African lily

Family • Agapanthaceae - Agapanthus africanus Linn. Common names African lily (Engl.) Lily-of-the-Nile (Engl.) Botany Herb with thick rhizomes. Leaves are basal, 2-ranked, linear-lanceolate, up to 50 cm long and 5 cm wide. Flowers are in umbels, 12- to 30-flowered, usually bright blue-violet, crowded at the end of a long stalk, Distribution  Usually cultivated for ornamental pot plants in the Philippines. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Agapanthus africanus (Linn) / Indian journal of chem / 2007, vol. 46, no7, pp. 1154-1158 Parts utilized Rhizomes, leaves and roots. Constituents and Characteristics Cardiac, stomachic, uterotonic. oxytoxic, pectoral, expectorant, aperient, purgative, nephritic. Saponins and sapogenins of the furostane and spirostane type, including agapanthegenin and steroid spirostan sapogenins. Anthycyanin gives the colors to the flowers. Different Agapanthus species are sued for similar medicinal purposes. Toxicology Leaf may cause mouth pain and ulcerations. May be irritating to the eyes and skin. Suspected but unproven hemolytic effects. Uses Folkloric No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. • A plant of fertility and pregnancy – used by South African traditional healers as phytomedicine to treat ailments related to pregnancy and to facilitate labor. Orally or rectally, as a decoction, to ensure an easy delivery and a healthy child. It may facilitate expulsion of the placenta and augment uterine contractions. Roots worn as necklace for easy childbirth and fertility. Decoction used in washing newborn babies; also, an infant tonic. • Considered an aphrodisiac, used for impotency and barrenness. • Leaves used around [...]


Family • Fabaceae - Alibangbang - Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. - MALABAR ORCHID Scientifric names Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. Bauhinia tomentosa Blanco Bauhinia purpurea Vidal Piliostigma acidum Benth. Piliostigma malabaricum (Roxb.) Benth. Common names Alambangbang (Tag.) Alibangbang (Tag., Bis., Pamp.) Balibamban (Pamp.) Kalibanbang (Pang., Tag.) Kalibangbang (Ilk.) Lilac bauhinia (Engl.) Malabar bauhinia (Engl.) Malabar orchid (Engl.) Gen info - Bauhinia is a genus of more than 200 species. The genus was named after the Bauhin brothers, Swiss-French botanists. The species share the 'butterfly' configuration of the leaves. - Alibangbang is an Ilongo word for butterfly. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antinociceptive, Anti-Inflammatory and Antipyretic Properties of the Aqueous Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves in Experimental Animals / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria, Loo Yi Wen, et al / Med Princ Pract 2007;16:443-449 (DOI: 10.1159/000107749) (2) Inhibition of Heinz body induction of six common Thai medicinal leaves and creeping stems in in vitro antioxidant study model./ Soogarun, S., Wiwanitkit, V., Suwansuksri, J. (3) Chemical composition and nutritional potential of the tribal pulse (Bauhinia malabarica Roxb). / Vijayakumari K, Siddhuraju P, Janardhanan K. / Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 1993 Nov;44(3):291-8. (4) Preliminary phytochemical screening from different parts of Bauhinia tomentosa L. and Bauhinia malabarica Roxb. (Caesalpiniaceae) / Thenmozhi Krishnasamy, Manian S, Paulsamy S / Research & Reviews, Vol 1, No 1 (2012) Botany Alibangbang is a small but stocky tree growing to a height of 8 to 10 meters. Bark is yellowish-brown. Branches are freely rebranched, with a dense crown, the ultimate ones smooth. Leaves are broader than long, 5 to 10 centimeters in length, [...]


