Family • Araceae - Philodendron lacerum (Jacq.) Schott. - TOOTHED PHILODENDRON Scientific names Philodendron lacerum Common names Bagawak (Tag.) Toothed philodendron Botany Aroid climber that may grow many meters high. Leaves are long-stalked. Leaf blades are green and glossy with light veins, about 30 cm long 25 cm wide, tapering towards the narrow tip. Young leaves have wavy margins; the incisions becoming deeper as they mature, reaching half way to the midrib. Flowers are ivory and cylindrical, about 10 cm long, enclosed by tubular bracts (spathe) 10 to 15 cm long, 5 to 7 cm wide. The berry fruits are about 3 mm long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Resorcinols and catechols: a clinical study of cross-sensitivity / Knight T E, Boil P et al / Am J Contact Dermat. 1996 Sep;7(3):138-45. Distribution Introduced and wildly cultivated. Propagated by stem cuttings or planting of the lateral buds. Grows both as soil or water plant. Parts utilized Leaves Uses Folkloric Muscular strains, back pains: Leaves are boiled in vinegar and applied to involved areas overnight and repeated for two to three days. Flatulence, abdominal pains: Oiled leaves are applied to abdominal epigastric area. Study Findings • Cross Sensitivity Study: Cross-sensitivity studies were done on alkylresorcinols from extracts of Philodendron scadens and Philodendron lacerum and alkylcatechols from an extract of Toxicodendron radicans (poison ivy). Patients sensitive to Philodendron species (or other resorcinol-containing plants) may not be necessarily be cross-sensitiv e to Toxicocdendron species and vice versa. Availability Wild-crafted or cultivated.


Family • Gramineae - Andropogon tortilis (Presl) Merr. - CITRONELLA GRASS - Ya xiang mao Scientific names Andropogon tortilis (Presl) Merr. Andropogon hamatulus Hook. & Arn. Andropogon nardus Rolfe Anthistiria tortilis Presl Cymbopogon hamatulus (Nees ex Hook. & Arn) Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendel Cymbopogon tortilis (Presl) A. Camus Cymbopogon tortilis (Presl) Hitchc. Common names Balaniu (Bon.) Citronella grass (Engl.) Ceylon citronella (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Kaingbyu-mi, Myet-hmwe, Sabalin-hmwe, Singu-myet. CHINESE: Niu qiao xiang mao, Ye xiang mao. DANISH: Citronella, Lenabatugræs. DUTCH: Citroenmelisse. FRENCH: Citronelle, Citronnelle de Ceylan. GERMAN: Ceyloncitronell, Citronellgras, Nardusgras. GREEK: Kitronella, Lemonochorto. ITALIAN: Citronella di Ceylon. JAPANESE: Kou suigaya, Seiron shitironera, Shitoronera, Shitoronera gurasu. MALAYSIA: Serai wangi. POLISH: Palczatka szczetna. PORTUGUESE: Citronela de Ceilan, Citronela do Ceilão (Brazil), Lenabatu (Brazil). SPANISH: Zacate limón. SWEDISH: Citronellagräs. THAI: Ta khrai hom. VIETNAMESE: Củ sả. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cymbopogon tortilis (J.Presl) A.Camus / The Plant List (2) The William Gardener Collection of Chinese Medicinal Plants / William Gardener FLS, manuscripts computerised by: Anthony C. Dweck FLS from old papers donated by Linda Fellows and given back to the world on 22nd. April 1995. (3) The antifungal activity of essential oils as determined by different screening methods / Delespaul, Q.; Billerbeck, V. G. de; Roques, C. G et al / Journal of Essential Oil Research 2000 Vol. 12 No. 2 pp. 256-266 (4) Sorting Cymbopogon names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. (5) Mosquito Repellent Action of the Essential Oils of Cymbopogon citratus, C. [...]

