Family • Malvaceae - Kulotan / Mangkit - Urena lobata Linn. - CAESAR WEED - Di tao hua Scientific names Urena lobata Linn. Urena lobata var. americana (L. f.) Gurke Urena americana L. f. Urena grandiflora DC. Urena trilobata Vell. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xiao fan tian hua, Ye mian hua, Tian fu rong, Cao mai fan tia hua, Xiao feng cao, Qian chui cao. FRENCH: Cousin urène (Caribbean), Grand mahot-cousin (Caribbean), Jute Africain, Jute de Cuba, Jute du Congo, Jute paka, Uréna, Uréna du Brésil. GERMAN: Kongojute. HINDI: Bachita, Lapetua, Paka, Pathia, Unga. MALAYALAM: Vatturam, Uthiram. PORTUGUESE: Aguaxima (Brazil), Carrapicho-de-lavadeira (Brazil), Carrapicho-redondo (Brazil), Embira (Brazil), Guaxima, Guaxima-rósea (Brazil), Malvaísco (Brazil), Malva-de-embira (Brazil), Malva-rósea (Brazil), Uaicima. RUSSIAN: Kongolezskij dzhut, Madagaskarskij dzhut, Urena lopastnaia. SPANISH: Aramina, Cadillo (Cuba), Malva blanca (Cuba). VIETNAMESE: Ke hoa dao. Common names Afulut (Gad.) Anonongkot (Bik.) Bagouan (If.) Baranggot (Bik.) Batikil (If.) Dalupang (P. Bis., Tag., Pamp.) Daupang (Sul.) Dopong (Sul.) Kolokot (Ting.) Kollokollot (Ilk.) Kulot (Pang.) Kulit (Pang.) Kulotan (Tag., Bis.) Kullukullut (Ilk.) Kulut-kulutan (Tag.) Mangkit (Ig.) Molopolo (Tag., Pamp.) Palisin (Tag.) Poot-si-nuang (Is.) Pirikit (Neg.) Saligut (Bon.) Supang (Sub.) Tapanding (Mag.) Caesar weed (Engl.) Bur mallow (Engl.) Congo jute (Engl.) Di tao hua (Chin.) Botany Dalupang erect, branched shrub 0.6 to 2.5 meters high. Plant is exceedingly variable and more or less hairy, stems often with reddish branches. Leaves are pale beneath, ovate to suborbicular, 3 to 9 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base, more or less toothed or somewhat lobed or angled, the lobes not exceeding beyond the middle of [...]


Family • Rutaceae - Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle - LIME - Lai meng Scientific names Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle C. acida Roxb. C. acidissima C. bergamia C. excelsa Wester C. javanica Blume C. lima  Lunan C. limetta Risso var. aromatica Wester C. notissima Blanco Limonia acidissima Houtt. Limonia aurantifolia Christm. Limonia spinosum Mill. Common names Bilolo (Tag.) Dalaya (Ibn.) Dalayap (Ilk., Pamp., P. Bis.) Dayap (Tag.) Dulugot (Neg.) Gorong-gorong (Ilk.) Gugulo (If.) Lime (Engl.) Sour lime (Engl.) Limon (Span.) Muyong (Bon.) Sua (Bik.) Lai meng (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC : Limah, Limoo. ASSAMESE: Nemutênga. BENGALI : Kaghzinimbu, Lebu, Patinebu. CHINESE: Lu meng, Fei lu bi ning meng, Suan ning meng. DANISH : Lime. DUTCH : Lemmetje, Limoen. FINNISH : Floridan limetti, Limetti. FRENCH : Citronnier gallet, Limette acide, Limettier, Lime mexicaine. GERMAN: Limettenbaum, Limettenzitrone, Saure Limette. GUJARATI : Khatalimbu, Khattalimbu. HINDI: Jambhiirii, Lemuu, Liimuu, Neebuu, Nimbu, Nimbuu, Kagzi nimbuu, Kagzi nimboo, Kagzi nimbu. ITALIAN : Lima acida, Lima, Limetta mexicana. JAPANESE: Raimu, Remon riaru (as C. excelsa). KANNADA : Limbe, Limbe hannu, Nimbe, imbe hannu, Suṇṇa. MALAY : Limau nipis, Limau neepis, Limau asam (Malaysia), Jeruk neepis, Jeruk nipis (Indonesia). MALAYALAM : Erumichinarakam. MARATHI: Ambatanimbu, Limbu, Mavalanga. PORTUGUESE : Limão-ácida, Limão-galêgo, Limeira. RUSSIAN: Laim, Laim nastoiashchii kislyi. SANSKRIT: Matulunga, Nimbukah, Jambhiir. SPANISH : Lima ácida, Lima chica, Lima gallega, Limero, Limón agrio, Limón ceutí, Limón chiquito, Limón común, Limón corriente, Limón criollo, Limón de pica, Limón sutil. TAMIL: Campalam, Campiram, Elumiccai, Elumichai. TELUGU: Nimma, Nima. THAI: Manao. URDU: Limu. VIETNAMESE : Chanh ta. Botany Dayap is a small tree or shrub, 2 [...]