Family - Menispermaceae - Pycnarrhena manillensis Vidal. Scientific names Pycnarrhena manillensis Vidal. Common names Ambal (Tag.) Haluot (C. Bis.) Huluot (Bis.) Mama�gal (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phaeanthine-2'a-N-oxide and Pycmanilline, New Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids from Pycnarrhena manillensis / Jacinto C. Regalado, Jr., Cong-yuan Gao, Emil Fu, Fu-tyan Lin, Mei-chao Lin, Lan K. Wong, and Paul L. Schiff, Jr. / Heterocycles, Vol 26, No 10, 1987 / DOI: 10.3987/R-1987-10-2573 Botany Ambal is a half-erect or climbing shrub growing to a height of one meter or more. Leaves are rather leathery, shining, elliptic-ovate to oblong-elliptic, 13 to 30 centimeters long, with a pointed tip. Flowers are crowded, small and yellowish. Fruit is ellipsoid-globose, 10 to 15 millimeters long. Distribution - Endemic in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes in Nueva Ecija, Rizal, Quezon, Laguna, Batangas, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Alabat; Samar, Leyte; Negros; and Mindanao. Constituents and properties - Yields six alkaloids: Pycnarrhine, ambaline and ambalininine are non-phenolic; pycnaminde, pycnarrhinine, and pycnarrhenamine are phenolic. Properties - Root is tonic, cicatrizant, vulnerary, febrifuge and emmenagogue. Parts used and preparation Roots and stems. Uses Folkloric - Warm infusion applied on skin ulcers. - Powdered roots used to treat cholera and other intestinal diseases. - Powdered roots taken internally as a tonic. - Infusion used by pregnant women in parturition. - For wound healing: used as cicatrizant and vulnerary. - Used for fever and to stimulate menstruation. - Used for snakebites and wounds; also, as tonic. Study Findings - Bisbenzylisoquinoline Alkaloids: An ethanolic extract of [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. - JAPANESE THOROUGH-WORT - Chen gan cao Scientific names Eupatorium japonicum Thunb. E. chinense simplicifolium (Makino) Kitm.Thunb. Eupatorium fortunei Turcz. Eupatorium stoecdosum Hance. Common names Apanang-gubat (Tag.) Japanese bog orchid (Engl.) Japanese boneset (Engl.) Japanese thorough-wort (Engl.) Chen gan cao (Chin.) Bai tou po (Chin.) Botany Apanang-gubat is an erect, leafy branched, smooth herb, 60 to 90 meters high. Leaves are fragrant, up to 19 centimeters long, divided quite to the base into three segments - the upper leaves subtending the branches of the inflorescence being deeply divided. Segments are elliptic-lanceolate or elliptic-ovate, up to 13 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Inflorescence is terminal, measuring up to 14 centimeters across. Flowering heads are 3 to 4 millimeters across. Flowers are white and fragrant. Distribution - In thickets at low altitudes in the Batan Islands. - Occurs in Japan to China and Taiwan. Parts used - Yields essential oil thymol. Constituents - Contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids—class of hepatotoxic and tumorigenic compounds that have been detected in herbal plants and dietary supplements. - Study of flowers and leaves yielded volatile oils. Main constituents were germacrene D (27.3%, 37.1%), gemacrene B (12.4%, 11.7%) and β-caryophyllene (8.6%, 10.1%). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Pyrrolizidine alkaloid composition of three Chinese medicinal herbs, Eupatorium cannabinum, E. japonicum and Crotalaria assamica / Edgar JA, Lin HJ et al / Am J Chin Med. 1992;20(3-4):281-8. (2) A comparative study on the hepatic toxicity and metabolism of Crotalaria assamica and Eupatorium species / [...]