Bamboo orchid

Family • Orchidaceae - Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. Scientific names Arundina graminifolia (D.Don) Hochr. Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. Cymbidium bambusifolia Roxb. Common names Bamboo orchid (Engl.) Bird orchid (Engl.) Other vernacular names FRENCH: Orchidée bambou. MALAY: Orkid buluh. Botany Arundina graminifolia is a tall terrestrial herb, with erect stems up to 3 meters high. Leaves are borne in two ranks, linear-lanceolate and grass-like, 12 to 30 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide. Simple terminal Inflorescence may be branched, 15 to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are purple red, pink to white, up to 10 centimeters across. Sepals and petals are similar, white, overspread with pink, the lip is large, darker than the sepals and petals, veined magenta with a yellow to orange-yellow patch at the base. Distribution - Cultivated in gardens. - Grows well in the Baguio area. - Also occurs in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, China, Japan, Taiwan, Malaya and Java. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemical constituents from the rhizoma of Arundina graminifolia / China journal of Chinese materia medica / 2004-Feb; vol 29 (issue 2) : pp 147-9 (2) Inherited Folk Pharmaceutical Knowledge of Tribal People in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh / Animesh Biswas, M A Bari, Mohashweta Roy, and SK Bhadra / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge • Vol 9 (1), Jan 2010, pp 77-89 (3) Cytotoxic Deoxybenzoins and Diphenylethylenes from Arundina graminifolia / Qiu-Fen Hu, Bin Zhou, Yan-Qing Ye, Zhi-Yong Jiang, Xiang-Zhong Huang, Yin-Ke Li, Gang Du, Guang-Yu Yang *, and Xue-Mei Gao * / J. Nat. Prod., 2013, [...]


Family • Chloranthaceae - Chloranthus officinalis Blume - Shi feng jie Scientific names Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham) Verdc. Chloranthus officinalis Blume Chloranthus salicifolius Presl Chloranthus elatior Link. Common names Barau-barau (Mang.) Sunulampong (Sub.) Shi feng jie (Chin.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: KbaKk damrei. CHINESE: Yu zi lan, Jie jie cha, Jiu hie feng. INDIA: Yasinha. INDONESIA: Keras tulang, Uyuh-uyuhan, Haros tulang. MALAYSIA: Sambau paya, Sigueh puteh, Rami hutan, Keras tulang, Dikut-dikut, Langut-langut. MYANMAR: Thanat-kha, Yuzara. THAILAND: Hom kai; Kraduk kai. Botany Barau-barau is a spreading undershrub, with a similar habit to apot (Chloranthus glabra). Stems are 30 to 70 centimeters high. Leaves are smooth, obovate-oblong or elliptic, the smaller ones broadly lanceolate, averaging 10 to 15 centimeters long, the larger ones being about 5 centimeters wide, with pointed tip, finely granular margin and with short stalks. Spikes are about 3 centimeters long, in few-branched terminal panicles, upon a 3- to 5-centimeter long peduncle. Flowers are minute. Fruit is white, juicy, 5 to 8 millimeters in diameter, with a relatively large seed. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chloranthus erectus / Synonyms & Chinese names / GLOBinMED (2) Evaluation of anti-inflammatory potential of Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verd. leaf extract in rats / Tag H, Namsa ND, Das AK, Kalita P, Mandal SC. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Nov 12;126(2):371-4. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2009.08.015. Epub 2009 Aug 22. (3) Antipyretic and antibacterial activity of Chloranthus erectus (Buch.-Ham.) Verdcourt leaf extract: A popular folk medicine of Arunachal Pradesh / Hui Tag, Nima D. Namsa, M. Mandal, P. Kalita, A.K. Das, and S.C. Mandal / Indian [...]