Doña Aurora

Family • Rubiaceae - Mussaenda Philippica A. Rich. var. aurora Sulit Scientific names Mussaenda Philippica A. Rich. var. aurora Sulit Common and local names Doña Aurora (Tag.) Botany Doña Aurora is a shrub or small tree, 3 to 5 meters high. Leaves are opposite, broad-ovate, with short-pointed tips, dark green and glossy. Calyx lobes are expanded into white or greenish-white, large, leaf-like, oval bracts; the green blade expanded with short-acute or blunt tip. Flowers are small, tubelike, expanded into 5, ovate lobes, yellowish orange in color. Hybrids M. philippica var. aurorae is the progenitor of the horticultural hybrids - Doña Alicia, Doña Luz. Mussaenda Doña Luz is a hybrid between M. Doña Aurora and M. Doña Trining. Distribution The cultivar is native to the Philippines, popularly grown in most towns and cities. Parts used  Roots, leaves, sepals. Uses Folkloric (Folkloric uses derived fromMussaenda philippica /Kahoi-dalaga) - Plant is used for dysentery and snake bites. • Decoction of roots and leaves used for affections of the chest and lung. • Root and the while, full-grown sepals are used in jaundice. • Bark used for stomach ache. • Externally, decoction of leaves used as emollient. • For influenza, the tambalan healers of Samar use the scrappings of the bark of M. philippica and C. dichotoma. Mixed and pounded, the expressed juice strained and mixed with lemon extract; taken three times daily. Availability Wild-crafted.

Dama de noche

Family • Solanaceae - Cestrum nocturnum Linn. - NIGHT BLOOMING CESTRUM - Ye xiang mu Other scientific names Cestrum parqui Usteri Common names Dama de noche (Tag., Span.) Huele de noche (Span.) Galan de noche (Span.) Night jessamine (Engl.) Night blooming cestrum (Engl.) Night blooming jessamine (Engl.) Night scented jessamine (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ye xiang mu. COSTA RICA: Zomillo. CUBA: Galan de noche, Fedora, Jasmin de noche. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Rufiana, Jazmin de noche. EL SALVADOR: Palo hediondo. GUATEMALA: Galan de noche, Reina de la noche. HAITI: Lilas de nuit, Jasmin de nuit. KONGO: Dondoko. MEXICO: Huelo do noche, Heirba hedionda, Galan de tarde. MALAY: Sedap malam. MARATHI: Raatraani. Botany Dama de noche is an erect and climbing ornamental smooth shrub, about 2 to 3 meters in height, with long often-drooping branches. Leaves are oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tips. Flowers are numerous, slender, yellowish-green, about 2 to 2.3 centimeters long, borne in lax, axillary and terminal inflorescences, 7 to 10 centimeters long. Distribution - Widely cultivated in the Philippines for its sweet-scented flowers that bloom at night. - Introduced from Tropical America. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Toxicity, Anticholinergic / EMedicine (2) Behavioral and antiepileptic effects of acute administration of the extract of the plant Cestrum nocturnumLin (lady of the night) / Héctor Pérez-Saad / Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 12, Issue 3, April 2008, Pages 366-372 / doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.12.012 (3) Experimental study on antitumor effect of extracts from Cestrum nocturnum in vivo / Zhong Z G et [...]


