ma wei shu Scientific names Casuarina equisetifolia Linn. Casuarina litorea L. var. litorea Casuarina litorea Rumpheus ex Stickman Mu ma huang (Chin.)n Common names Ago (Ibn., Neg.) Ayo (Bis.) Agoho (Tag., Ilk., Bis., Bik.) Karo (Ilk.) Agoo (Pang., Ilk., Kuy.) Mahohok (Mbo.) Agoko (Pang.) Malabohok (Bis.) Ago-o (Ilk.) Maribuhok (Bis.) Agoso (Pang., Tag.) Iron wood (Engl.) Ague (Ibn.) Australian beefwood (Engl.) Alaut (Bon.) Beach she-oak (Engl.) Antong (Is.) Horsetail casuarina (Engl.) Aroo (Ilk.) Whistling pine (Engl.) Aroho (Ilk., Ting.) Ma wei shu (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Duan zhi mu ma huang, bo gu shu FIJI: Noko noko FRENCH: Bois de fer, filao, pin d'Australie GERMAN: Eisenholz, strandkasuarine PORTUGESE: Pinheiro-da-Australia SPANISH: Taraje Botany Agoho is a large, evergreen tree, tall and straight, up to 20 meters high. Crown is narrowly pyramidal, resembling some of the conifers in appearance. Bark is brown and rough. Branchlets are very slender, about 20 centimeters long, mostly deciduous, composed of many joints. Internodes are about 1 centimeter long, somewhat 6- or 8-angled. Flowers are unisexual. Staminate spikes are slender, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Cones are usually ellipsoid, 1 to 2 centimeters long, composed of about 12 rows of achenes enclosed in the hardened bracts. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) In vitro Antibacterial Screening and Toxicity Study of Some Different Medicinal Plants / Rajib Ahsan et al / World Journal of Agricultural Sciences 5 (5):617-621,2009. (2) Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanol Extract of Some Medicinal Plants Against Carbon Tetrachloride Induced [...]


Family • Commelinaceae - Floscopa scandens Lour. - CLIMBING FLOWER CUP Alikbangon is a shared common name of: (1) Kolasi (Commelina diffusa Burm) and (2) Sabilau (Commelina axillaris Linn). It is also phonetically confused with (1) Alibangon (Commelina benghalensis) and (2) Aligbañgon (Tradescantia rufa). Scientific names Floscopa scandens Lour. Floscopa scandens var. Lour. var. vaginivillosa R. H. Miau Ju hua cao (Chin.) Common names Aligbangon (Tag.) Babilau (S. L. Bis.) Kumpai (P. Bis.) Pugad-labuyo (Tag.) Sambilau (S. L. Bis.) Climbing flower cup (Engl.) Shui cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Da xiang zhu gao cao, Zhu ye cao, Shui zhu cai. MALAYSIA: Hawar-hawar, Rumput tapak itek, Rumput johong beraleh. THAILAND: Phak bieo, Phak plaap, Yaa plong khon. VIETNAM: C[or] d[aaf]u hoa ch[uf]y, D[aaf]u r[if]u leo. Botany Aligbangon is a small trailing perennial herb, velvety throughout with multicellular hairs. Stems are stout, erect and creeping below, 20 to 70 centimeters long. Leaves are lanceolate, 3 to 9 centimeters long, 1 to 2 centimeters wide, sessile or petioled. Panicles are short-stalked, pyramidal with long, erect or ascending, many-flowered branches. Flowers are small and subglobose. Sepals are villous and the petals are white, lilac or rosy. Capsules are 2 to 3 millimeters long, orbicular or ellipsoid and compressed. Seeds are glaucous. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Floscopa scandens Lour / Vernacular names / GLOinMED (2) Inherited folk pharmaceutical knowledge of tribal people in the Chittagong Hill tracts, Bangladesh / Animesh Biswax, M A Bari, Mohashweta Roy and S K Bhadra / IJTK, Vol 9(1), Jan 2010. (3) Ethnomedicinal Plants Used [...]