Family - Acanthaceae - Asystasia gangetica Linn. - CHINESE VIOLET Scientific names Asystasia coromandelina Nees Justicia gangetica Linn. Asystasia gangetica (L.) T. Anders. Ruelia coromandeliana Nees Common names Asistasia (Tag.) Zamboangenita (Tag.) Chinese violet (Engl.) Coromandel (Engl.) Creeping foxglove (Engl.) Purple primrose (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Kuan ye shi wan cuo. FRENCH: Herbe le rail, Herbe piment, Herbe pistache. GUJARATI: Kaligharani. KANNADA: Lavana valli. MALAYALAM: Valli-upu-dali. MARATHI: Lavana valli. TAMIL: Miti-kirai. ZULU: Isihobo Gen info - Asystasia means inconsistency and refers to the corolla that is more or less regular, unusual for Acanthaceae members. Botany Asistasia is a procumbent herb, growing up to 1 meter or more in height. Leaves are ovate, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide, with pointed tips and rounded or narrowed base. Flowers are borne on one side of lax racemes 5 to 12 centimeters in length. Sepals are linear-lanceolate, about 5 millimeters long and hairy on the back. Corolla is hairy, 2 to 3 centimeters long, with a yellow and inflated tube, limb is pink or pale purple, usually dull or lurid, sometimes yellow altogether. Capsule is cylindric-compressed, about 2.5 centimeters long and hairy. Seeds are smooth, compressed, ovoid, angular, wrinkled or subtubercular, less than 5 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - In thickets near towns at A low altitude, often cultivated in Manila and Los Ba�os. - Also occurs in tropical Africa, Asia, and Malaya. Constituents - Phytochemical analysis yielded carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids, tannins, steroidal aglycans, saponins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. Also yields, minerals: calcium, phosphorus, sodium, manganese, copper, zinc, [...]

African oil palm

Family • Arecaceae / Palmae - Elaeis guineensis Jacq. - OIL PALM TREE - You zong Scientific names Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Elaeis melanococca Gaertn. You zong (Chin.) Common names African oil palm (Engl.) Macaw fat tree (Engl.) Oil palm tree (Engl.) Palm kernel oil (Engl.) You ye zu (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Nakhlet ez zayt. MALAY: Kelapa sawit, Kelapa sawit Bali. BURMESE: Si htan, Si ohn. PORTUGUESE: Caiaué (Brazil), Dendenzeiro, Palmera dendém. CHINESE: You zong. RUSSIAN: Gvineiskaia, Maslichnaia pal'ma, Pal'ma maslichnaia. DANISH: Oliepalme. SPANISH: Corojo de Guinea, Palma africana, Palma oleaginosa africana, Palmera de aceite. FINNISH: Öljypalmu. SWAHILI: Mchikichi, Miwesi, Mjenga. FRENCH: Palmier à huile, Palmier à huile d'Afrique. SWEDISH: Oljepalm. GERMAN: Afrikanische Ölpalme, Ölpalme. THAI: Paam nam man. ITALIAN: Palma avoira, Palma da olio, Palma oleaginosa africana. VIETNAMESE: Dau. (?) JAPANESE: Abura yashi. Botany Oil palm tree has an erect trunk reaching a height of 4 to 10 meters. Leaves are numerous, 3 to 4.5 meters long. Petioles are broad, armed on the sides with spinescent, reduced leaves. Leaflets are numerous, linear-lanceolate, nearly 1 meter long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide. Male inflorescence is dense, having numerous, cylindric spikes which are 7 to 12 centimeters long and about 1 centimeter in diameter; the rachises excurrent as a stout awn. Female inflorescence is dense, branched, 20 to 30 centimeters long, the flowers densely disposed. Fruit is borne in large dense masses. Distribution - Introduced sometime in the middle of 19th century. - Ornamental cultivation in Manila and larger towns. - Seeds [...]