Family •Polygonaceae - Polygonum chinense L. - CHINESE KNOTWEED - Huo tan mu Scientific names Polygonum chinense L. Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross Polygonum auriculata Other vernacular names CHINESE: Huo tan mu. FRENCH: Liane rouge. JAPANESE: Tsuru soba. Common names Bota-bota (Ig.) Darnon (Ig.) Kulang-kulang (Neg.) Langingit (If.) Lutudan (Bon.) Vono (Iv.) Chinese knotweed (Engl.) Knotgrass (Engl.) Red bush (Engl.) Botany Daynon is a twining perennial herb, reaching a height of 1 to 1.5 meters. Nodes are prominent. Stems and branches are reddish-purple, glabrous, and spineless. Leaves are alternate, ovate to oblong shape, 5 to10 centimeters long, 3 centimeters wide, midrib violet-red, upper surface of leaf with an inverted "V" shaped spot. Stipules sheath on the stem just below the petioles, membranaceous, glabrous with no cilia at the margin. (Other polygonum spp. have ciliated membranaceous stipules.) Flowers are small, white or light reddish in color, arranged in heads (capitate); inflorescence axillary. Calyx are 5, enlarging when fruiting, transparent to white. Fruits are berries, globose in shape, enclosed in the enlarged and fleshy calyx at maturity. Seeds are small, black. Distribution - In thickets and forests at medium and higher altitudes 1,200 to 2,000 meters throughout the Philippines. Parts utilized:  · Entire plant. · Collected the year round. · Rinse, cut into pieces, sun-dry. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF PERSICARIA CHINENSIS LEAVES / Mei Shu, Lai, D Sudhahar, K Anandarajagopal / IJPSR, 2012; Vol 3, No 8: 2825-2830 (2) AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of [...]

Don Manuel

Family • Rubiaceae - Hamelia patens Jacq. - SCARLET BUSH Other scientific names Hamelia erecta Jacq. Hamelia coccinea Common names Scarlet bush (Engl.) Red head (Engl.) Fire bush (Engl.) Sanalo-todo (Span.) Ix-canan (Mayan) Hummingbird bush (Engl.) Polly red head (Engl.) Texas firecracker (Engl.) Pata de pajaro (Span.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Scarlet Bush / Hamelia partens: Raintree Nutrition / Tropical Plant Database (2) Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hamelia patens Methanol Extract in Rats and Mice / Phytotherapy Research Vol 10 Issue 8, Pages 686 - 688 / 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199612)10:8<686::AID-PTR926>3.0.CO;2-J About DOI (3) In vitro cytotoxic activity of nine plants used in Mayan traditional medicine / J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):462-5. Epub 2008 Nov 24. (4) Methanol Extracts of Hamelia patens Containing Oxindole Alkaloids Relax KCl-Induced Contraction in Rat Myometrium / Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa et al / Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27(10) 1617—1620 (Oct 2004) General info  The Mayan name "Ix-canan" means "guardian of the forest." Botany A small, semi-woody bush that grows to a height of 3.5 meters. Leaves are red-tinged and deeply veined, 10-20 cm long. FLowers are a mass of tubular, bright reddish-orange. Fruit is an edible and juciy berry, turning green to yellow to red, and finally, black when ripe. Insert Young leaf. Distribution In the Philippines, common garden cultivation. Constituents Plant is rich in active phytochemicals, including flavanoids and alkalois. Contains oxindole alkaloids as found in Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa). The plant contains apigeninc, ephedrine, flavanones, isomaruquine, isopteropodine, maruqine, narirutins, oxindole alkaloids, palmirine, pteropodoine, rosmarinic acid, rumberine, rutin, senociophyulline, speciophylline, and tannin. Properties [...]