Family - Verbenaceae / Lamiaceae - Callicarpa caudata Maxim. Scientific names Callicarpa caudata Maxim. Callicarpa pilosissima Maxim. ? Common names Anayop (Ig., Bon.) Kabatiti (Bag.) Arayop (Bon.) Mama (Ig.) Harai-hay (Neg.) Suba (Ig.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS CALLICARPA L. (VERBENACEAE) IN AUSTRALIA / Ahmad Abid Munir / J.AdelaideBot.Gard.6(1):5-39(1982) Botany Anayop is an erect or suberect shrub. Twigs are slender and covered with dense, yellowish-brown hairs. Leaves are narrowly oblong to broadly lanceolate, 10 to 17 centimeters long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide, densely covered with grayish or yellowish-brown, felty, stellate hairs on the lower surface, toothed on the margin, narrow towards the pointed tip, and blunt at the base. Flowers are small crowded in axillary cymes, purplish blue or lialac, and borne on the internodes of the branchlets. Fruit is rounded, small, shining, light or deep blue, and subtended by a slightly enlarged calyx. Distribution - Found on steep, open slopes, in thickets, and in stream depression, at an altitude of 1,200 to 2,000 meters in Abra, Bontoc, Kalinga, Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, Laguna, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindanao. - Also occurs in China, Celebes, Timor, Molucca Islands, New Guinea and the Bismark Archipelago. (Moldenke). Parts used Leaves. Uses  Folkloric In the Philippines, decoction made from fresh or dried leaves used as cure for stomach trouble. Study Findings - No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family - Cyperaceae - Scirpus articulatus Linn. - BULLRUSH Scientific names Scirpus articulatus Linn. Scirpus incurvatus Roxb. Carex glomerata Blanco Common names Gauai-gauai (S. L. Bis.) Bullrush (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Conservation and Utilization of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants / S. Sahoo (2) Nutrient removal potential of emergent (Scirpus articulatus) and floating (Lemna major) macrophytes / SAHA DAS S.; JANA B.B. / International Journal of Environmental Studies, Volume 59, Number 4 Botany Apurau is a densely tufted plant, growing up to 20 to 50 centimeters high. Stems are rather spongy, terete, leafless, and when dry, often transversely septate. Spikelets are 7 to 30, crowded, ovoid to oblong, 1 centimeter long or less. Glumes are ovate, about 4 millimeters long. Nuts are 3-angled, black and shining, obovoid, about 2 millimeters long. Hypogynous bristles are absent. Distribution - In open, wet places in settled areas at a low altitude in Luzon Provinces of Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal and Laguna. - Also occurs in the Old World tropics. Properties  Considered purgative. Parts used Whole plant. Uses  Folkloric - In India, plant is used as a purgative. - In the Jaipur district, used for vomiting. - In Bangladesh, roots and branches used for baby's vomiting and diarrhea. The juice from well-grounded roots given to babies before breakfast. Study Findings Nutrient Removal Potential: Study evaluated the nutrient removal capacity of Lemna major (floating macrophyte) was compared with Scirpus articulatus (emergent macrophyte) in hypertrophic mesocosms held in situ. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family - Vitaceae - Tetrastigma harmandii Planch. Scientific names Tetrastigma harmandii Planch. Tetrastigma lancelarum Merr. Tetrastigma sorsogonense Elmer Tetrastigma strumarum Gagnep. Cissus pedata Blanco Common names Alupidan (Bis.) Arinat (Ilk.) Ayo (Tag.) Dipig (Bon.) Hayok (Tag.) Iyo (Tag.) Kalit-kalit (Tag.) Langnikit (C. Bis.) Terastigma harmandii Planch is an unresolved name. The record derives from WCSP (in review) which does not establish this name either as an accepted name or as a synonym with original publication details: Monogr. Phan. 5: 425 1887. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Tetrastigma harmandii Planch. is an unresolved name / Synonyms / The Plant List Botany Ayo is a woody vine growing to a length of 10 meters. Stems are somewhat compressed, woody, rough, and 1 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are usually 3 to 5, but sometimes 7 leaflets. Leaflets are elliptic-oblong, 5 to 12 centimeters long, coarsely toothed, smooth and shining. Flowers are pale green, faintly fragrant, numerous, umbellately disposed on the ultimate branches. Fruit is smooth, brownish, rounded, fleshy, and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Distribution - In thickets at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Apayao, Abra, Lepanto, La Union, Nueva Viscaya, Bataan, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro and Panay. - Also occurs in Indo-China. Uses Edibility - Pulp of the fruit is green, sour but edible; suitable for making preserves. - Leaves, also sour, cooked with other foods for flavoring. Folkloric - Decoction of plant used as a powerful diuretic. - Externally, lotion made from the plant used for [...]