Bengal hemp

Family • Leguminosae / Fabaceae - Crotalaria juncea Linn. - SUNN HEMP - Shu ma Scientific names Crotalaria juncea Linn. Crotalaria benghalensis Lam. Crotalaria fenestrata Sims Crotalaria porrecta Wall. Crotalaria sericea Willd. Crotalaria tenuifolia Roxb. Common names Bengal hemp (Engl.) Brown hemp (Engl.) Indian hemp (Engl.) Madras hemp (Engl.) Sun hemp (Engl.) Sunn hemp (Engl.) Shu ma (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Ghore Sun, Shon, Shonpat CHINESE: Yin du ma, Tai yang ma, Zi xiao rong. FRENCH: Chanvre Du Bengale, Crotolaire Jonciforme. GERMAN: Bengalischer Hanf, Bombay Hanf, Sanhanf. HAWAIIAN: Sannai, Sunn. HINDI: Kharif, Sannai, Sannai Sunn, Sunn. INDIA: San, Sunn. JAPANESE: Kurotararia Junsea KHMER: Kâk´tung. MALAY: Orok-Orok Lembut (Indonesia) PERSIAN: San. PORTUGUESE: Cânhamo Da India, Cânhamo-Da-índia, Cánhamo Da India, Canhamo-Da-India, Cânhamo-De-Bengala, Crotalária, Crotalária Júncea, Crotalária RUSSIAN: Krotalyariya Sitnikovaya. SANSKRIT: San, Sana, Sunn. SINHALESE: Hana. SPANISH: Cáñamo De La India, Cáñamo San. TAMIL: Sanal, Sannappu. THAI: Po Thueang. VIETNAMESE: Cây Mung. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antispermatogenic and hormonal effects of Crotalaria juncea Linn. seed extracts in male mice / B Vijaykumar, I Sangamma et al / Asian J Androl 2004 Mar; 6: 67-70 (2) Antibacterial Activity of Seed and Flower Parts of Crotalaria juncea Linn / Hemendra S. Chouhan and Sushil K. Singh / Am-Euras. J. Sci. Res., 5 (3): 212-215, 2010 (3) Growing Crotalaria juncea, a Multi-purpose Legume, for Paper Pulp / George White and J R Haun / Economic Botany > Vol. 19, No. 2, Apr. - Jun. / 1965 New York Botanical Garden Press (4) Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids, Including Monoesters with an Unusual Esterifying Acid, from [...]


Family • Nyctaginaceae - Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. - GREAT BOUGAINVILLEA - Mao bao jin Scientific names Bougainvillea spectabilis Willd. B. spectabilis var. glabra (Choisy) Hook Bougainvillea glabra B. peruviana Ye zi hua (Chin.) Common names Bogambilya (Tag) Bongabilya (Tag.) Bougainvillea (Engl.) Great bougainvillea (Engl.) Paper flower (Engl.) Mao bao jin (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Mao bao jin, Jiu chong ge, San jiao hua FRENCH: Bougainvillee, bougainvillier ITALIAN: Buganvillea. JAPANESE: Felila. MAORI: Itaria, tiare taratara. SPANISH: Buganvilla, Veranera. TAHITIAN: Tiare vareau TONGAN: Ikadakazura Gen info Native to South America, The first species recorded in the Philippines was Bougainvillea spectabilis. The other species, B. glabra and B. peruviana were introduced much later. The cultivated hybrids have produced a considerable variety in size, color, form and numbers of showy bracts. The genus is derives its name from Antoiine de Bougainville, first Frenchman to cross the Pacific. Botany Bogambilya is a woody climber that can grow to a height of more than 10 meters, with large thorny stems and long drooping branches. The leaves are dark green, petioled, alternate, ovate, with entire margins, 6 to 10 centimeters long, broadest near the base. Thorns are the axils assist the plant in climbing. Flowers are in groups of threes, forming clusters at the terminal portion of the branches, each group subtended by three, broad, purplish, oblong-ovate and acuminate bracts, about 3 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are small, each inserted on a bract, tubular, inflated midway through its length, of varying colors. Numerous cultivars are cultivated in the Philippines, with single or multiple [...]