Family • Oxalidaceae - Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC - LITTLE TREE PLANT - Gan ying cao Scientific names Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC Oxalis sensitiva Linn. Oxalis cunningiana Turcz. Oxalis metziana Miquel ex Edgeworth ex Hook. f. Other vernacular names CHINESE: He cao, Xiu li cao. INDONESIA: Daun kucingan, Krambilan, Kurang-kurang. LAOS: Dok han. NEPAL: Nagbeli THAILAND: Chi yop tontaan, Krathuep yop, Khan rom. VIETNAM: L[as] chue me, Chua me l[as] me, Ta lang. Common names Damong-bingkalat (Tag.) Damong-huya (Bis.) Guyanka (Sub.) Hoya-hoya (P. Bis.) Makahiyang-lalaki (Tag.) Lubi-lubi (P. Bis.) Mahinhin (Ilk.) Makahia (Tag.) Ning-ning (Sul.) Life plant (Engl.) Little tree plant (Engl.) Gan ying cao (Chin.) Botany Damong-bingkalat is an unbranched herb with stems up to 30 centimeters in height but usually shorter. Leaves are pinnately compound, numerous, crowded at the apex of the stem, and 5 to 12 centimeters long, with 8 to 14 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets gradually increase in size upward, about 1.5 centimeters long or less, oblong to oblong-obovate, often somewhat curved. Flowers are many, crowded at the apices of the numerous peduncles. Sepals are subulate-lanceolate, striate, about 7 millimeters long. Petals are yellow. Fruit is a capsule, shorter than the persistent calyx. Distribution - In grasslands and open thickets at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Sulu. - Pantropic. Properties - Considered tonic, stimulant, stomachic, vulnerary. - Seeds considered vulnerary. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo / Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G. / J Basic [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Dichrocephala latifolia (Lam.) DC. Scientific names Dichrocephala latifolia (Lam.) DC. Grangea latifolia Lam. ex Poir. Dichrocephala bicolor (Roth.) Schtdl. Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) O. Kuntze Common names No local name Other vernacular names INDONESIA: Jukut meurit (Sundanese), wedahan, seprah (Javanese). CAMBODIA: Klet choum thorn, kombet choun. CAMEROON: Mbag'api. ITALIAN: Dicrocefala. LAOS: Cho ke. MADAGASCAR: Ahidrindrina. THAILAND: Phakchee doi, saap haeng, haeng khong. VIETNAM: Rau chu[oo]i, l[uw][owx]ng s[ows]c l[as] nguy[ee]n. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Taka, de­kemp, dakuma­dan . Botany Dichrocephala latifolia is an annual, erect or spreading, smooth or hairy weed, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are entire or pinnatifid, ovate or lanceolate, up to 10.5 centimeters long and 4 centimeters wide; the terminal lobe is large, broadly ovate and coarsely toothed. Flowering heads are yellow or purplish, rounded, and about 3 millimeters in diameter. The ray flowers are very slender, curved, and obscurely toothed. Achenes are very minute and smooth. Distribution - In open, waste places, old clearings, along trails, etc., chiefly at 900 meters and up to 2,200 meters in Bontoc, Ifugao, Benguet Subprovinces; and Nueva Vizcaya and Quezon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Negros, and Mindanao. - Also occurs in tropical and subtropical Africa, in Asia, and through Malaya. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Study on the Chemical Constituents of Dichrocephala integrifolia / Zhu Shao-hui, Zhang Qian-jun et al / DOI CNKI:SUN:ZYCA.0.2010-01-019 (2) Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.f.) O. Kuntze / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED (3) Preliminary phytochemical screening and evaluation of antibacterial activity of Dichrocepala integrifolia (L.f) O. kuntze / Tesfaye [...]