Family • Menispermaceae - Arcangelisia flava Linn. - YELLOW FRUIT MOONSEED Other scientific names Arcangelesia inclyta Becc. Arcangelesia lemniscata Miers Arcangelesia loureiri (Pierre) Diels Anamirta flavescens Miq. Anamirta lemniscata Miers Cocculus flavascens DC Menispermum flavum Linn. Menispermum flavescens Lam. Tuba flava Common names Abustra (Ilk.) Abutra (S. L. Bis.) Albotra (P. Bis.) Alibodra (P. Bis.) Buti (Tag.) Lagtal (S.L.Bis.) Lagtan, (P. Bis.) Lagtang (Tag., Bik., Sul.) Suma (Tag., Pamp.) Taua (Bag.) Uplig (Ilk.) Yellow-fruit moonseed (Engl.) Fu shan long (Chin.) Other vernacular names INDONESIA: Areuy ki koneng, sirawan, daun bulan. MALAYSIA: Mengkunyit. THAILAND: Khamin khruea, kamphaeng jedchunum. VIETNAM: V[ar]y d[aws]ng. THAILAND: Khaminkhruea. Botany Suma is a forest liana, ie, a woody, perennial, climbing plant with a very long stem growing from the ground level to the canopy of trees. Old stems are about 5 centimeters thick, with a gray bark and yellow wood. Leaves are leathery, smooth, broadly ovate, 16 centimeters wide and 16 centimeters long, the tip abruptly pointed, the base obtusely round or subtruncate, with 5 veins radiating from the base, with one or two lateral nerves arising from the midvein above the middle. Inflorescence is axillary, pendulous and spicately panicled, usually clustered along the stems. Flowers are fragrant, yellowish, crowded and stalkless. Exterior perianth segments are 3, and small; interior ones are 6, oblong, much longer, and spreading. Fruit is nearly spherical, about 2 centimeters in diameter, green or yellowish green. Distribution - Scattered in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes from the Batan Islands to Palawan and Mindanao. - Widely distributed from China, Indo-China, Malaysia, [...]


Family • Cyperaceae - Fimbristylis miliacea (Linn.) Vahl. - GRASS-LIKE FIMBRY Scientifric names Fimbristylis miliacea (Linn.) Vahl. Fimbristylis litoralis Grandich Scirpus miliaceus L. Scirpus niloticus Trichelostylis miliacea (L.) Nees Isolepsis miliacea (L.) J. Presl. Shui shi cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names HINDI: Ghueen, dilli JAPANESE: Hiderike. PALAUAN: Kerngimes kederang. POHNPEIAN: Lingkerekenwel. SPANISH: Barba de fraile. URDU: Chhoti bhoin VIETNAMESE: Chh Common names Agor (Tag.) Gumi (Pang.) Sirau-sirau (Ilk.) Sirisi-buyas (Bik.) Taulat (Tag.) Ubod-ubod (Tag.) Globe fringerush (Engl.) Grass-like fimbry (Engl.) Grasslike fimbristylis (Engl.) Hoorahgrass (Engl.) Botany Agor is a tufted, slender, glabrous, rather flaccid annual sedge, 40 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are basal, distichous, up to 40 centimeters long. Umbels are decompound, rather lax and diffuse, 6 to 10 centimeters long. The spikelets are small, globose, 2 to 2.5 millimeters long, pale or brown, mostly slenderly pedicelled, some sessile. Nuts are obovoid, straw-colored or ivory, 0.3 to 0.5 millimeter long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl - CYPERACEAE / Monocotyledon / Idao.cirad.fr (2) Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich. / Common names / PIER  Distribution - Ubiquitous paddy weed throughout the Philippines in open, wet places. - Pantropic. Properties - Agor is one of the most harmful weeds in rice fields. It is very competitive with rice, becoming widespread in new areas of rice production. Roots spread vigorously, growing between rice roots and seriously competing with nutrients. Parts used Leaves Uses Folkloric - Malays use leaves for poulticing in fever. - Tribe in central India use the roots for dysentery. Others - Fodder: Eaten by cattle, [...]