Family • Buxaceae - Buxus sempervirens L. - COMMON BOX Scientific names Buxus sempervirens L. Buxus myrtiflolia Lam. Common names Box (Engl.) Boxwood (Engl.) Common Box (Engl.) Common Boxwood (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia / Maria Lucia Leoporatti and Kamel Ghedira / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2009, 5:31doi:10.1186/1746-4269-5-31 (2) Buxus sempervirens / Plants For A Future (3) Buxus sempervirens / Wikipedia Botany Common boxwood is a woody evergreen shrub growing to a height of 5 meters, densely branching, with a trunk up to 20 centimeters in diameter. Leave are in thick masses, arranged in opposite pairs along the stems, green to yellow-green, oval, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, and 0.5 to 1.3 centermeters wide. Flowers are monoecious, inconspicuous, greeninsh-yellow, with no petals. Fruit is a three-lobed capsue containing 3 to 6 seeds. Distribution - Recently introduced. - Native to southwest Asia, Europe, northwest Africa. - Used as a border plant. - Popular indoor plant, especially for bonsai. Constituents • Contains the alkaloid buxine which causes nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. (See Toxicity below) • Cycloprotobuxine, another alkaloid present in small amount, is being investigated as an anticancer agent. Properties • Considered alterative, antiperiodic, antirheumatic, cathartic, cholagogue, diaphoretic, febrifuge, narcotic, odontalgic, oxytoxic. Uses Folkloric • No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. • In Tunisia, considered antineoplastic. • In Italy, employed as antimalarial. • Used for rheumatism. Plant essential oil used in dentistry. Others • Superstition / Witches: Believed to prevent witches from entering households. [...]


Family • Arecaceae - Areca catechu L. - ARECA NUT PALM - Bin lang Scientific names Areca alba Rumph. Areca catechu Linn. Areca cathechu Burm. f. Areca hortensis Lour. Bin lang (Chin.) Common names Areca nut (Engl.) Boa (Ilk., It., Ign.) Bua (Ibn., Pang.) Buñga (Tag.) Dapiau (Iv.) Hua (It.) Lugos (Sul.) Luyos (Pamp.) Pasa (Yak.) Takobtob (Bik.) Va (Ital.) Areca nut palm (Engl.) Betel nut palm (Engl.) Betel quid (Engl.) Ta Fu-p'i (Chin.) Bin lang zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Fûfal, Fofal, Kawthal, Tânbûl. ARMENIAN: Arygn. BURMESE: Kunthi Pin Kun CHINESE: Da fu zi, Pin lang. DUTCH: Arecanoot, Arecapalm, Betelnoot, Betelnootpalm, Betelpalm, Pinangboom, Pinangnoot. FINNISH: Arekapalmu. FRENCH: Aréquier, Noix D´arec, Noix De Bétel. GERMAN: Arekanuss, Arekapalme, Betelnüsse, Betelnuß Palme, Betelpalme GUJARATI: Sopaadii, Topaarii HINDI: Supaadii, Supaarii, Supari. INDIA: Supari, Tambula. ITALIAN: Areca, Avellana D´india, Noce Del Betel, Noce Di Arec, Noce Di Betel, Palma Arec. JAPANESE: Areka Yashi, Binrou, Binrouju. KHMER: Phla, Sa la. MALAY: Kavugu, Pinang, Pinang Sirih, Pokok Pinang, Pucuk (Indonesia). NEPALESE: Supaarii PERSIAN: Popal. PORTUGUESE: Areca Catecú, Arequeira, Arequiera, Noz De Areca, Noz De Bétele. RUSSIAN: Areka Katekhu, Arekovaia Pal´ma, Betel´naia Pal´ma, Pal´ma Katekhu. SINHALESE: Puwak. SPANISH: Areca, Bonga, Nuez De Areca, Nuez De Betel, Palma Catecu. SWEDISH: Betelnöt, Betelpalm. TAMIL: Bakkumaroma, Kamugu, Kathakambu THAI: Khet, ma, mak, Mak Mia, mak Mu, mak Song. URDU: Supaadii. Gen info Areca nut is the fourth most commonly used psychoactive substance in the world, chewed regularly by at least 10% of the population, with high prevalences in South and Southeast Asia.   Botany Bunga is an erect, [...]


