D

Dalairo

Family • Anonaceae - Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray. - Meng hao zi Scientific names Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray. Anaxagorea zeylanica Hook. f. Anaxagorea fruticosa (T. & Binn. Ex Miq) Scheff. Rhopalocarpus fruticosa Teijsm. & Binn. Ex. Miq. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Meng hao zi THAI: Kamlang wua taloeng. Common names Bagang-aso (Bik.) Bobonoyang (C. Bis.) Dalairo (Tag.) Kahoi-dalaga (Tag.) Koles-talano (Tag.) Pauli (P. Bis.) Sagaak (Tag.) Talaylo (Tag.) Chang bing deng tai shu (Chin.) Botany Dalairo is a low undershrub. Leaves are oblong, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, smooth, and obtuse at the ends. Flower is solitary, leaf-opposed, and about 2 centimeters in diameter. Sepals are ovate, and the petals ovate or oblong. Fruit is clavate, and 3 to 4 centimeters long. Seeds are shining, black, and obovoid. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Studies on the Constituents of Anaxagorea luzonensis A. GRAY / Ryoko Gonda, Tadahiro Takeda and T Akiyama / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 48(8) 1219—1222 (2000) (2) PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND ANTI-TYROSINASE ACTIVITY OF ANAXAGOREA LUZONENSIS A GRAY / Wiyada Nooring / MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAMME IN PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY(INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME) (3) Studies on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils and alcoholic extracts of Gentiana asclepiadea L. / Vladimir Mihailović*, Nenad Vuković, Neda Nićiforović, Slavica Solujić, Milan Mladenović, Pavle Mašković and Milan S. Stanković / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(7), pp. 1164-1174, 4 April, 2011 (4) ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY TEST OF ANAXAGOREA LUZONENSIS A. GREY AND ZIZIPHUS ATTOPENSIS PIERRE. EXTRACT IN RATS / Kunhachan, Phanukit; Sematong, Tuanta; Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Poonsiri, Chantara; Khayungarnnawee, Amonrat; [...]

Darak

RICE BRAN Common names Darak (Tag.) Rice bran (Engl.) Rice polishings (Engl.) General info Darak was first used in the early 1900s for "taon," a disease afflicting children, successfully treated with daily doses of a sweetened decoction of dry roasted darak. The affliction was later identified as "beriberi." Twenty years later, Manuel Zamora, a pharmacist, developed a darak extract in syrup form, bottling it as "Tiki-tiki." Rice is grown in over 100 countries, and with over 18,000 varieties it accounts for about 25% of the world's grain production. Rice bran is the by-product of the rice milling process. It is the hard outer layer between the inner white rice grain and the outer hull (husk). Milling of the paddy yields 70% rice (endosperm) as the major product, with by-products of 20% rice husk, 8% rice bran and 2% rice germ. Rice bran (which includes the germ) accounts for 60% of the nutrients found in each rice kernel. Constituents - Each 100 kg of paddy rice will yield about 5 to 10 kg of bran. - Contains vitamins A, B complex, D and E; fat, 20%; carbohydrates; proteins; adenine; choline; arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, palmitic, and oleic acids; phytosterin. - Rice bran along with the germ yields phytonutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, 20% oil and 15% protein, 50% carbohydrate (mostly starch) dietary fibers like beta-glucan, pectin, and gum[3,8- 10]. - Yields a rice bran oil rich in vitamin E tocopherol and tocotrienol. It has a saturated fatty acid to good monosaturated [...]