Drooping knotweed

Family • Polygonacea - Polygonum pubescens Blume - La liao Scientific names Polygonum pubescens Blume Polygonum flaccidum Hook. f. Polygonum roettleri Roth. Persicaria pubescens (Blume) H. Hara Common names Drooping knotweed (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Fu mao liao, Ban jiao cao, Chui liao, La liao cao, Ruan jing shui liao. JAPANESE: Bontoku tade. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Traditional knowledge of Adi tribe of Arunachal Pradesh on plants / R C Srivastava and Adi community / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 8(2), April 2009, pp 146-153 (2) Accumulation characteristics of Cd in Polygonum pubescens Bl. / Deng Hua / Agricultural Science and Technology (Jun. 2010) Botany Polygonum pubescens is a perennial herb, much taller than Polygonum hydropiper, up to 75 centimeters tall. Leaves are stalkless, 5 to 15 centimeters long, smooth or hairy. Pinkish-red flowers are borne in drooping racemes, 15 centimeters long, and slender. Nut is small, black, and minutely granular. Distribution - In swampy places at low altitude in Cagayan Province in Luzon. - Also occurs in India, China, Taiwan and Malaya. Properties Emmenagogue, abortifacient. Uses  Edibility - Leaves used as potherb or seasoning. Folkloric - In China the bruised plant is applied locally to blistered and swollen feet. - Used for snake bites. - Also used as emmenagogue and abortifacient. Others - In India's Arunachal Pradesh, whole plant paste is thrown into the stream to stupefy the fish, make them float up for an easy catch. Study Findings • Phytoremediation / Cadmium: Study evaluated the accumulation characteristics of Cd in Polygonum pubescens. Under all test [...]

Damong maria

Family • Compositae - Artemisia vulgaris Linn. - MAIDEN WORT, CHINESE HONEYSUCKLE, WORMWOOD - Ai Scientific names Artemisia araenosa Kitam. Artemisia clemensiana Pamp. Artemisia lavandulifolia DC. Artemisia shanshiensis Pamp. Artemisia vulgaris Linn. Ye ai hao (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ye ai CROATIAN: Crni pelin, Obični pelin. DANISH: Almindelig gråbynke, Bynke, Grå bynke, Uægte malurt, Vild malurt DUTCH: Alsemsoort, Bijvoet, Gewone bijvoet FINNISH: Pujo FRENCH: Armoise citronnelle, Armoise commune, Armoise vulgaire. GERMAN: Beifuß, Echter Beifuß, Gemeiner Beifuß, Gewöhnlicher Beifuß ITALIAN: Amarella, Artemisia, Assenzio selvatico. JAPANESE: Arutemishia, Oushuu yomogi NORWEGIAN: Burot. POLISH: Bylica, Bylica pospolita. PORTUGESE: Artemisia. RUSSIAN: Polyn' obyknovennaia. SPANISH: Artemisia, Corona de San Juan, Hierba de San Juan, Sisim SWEDISH: Grabo VIETNAMESE: Cây ngải, Ngải cứu, Thuốc cứu. Common names Abraaka (Ilk.) Artanusa (C. Bis.) Cintura de S. Jose (Span.) Cordon de S. Jose (Span.) Damong maria (Tag.) Gilbas (C. Bis.) Erbaka (Ilk.) Herbaaka (Bon.) Kamaria (Tag.) Maria (Tag.) Santa maria (Tag.) Tinisas (Tag.) Chinese honeysuckle (Engl.) Motherwort (Engl.) Maiden wort (Engl.) Felon herb, mugwort (Engl.) St. John's plant (Engl.) Wegwood (Engl.) Common wormwood (Engl.) Wild wormwood (Engl.) Ai (Chin.) Botany Damong-maria is an erect perennial herb, hairy, aromatic, rank smelling, often half-woody, growing to a height of 1 meter or less. Stems are leafy and branched. Leaves are pinnately lobed, 5 to 14 centimeters long, hairy, gray beneath, with nearly smooth above. Flowering heads are numerous, ovoid, 3 to 4 millimeters long, occurring in large numbers in spikelike, ascending, and branched inflorescences. Fruit, an achene, is minute. Distribution - From the Batan Islands and [...]