Family • Polypodiaceae - Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. - MAIDENHAIR Scientific names Adiantum capillus-veneris Linn. Adiantum philippense Adiantum michelii Adiantum capillaris-veneris var. modestum (Underw.) Veneris capillus Shu tie xian jue (Chin.) Common names Alambrillo (C. Bis., Tag., Span) Culantrillo de alambre (Span., Tag.) Dudder grass (Engl.) Maidenhair (Engl.) Other vernacular names BRAZIL: Avenca. DANISH: Venushar. DUTCH: Europees venushaar.. FINNISH: Venuksenhiussaniainen.. FRENCH: Capillaire cheveux-de-Vénus, Capillaire de Montpellier, Cheveux de Vénus. GERMAN: Uenhaar, Frauenhaarfarn, Venushaarfarn. ITALIAN: Capelvenere comune. SPANISH: Dorandila, Culantrillo comun, Capilaria, Capilera, Culantrillo de pozo, Culantrillo de alambre. Botany Alambrillo is a slow-growing evergreen fern with a short, ascending, and scaly rhizome with spirally arranged, stipitate and compound leaves. Stipes are suberect and rather slender, 10 to 20 centimeters long, polished and dark green. Fronds are bipinnate, with a short terminal pinna and numerous erect lateral ones on each side; the segments (pinnae) are 1 to 2.5 centimeters broad, the base being cuneate and the outer edge rounded. Sori are roundish, situated in the roundish sinuses of the crenations. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) STUDY OF BIOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT METALS LIKE IRON AND CHROMIUM IN ADIANTUM CAPILLUS VENERIS (A PLANT LARGELY USED FOR DIABETES) / Thesis / Nasreen Fatima / 2004 / Pakistan Research Repository (2) Antimicrobial activity of some important Adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of medicine / Singh Meenakshi et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology • 2008, vol. 115, no2, pp. 327-32 (3) Ethnobotanical Studies of Some Important Ferns / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 164-172. 2007. (4) Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of [...]


Family - Gramineae - Andropogon aciculatus Retz. - LOVE GRASS - Zhu jie cao Scientific names Chrysopogon aciculatus Retz. Rhaphis trivialis Lour. Andropogon acicularis Willd. Andropogon aciculatus Retz. Andropogon subulatus Presl Centrophorum chinense  Trin. Chrysopogon subulatus Miq. Rhaphis javanica Nees Rhaphis aciculata Zhu jie cao (Chin.) Common names Amor-seco (Span.) Amorserko (Bis.) Dalekedek (Bon.) Dalukdul (Bon.) Lakut-lapas (Sul.) Marisekos (Tag.) Mariskos (Tag.) Pagippi (Ibn.) Tinloi (Tag.) Golden beadgrass (Engl.) Lesser speargrass (Engl.) Love grass (Eng.) Zhu jie ren cao (Chin.) Botany Amor-seco is a dense, leafy perennial grass, creeping and branching below, with short horizontal stems. Flowering stems are erect, 20 to 60 centimeters high. Leaves are short, linear-lanceolate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, 4 to 6 centimeters wide. Panicles are purplish, open, with few whorled branches, 5 centimeters long, or less, bearing few-flowered spikes. Sessile spikelet is very narrow, about 3 millimeters long; callus is elongated, barbed; fourth glume is linear, acuminate, with a short scabrid awn. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) An Interpretation of Ancient Hindu Medicine / CHANDRA CHAKRABERTY Distribution - Found throughout the Philippines in open places at low and medium altitudes. - A troublesome pest of a weed on lawns and golf courses, the seeds adhering to trousers and dresses. - Also occurs from India to China and southward through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia. Constituents - Study suggests substantial amounts of sterols and terpenes in the flowers. Properties - Antidiarrheal, diuretic, antidotal, antirheumatic. Parts utilized Entire plant Uses Folkloric - In the Philippines decoction of root is used for diarrhea. - [...]