Diluario

Family • Acanthaceae - Acanthus ilicifolius L. - HOLLY-LEAVED ACANTHUS - Lao shu le Scientific names Acanthus ilicifolius L. Acanthus doloariu Blanco Acanthus volubilis Wallich. Dilivaria ilicifolia Nees Other vernacular names CHINESE: Lao shu le. GERMAN: Stechpalmenblättrige Bärenklau. INDIA: Karimkurunji, Krishnasaireyaka. JAPANESE: Akansasu irikiforiusu. TURKISH: Çobanpüskülü yaprakli ayi pençesi. Common names Daguari (Tag.) Lagiuriu (P. Bis.) Daluari (Tag.) Laguiriu (P. Bis.) Diliwario (Tag.) Lagiu-lagiu Diluariu (Tag.) Santing (Sul.) Doloariu (Tag.) Takis-lakis (Tag.) Duduaria (Tag.) Tindoi (Tag.) Dulauari (Pamp.) Tinlui (Tag.) Duluarin (Tag.) Tinglui (Tag.) Duluariu (Tag.) Tinglog (Tag.) Galura (Tag) Titio (Bis.) Kasumba (Ilk.) Sea holly (Engl.) Lagiu-lagiu (Tag.) Holly-leaved Acanthus (Engl.) Botany: Diluariu is an erect or ascending, slightly branched, smooth shrub, 0.5 to 1.5 meters high. Stems are cylindrical and greenish, with a pair of short, sharp spines at the base of each petiole. Leaves are rigid, coriaceous, green and shining, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 9 to 14 centimeters long, sinuate-toothed in the margins with spinous teeth. Leaf stalks are 1 centimeter long or less. Flowers are about 4 centimeters long, each subtended by an ovate, green, closely appressed bracts 7 to 8 millimeters long, and by two similar but smaller bracteoles, borne in terminal, solitary, dense, or interrupted spikes. Calyx is green, 10 to 12 millimeters long. Corolla tube is 1 centimeter long, the lower lip, pale-blue, spreading or recurved, about 3 centimeters long, 2.5 cm wide, and pubescent within. Capsule is brown, shining, and 2 to 2.5 centimeters long. Seeds are 6 to 10 millimeters long, with white testa. Distribution - [...]

Dwarf morning-glory

Family • Convolvulaceae - Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. -SLENDER DWARF MORNING GLORY - Mao la hua Scientific names Evolvulus alsinoides Linn. Evolvulus linifolius Linn. Convolvulus alsinoides Linn. Common names Dwarf morning-glory (Engl.) Little glory (Engl.) Slender dwarf morning-glory (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Mao la hua. INDIA: Vishnu kiranthi, Sankhapuspi, Sankhahuli. SPANISH: Ojo de vibora. Botany Evolvulus alsinoides is a very slender, more or less branched, spreading or ascending, usually extremely hairy herb. Stems are 20 to 70 centimeters long, not twining. Leaves are densely clothed with appressed, white and silky hairs, variable, lanceolate to ovate, usually 0.5 to 1 centimeter in length or larger; the apex is blunt with a little point, and the base pointed. Flowers are pale blue or nearly white, 6 to 8 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is a capsule, rounded, usually containing 4 seeds. Distribution - Locally abundant, from northern Luzon to Mindanao, in open grasslands at low and medium altitudes. - Pantropic. Constituents - Plant contains a yellow neutral fat, an organic acid and saline substances. - Yields alkaloids: betaine, shankhapushpine and evolvine. - Fresh plant contains a volatile oil. - Studies have reported scopoletin, scopolin, umbelliferone, ferulic acid esters, palmitic, stearic, oleic, 9-methyldecanoic and heptadecanoic acids. - Plant yields alkaloids, amino acids, carbohydrates, betaine, evolvine, phenolic compounds, proteins, sterols, tannins. Properties - Considered alterative, febrifuge, anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, tonic and vermifuge. - Large doses may cause drowsiness and decreased mobility; however, with no toxic effects. Parts used Entire plant. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Evolvulus alsinoides (Linn.) Linn. / [...]