Family • Piperaceae - Piper abbreviatum Opiz - FALSE KAVA Scientific names Piper abbreviatum Opiz Piper chaba Blume Piper rhombophyllum C. DC. Piper miquelinum F.-Vill. Piper rubripunctulatum C. DC. Piper parvispica C. DC. Piper mearnsii C. DC . Chavica chaba Miq. Chavica populifolia Miq. Common names Alapapan (Mbo.) Bagaybajon (Mbo.) Buyo-buyo (Bik.) Buyo-halo (P. Bis.) Guti-guti (Bik.) Halopai (Mbo.) Kaligu-uan (Lan.) Laiñgan (Sub.) Lauigang (Tag.) Lingolingo-daytoi (Bis.) Manikatapai (Bag.) Samaina (Mbo.) Tandauon (Mbo.) False kava (Engl.) ? Gen info There is an estimated total of 1200 species of Piper in the pantropical and neotropical regions. Works on Philippine wild Piperaceae have been extensive. Candole (1910) reported 133 species of Piper and 26 of Peperomia; Merill (1923), 115 Piper, 25 Peperomia, and Quisumbing (1930), documented 87 Piper and 21 Peperomia. Botany Buyo-buyo is a dioecious vine, the branches smooth, terete and 1.5 to 3 mm in diameter. Leaves are membranous to chartaceoous, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, elliptic-oblong or rounded-elliptic, 4 to 14 cm long, 1.5 to 6.7 cm wide, usually 5-plinerved, rarely 3-plinerved or 7-plinerved. Pistillate spikes are abbreviated, oblong to globose-ovoid, 7 to 20 mm long, 7.5 to 11 mm in diameter, with the smooth peduncles 0.8 to 2 cm long. Rachis is hirsute. Bracts are sessile, peltate, the disc smooth, transversely subelliptic to obovate, 0.5 to 0.8 mm wide. Fruits are crowded, coalescing fully embedded in and concrescent with the rachis, oblanceolate to obovoid, about 3 mm long, angled, smooth and umbonate apex. Stigmas number 3 or 4, ovoid, sessile and apical. Seeds are obovoid, oblong-obovoid or oblanceolate, 2 to 2.5 [...]


Family - Euphorbiaceae - Aleurites trisperma Blanco - PHILIPPINE TUNG TREE Scientific names Aleurites trisperma Blanco Aleurites saponaria Blanco Common names Bagilumbang (Tag.) Kalumban (Tag.) Balukanag (Ilk., Bis., Tag.) Lumbang-gubat (Tag.) Banukalad (Tag.) Lumbang tree (Engl.) Banunkalag (Tag.) Otaheite walnut (Engl.) Balokanad (Tag.) Philippine tung tree (Engl.) Lumbang (Bik.) Soft lumbang (Engl.) Lumbang-banukalad (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Bagilumbang or soft lumbang (Aleurites trisperma) oil / G. S. Jamieson and R. S. McKinney / JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY, Volume 12, Number 7, 146-148, DOI: 10.1007/BF02636731 / A Paper Presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the American Oil Chemists' Society, at Memphis, Tenn., May 23�24, 1935. (2) Evaluation of radical scavenging activity of certain plant extracts using cell free assays / R.M. Samarth* and Vivek Krishna / Pharmacologyonline 1: 125-137 (2007) (3) Studies conducted at University of Matanzas on oil and gas recently published / Ol and Gas / Energy Business Journal Botany Bagilumbang is a tree growing to a height of 10 to 15 meters or more. It does not have hairs, except for the inflorescences. Leaves are suborbicular to broadly ovate,10 to 20 centimeters long, entire, with a broadly cordate base. Flowers are 10 to 12 millimeters in diameter, the petals obovate, densely hairy without, borne on panicles about 15 centimeters long. Fruit is somewhat rounded and angled, 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter, opening later along the angles, usually 3-celled and each containing a single seed. Seed is somewhat circular, flattened, rather smooth, with numerous small ridges, with [...]