Family • Commelinaceae - Commelina diffusa Burm. f. - CLIMBING DAYFLOWER - Jie jie cao Alikbangon is a shared common name of: (1) Kolasi (Commelina diffusa Burm) and (2) Sabilau (Commelina axillaris Linn). It is also phonetically confused with (1) Alibangon (Commelina benghalensis) and (2) Aligbañgon (Tradescantia rufa). Scientific names Commelina nudiflora Linn. Tradescantia cristata Naves Jie hie cao (Chin.) Botany Alikbangon is a mucilaginous, slender, creeping or ascending branched perennial herb, usually pubescent. Stems root at the nodes, the ultimate branches ascending. Leaves are green, oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 7 centimeters long, 1 to 2 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends. Inflorescence is axillary and peduncled. Flowers are cymose, enclosed in a complicate leaf-like spathe, with free margins. Cymes are usually 2 in each spathe, and are few-flowered. Inner petals are larger, blue, 6 to 7 millimeters long, and the outer ones much smaller, pale or nearly white. Distribution  - Common throughout the Philippines in open grasslands and waste places in settled areas at low and medium altitudes. - Pantropic. Properties - Tasteless, cooling natured. - Febrifuge, rubefacient, diuretic. - Good blood coagulant, antifebrile and antidote, tonic for the heart. - Antifungal, antibacterial. Parts utilized Entire plant. Common names Alikbañgon (Tag.) Bañgar-an-lalaki (If.) Gatilang (Bon.) Katkatauang (Bon.) Kitkitauang (Bon.) Kohasi (Iv.) Kolasi (Ilk.) Kulkul-lasi (Ilk.) Climbing dayflower (Engl.) Spreading dayflower (Engl.) Scurvy weed (Engl.) Wandering Jew (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHAMORRO: Semprebiban-damalong. CHINESE: Zhu jie cai, Zhu jie huo. HAWAIIAN: Honohono grass, Honohono wai, Makolokolo. JAPANESE: Shima-tsuyu-kusa. SAMOAN: Mau'u toga, Mau'u Tonga. SPANISH: [...]


Family - Leguminosae / Fabaceae - Cassia sophera Linn. - KASONDI SENNA - Huai ye jue ming Scientific names Cassia sophera Linn. Cassia occidentalis (L.) var. sophera Cassia purpurea Lindl. Senna esculenta Roxb. Senna sophera (L.) Roxb. Senna occidentalis (L.) var. sophera Senna purpurea (Lindl.) Roxb. Common names Andadasi (Ilk.) Algarrobilla (Engl.) Brush senna (Engl.) Kasondi senna (Engl.) Pepper leaved senna (Engl.) Kasondi senna (Engl.) Senna (Engl.) Huai ye jue ming (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jiang jiang jue ming. HINDI: Kasaunda. MALAYALAM: Pounantakara. VIETNAMESE : Muồng ho�, Muồng ng�t. Botany Andadasi is closely allied to Cassia occidentalis (Balatong-aso), from which it differs by its more shrubby habit, its more numerous, smaller, narrower leaflets, and its short, broader and more turgid pods, which are not usually torulose when mature. Distribution - Occasional weed in settled areas at low and medium altitudes from northern to central Luzon. - Pantropic species of American origin. - Also occurs in India and most tropical countries. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content of Cassia sophera L. / Atiqur Rahman, M Mizanur Rahman, Mominul Islam Sheik et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (10), pp. 1591-1593, 16 May, 2008 (2) Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Cassia sophera linn / D H Nagore, V K Ghosh, M J Patil / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009, Vol 5, No 19, Pp 109-118 (3) Sorting Senna names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE (4) HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECT OF CASSIA SOPHERA LEAVES EXTRACT AGAINST PARACETAMOL INDUCE HEPATIC INJURY IN RATS / Wankhade PW, Nagore DH, [...]