Dalandan

Family • Rutaceae - Citrus aurantium Linn. - SOUR ORANGE - Zhi shi Scientific names Citrus aurantium Linn. C. aurantium L. var. dulcis L. C. longispina Wester C. sinensis Osbeck C. vulagaris  Risso Common names Cajel (Bik., Ibn., Bis., Span.) Kahel (Tag.) Talamisan (C. Bis.) Tamamisan (C. Bis.) Tamisan (C. Bis.) Valachinuk (Iv.) Volatino (Iv.) Bitter orange (Engl.) Coolie orange (Engl.) Sour orange (Engl.) Sweet orange (Engl.) Zhi shi (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Burtuqâl, Burtuqual, Burtuqân, Kabbâd, Naffâsh, Nâring. CHINESE: Cheng, Dai dai hua, Suan cheng, Jin qiu, Lai mu. CROATIAN: Gorka naranča. DANISH: Pomerans. DUTCH: Bittere sinaasappel, Oranjeappel. FINNISH: Hapanappelsiini, Hunaja-appelsiini, Makea appelsiini, Pomeranssi. FRENCH: Orange amère, Oranger amer, Oranger à fruits amers. GERMAN: Bitterorangen, Bittere Orange, Bitterorange, Pomeranze, Pomeranzenbaum. GREEK: Neratzi (fruit), Neratzia (tree). HEBREW: Khushkhash, Tapuz marir. HINDI: Khatta, Naarangii, Naaringii. ITALIAN: Arancio amaro (tree), Arancia forte, Melangola (fruit), Melangolo (tree), Melarancio (tree), Melarancia (fruit), Cedrangola (fruit) , Cedrangolo (tree). JAPANESE: Bitaa orenji, Sawaa orenji, Daidai. MALAY: Jeruk manis. MALAYALAM: Karna. NEPALESE: Kali jyamir. POLISH: Pomaranćza gorzka. PORTUGUESE: Laranja-azeda, Laranjeira azêda. RUSSIAN: Pomeranets. SPANISH: Naranja ácida, Naranja agria, Naranja amarga, Naranjo de fruta agria, Naranja mateca. TAMIL: Kiccilippaḻam, Nārantai, Narantampaḻam, Tōṭaippaḻam. THAI: Som kliang, Som. TURKISH: Turunç. VIETNAMESE: Cam chua, Cam đắng, Chanh đắng. Botany Dalandan is a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shoots with spinescent thorns. Leaves are oblong to subelliptic, 10 centimeters long by about 4 centimeters wide. Petiole is narrowly winged. Flowers are white, bisexual, solitary or few clustered, smooth, and growing from the uppermost leaf axils. [...]

Date palm

Family • Palmae / Arecaceae - Phoenix dactylifera Linn. - DATE - Hai zao Scientific names Phoenix dactylifera Linn. Phoenix cycadifolia hort., Attens ex Regel Palma major Garsault. Common names Date palm (Engl.) Date (Engl.) Palmera datilera (Span.) Ye zao (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Nakhl (Nakhal), Tamar (Tamr,Temer). NEPALESE: Chohoraa. CATALAN: Palmera datilera. NORWEGIAN: Daddel, Daddelpalme. CHINESE: Hai zao, Ye zao, Zao ye, Zao ye zi. POLISH: Daktylowiec, Palma daktylowa. BENGALI: Khajur. PORTUGUESE: Tâmara, Tamareira. CROATIAN: Datulja. RUSSIAN: Finikovaia pal'ma, Pal'ma finikovaia. DANISH: Ægte Daddelpalme, Daddelpalme. SLOVENIAN: Datelj. DUTCH: Dadelpalm, Echte dadelpalm, Gewone dadelpalm. SPANISH: Dátil, Palmera datilera, Palmera de dátiles. FINNISH: Taatelipalmu, Välimerentaateli. SWAHILI: Mtende. FRENCH: Dattier, Dattier commun, Palmier dattier. SWEDISH: Dadelpalm. GERMAN: Dattelpalme, Echte Dattelpalme. TAMIL: Karchuram, Perichchankay. HINDI: Khaji, Khajur, Salma, Sendhi. THAI: Inthaphalam (fruit), Ton inthaphalam (palm). ICELANDIC: Döðlupálmi . TURKISH: Hurma. ITALIAN: Dattero, Palma da datteri, Palma di dattero, Palmizio. VIETNAMESE: Chi Chà là. JAPANESE: Natsume yashi. Botany Date palm is a tree growing up to 30 meters high. Trunk is slender, with distinct petiolar scars. Leaves are erect-ascending at the upper part of the crown, down-descending at the lower part of the crown, and long-petioled. Leaflets are narrow-lanceolate, stiff and grayish-glaucous. Inflorescence is produced among the leaves, with a single bract at the base. Flowers are small, yellowish and borne singly. Fruit is cylindrical or oblong-ellipsoid, with edible flesh. Distribution - Planted as an ornamental in the Philippines. - Native to West Asia and North Africa. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Protective Effect of [...]