Family - Rubiaceae - Noni - Morinda citrifolia Linn. - INDIAN MULBERRY - Hai ba ji Scientific names Morinda littoralis  Blanco Morinda citrifolia Linn. Other vernacular names BENGALI : Ach, Bartundi, Hurdi, Surangi. BURMESE : Mhanbin, Neihpahsae, Yaiyae. CHINESE : Hai ba ji, Wu ning, Luo ling DUTCH : Noni, Kaasvrucht, Stinkend kaasvrucht. FRENCH : Nono (Tahiti). GERMAN : Indische Maulbeere, Noni-Baum. HINDI : Aal, Aach, Ak, Ashi , Barraal, Bartundi, Surangi. INDONESIA : Mengkudu, Pacel MALAYALAM : Kattapitavalam, Manjanathhi, Manjanatthi, Mannanatti, Mannapavatta. NEPALESE : Hardikath. PORTUGUESE : Pau-azeitona. SPANISH : Huevo de reuma, Mora de la India. THAI : Mata suea, Yae yai, Yor , Yo ban. Common names Apatot (Ilk.) Apatot-nga-basit (Ilk.) Bangkudo (Bis., Tag.) Bankoro (Tag., Mag.) Bankuro (Tagb.) Bankuru (Tag.) Galongog (Sub.) Lino (Bis., Tag.) Nino (Sul., Tag., Bis.) Rukurok (Kuy.) Tueng-aso (Tag.) Tumbong-aso (Tag.) Noni (Engl.) Cheese fruit (Engl.) Great morinda (Engl.) Indian mulberry (Engl.) Pain-killer tree (Engl.) Tahitian noni (Engl.) Wild pine (Engl.) Hai ba ji (Chin.) Botany Apatot is an erect, smooth shrub or small tree, 3 to 10 meters high. Leaves are broadly elliptic to oblong, 12 to 25 centimeters long, with pointed or blunted tips. Peduncles are leaf-opposed, solitary, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are not bracteolate, and form dense, ovoid or rounded heads, and are 1 to 1.5 centimeters. Calyx is truncate. Corolla is white, 1 centimeter long; limb is 5-lobed, 1 centimeter in diameter. Fruit is fleshy, white or greenish white, ovoid, 3 to 10 centimeters long, with the odor of decaying [...]


Family • Leguminosae / Fabaceae - Saraca indica L. - ASOKA TREE - Wu you hua Scientific names Saraca indica L. Saraca asoca (Roxb.) W. J. de Wilde Jonesia asoca Roxb. Common names Asoka (Tag., Engl.) Asoka tree (Engl.) Ashok tree (Engl.) Sorrowless tree (Engl.) Wu you hua (Chin.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Ahok, Ashok. BENGALI: Ashok, Ashoke, Asok, Asoka. BURMESE: Thawgabo, Thawka. GERMAN: Ashokbaum. GUJARATI: Ashopalava. HINDI: Ashok, Asok, Sita ashok. JAPANESE: Mayuju. KANNADA: Achenge, Ashoka. MALAYALAM: Asoka, Hemapushpam. MARATHI: Ashoka, Jasundi. NEPALESE: Ashau, Ashok. ORIYA: Osoko. SANSKRIT: Anganapriya, Apashaka, Ashoka, Gandapushpa, Hemapushpa, Madhupushpa, Pindapushpa, Pindipushpa, Vanjula, Vichitra, Vishoka. SINHALESE: Diyeratembela, Diyaratmal. TAMIL: Anagam, Asogam, Asogu, Sasubam. TELUGU: Asokamu, Vanjulamu. COUNTRY: Name COUNTRY: Name Gen info Asoka tree is considered sacred throughout India, frequently found in royal gardens and planted close to temples. It is a recurrent element in Indian art and mythology, with a Yakshiholding the branch of a flowering Ashok tree. It is also considered a sacred tree in Hinduism, worshipped inChaitra, the first month of the Hindu calendar. Botany Asoka is usually a small tree growing up to 10 meters high, slow-growing when young. Bark is dark brown, grey or black. Leaves are alternate, and even-pinnate, 15 to 25 centimeters long with with 3 to 6 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets are oblong or oblong-lanceolate, often blunt , up to 22 centimeters long. Flowers are fragrant at night, orange red or red, depending on age. Corymbs are 18 centimeters across. Pod is up to 25 centimeters long. Distribution - Introduced to the [...]