Dita

Family • Apocynaceae - Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. - WHITE CHEESE WOOD - Tang jiao shu Scientific names Alstonia scholaris (Linn.) R. Br. Alstonia kurzii Hook.f. Echites pala  Ham. Echites scholaris Linn. Nerium tinctorium Perr. Pala scholaris (L.) Roberty Other vernacular names BENGALI: Chattim. CHINESE: Tang jiao shu. HINDI: Shaitan ka jhar, Chitvan. MALAY: Pulai, Pule. MALAYALAM: Dalvappala. MARATHI: Satvin. PAKISTAN: Chhatim. SANSKRIT: Saptaparna. Common names Alipauen (Ilk.) Alstonia (Engl.) Andarayan (Ibn.) Autralian fever bark (Engl.) Australian quinine bark (Engl.) Bita (P. Bis.) Bitter bark (Engl.) Dalipauen (Ilk.) Devil's Tree (Engl.) Dirita (Ilk.) Dita (Tag., Bik., Sul.) Dilupaon (Ibn.) Lava (Ilk.) Lipauen (Ilk.) Milky pine (Engl.) Oplai (Ibn.) Pasuit (Pang.) Polai (Pang.) Tanitan (Bis.) Tangitang (Bis.) Blackboard tree (Engl.) Devil tree of India (Engl.) Milkywood pine (Engl.) White cheese wood (Engl.) Tang jiao shu (Chin.) Botany Dita is a smooth tree growing 6 to 20 meters high. Branches are lenticellate. Bark is dark greyish, somewhat rough, yielding an abundant, bitter, and milky sap. Leaves are in whorls,4 to 7in a whorl, leathery, narrowly obovate to spatulate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, 3 to 4.5 centimeters wide, pointed at the base, rounded at the apex, glossy green on the upper surface, white or grayish on the underside. Lateral nerves are very numerous, parallel, and terminating in a intramarginal vein. Flowers are crowded, numerous, somewhat hairy, greenish-white, about 1 centimeter long, hairy in the throat, borne in compact, hairy cymes about 10 centimeters long. Fruits is made up of two slender follicles which are pendulous and cylindric [...]

Dalanghita

Family • Rutaceae - Citrus nobilis Lour. - TANGERINE ORANGE - Ch'en P'i Scientific names Citrus aurantium L. var. bergamina Citrus aurantium L. var. mandarinum Citrus chrysocarpa Lushington Citrus deliciosa Ten. Citrus madurrensis Citrus nobilis Lour. Citrus papillaris Blanco Citrus reticulata Blanco Citrus webberi Wester  Common names Alsem (Bon.) Darañgita (Tag., Ilk.) Dalañgita (Tag.) Dalanghita (Tag.) Ransas (Bik.) Sintonis (Tag.) Sinturis (Tag.) Tison (Tag.) King orange (Engl.) Mandarin orange (Engl.) Tangerine orange (Engl.) Tangor (Engl.) Ch'en P'i  (Chin.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Krauch kvich CHINESE: Li pi ju, A er ji li ya ju, Ke li meng ju, Ke li mai ding hong ju.. FRENCH: Mandarinier, Clementine, Clementinier. INDONESIA: Jeruk keprok, jeruk jepun, jeruk maseh. JAPANESE: Kuremenchin, Kurementin, Kurementinna mandarin. ITALIAN: Clementina, Mandarancio. LAOS: Som hot, som lot, liou. MALAYSIA: Limau langkat, limau kupas, limau wangkang NEPALESE: Suntala. SPANISH: Clementina, Naranjita. SWEDISH: Klementin. THAILAND: Som khleo waan, som saengthong, ma baang. VIETNAM: Cam sanh, cay quit, quat vo roi, quit tieu. Botany Dalanghita is a small tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong to broadly lanceolate, 4 to 10 centimeters long, with narrowly winged short petioles of about 1 centimeter long. Flowers are white, short-pedicelled and mostly solitary.. Fruits are hesperidums, with a loose skin and leathery pericarp, with a sweet pulp that is only fairly juicy. Green fruit turns to yellow, greenish yellow or orange. Of many varieties, the large ones attain a size of about 10 centimeters in diameter and about 9 centimeters thick. Pulp is sweet and only fairly juicy. Distribution - Widely scattered in cultivation in the Philippines. - Large [...]

Dawag

Family • Rutaceae - Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam. - WILD ORANGE TREE Scientific names Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam. Toddalia aculeata Pers. Toddalia ambigua  Turcz. ? Toddalia effusa Turcz Paullinia asiatica Linn. Other vernacular names AFRICAN: Ranklemoentjie. CHINESE: XIiao jin teng, You po le, Hua mei tiao, San xue fei, Wen dan, Yi lei, Jian xue fei, Huang jiao gen, Xi jiao, Huang jiao gen, Ci mu teng, Huang rou shu, Da jiu jia, Niu ma le, Ji zhao le, Ru shin hu. HINDI: Kanj, Jangli mirch. KANNADA: Kaadumenasu, Inasingi. SANSKRIT: Sauvarnitvak Common names Atangen (Ig.) Bugkau, bugkaw (Ig.) Bukau (Ig.) Dawag (Tag.) Dauag (Tag.) Guiot, guyot (Ig.) Kaboat (Tagb.) Palina (Bon.) Subit (Ig.) Orange climber (Engl.) Wild orange tree (Engl.) Fei long zhang xue (Chin.) Botany Dawag is a rather large, spiny woody vine which is pungent in all its parts and provided with sharp, recurved prickles. Leaves are 3-foliate. Leaflets are stalkless, sessile, ovate-elliptic, obovate or obovate-oblong, 3 to 8 centimeters long, 5 to 25 millimeters wide, and rounded at the base, pointed at the apex. Flowers are small, greenish-white, 5 millimeters across, and borne on terminal cymes or from the upper leaf axils. Fruit is small, nearly spherical, less than 1 centimeter in diameter, borne in fairly large clusters, 3- to 5- grooved, and with as many cells, and orange-red when ripe. Seeds solitary in each cell. Distribution - In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,700 meters, only in Benguet, Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, and Nueva Viscaya Provinces in Luzon; and [...]

Ditiran

Family • Amaranthaceae - Deeringia amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr. - SHRUBBY DEERINGIA - Jiang guo xian Scientific names Deeringia amaranthoides (Lamk.) Merr. Achyranthes amaranthoides Lam. Celosia baccata Retz. Deeringia baccata Moq. Deeringia celosioides R. Br. Deeringia indica Retz. Common names Aribugbug (Ilk.) Aribukbuk (Ilk.) Ditiran (Tag.) Hagorilis (Tag.) Kanlilimokan (Bis.) Sili-silihan (Tag.) Suni-suni (Ilk.) Shrubby deeringia (Engl.) Jiang guo xian (Chin.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Rangoli-lota. BENGALI: Golamohani. CHINESE: Ye xian cai teng, Di ling xian. HINDI: Kalalori, Latman, Wali. INDONESIA: Bayam besar, Pancaluhur, Bayem luur. HINDI: Kalalobesar, Bajam pohon. THAILAND: Khurea yaang, Phaahom pia a. VIETNAM: D[eef]n leo. Botany Ditiran is a slightly hairy or nearly smooth vine, reaching a length of 5 to 6 meters, with drooping branches. Leaves are entire, ovate to oblong-ovate, 7 to 14 centimeters long, with pointed tips and subtruncate bases. Racemes are slender, elongated, drooping, 20 to 40 centimeters long, and borne in the upper axils. Flowers are numerous, shortly pedicelled, greenish-white, with reflexed segments, and about 1.5 millimeter long. Stamens are white and erect. Fruit is ovoid, fleshy, red, about 4 millimeters long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal Plants of Sewa River Catchment Area in the Northwest Himalaya and its Implication for Conservation / Mahroof Khan, Satish Kumar and Irshad Ahmed Hamal / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 1113- 39, 2009. Distribution - Common in thickets at low and medium altitudes in Ilocos Norte to Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. - Also occurs in India to China and southward to Australia. Properties - Plant thought to be poisonous [...]