Family • Amaranthaceae - Iresine herbstii Hook. - BLOODLEAF - Xue xian Common names Dahong pula (Tag.) Bloodleaf (Engl.) Beefsteak plant (Engl.) Chicken gizzard (Engl.) Xue xian (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Central nervous system pharmacological effects of plants from Northern Peruvian Andes: Valeriana adscendens, Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea / Capasso Anna and De Feo Vincenzo / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 40,ÊNumber 4, June 2002 , pp. 274-293(20) (2) In Vitro Binding Receptors Study by Valeriana adscendens, Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts / A. Capasso and V. De Feo / Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 3, Number 6, November 2007 , pp. 599-60 (3) CNS pharmacological effects of aqueous extract from Iresine herbstii / De Feo V et al / International journal of pharmacognosy, 1996, vol. 34, no3, pp. 184-188 (4) Identification and Distribution of Simple and Acylated Betacyanins in the Amaranthaceae / Yizhong Cai et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49 (4), pp 1971–1978 / DOI: 10.1021/jf000963h Botany Low annual herb. Leaves are broadly ovate or orbicular, purple-red wih lighter colored prominent arched veins. A common variety has green or reddish-green leaves with yellow veins. Flowers are small. Tepals greenish white or yellowish-white. Distribution Native to tropical America. Cultivated throughout the Philippines. Uses Folkloric • No folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. • In southern Brazil, used for wound healing. • In the northern Peruvian Andes, used for magic-therapeutical purposes where traditional healers use it to expel evil spirits from the body. • Used in association with other plants, such as Trichocereus pachanos, for divination, [...]


Family • Orobanchaceae - Aeginetia indica Linn. - GHOST FLOWER - Ye gu Scientific names Aeginetia indica Linn. Aeginetia abbreviata Walp. Aeginetia pedunculata F.-Vill. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ye gu, Guan hen huang. HINDI: Aankuri bankuri. MALAYALAM: Keeripu. Common names Bangbañgan-ti-kiuing (Bon.) Dagatan (Tag.) Kola (Pamp.) Lapo (Ibn.) Suako-ti-uak (Ilk.) Dapong-tubo (Tag.) Cabrita (Tag.) Indian broomrape (Engl.) Forest ghost flower (Engl.) Ghost flower (Tag.) Botany Dapong-tubo is a gregarious root parasite, producing numerous tubercles or swellings. Scapes are solitary or several, very slender, from 10 to 50 centimeters high, arising from the tubercle. Flowers are solitary. Calyx is ovoid, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, purplish with longitudinal yellow stripes. Corolla is pale purple, two-lipped, tubular, bell-shaped, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, 2.5 centimeters in diameter or less, and fimbriate in the margins. Capsules are ovoid or rounded, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long. Seeds are yellowish. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Seed extract of Aeginetia indica L induces cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro / Chai J G et al / Immunopharmacology. 1994 Jan-Feb;27(1):13-21. (2) An extract of seeds from Aeginetia indica L a parasitic plant induces potent antigen-specific antitumor immunity in Meth A-bearing BALB/c mice / Chai J G et al / (3) Th1-cytokine induction and anti-tumor effect of 55 kDa protein isolated from Aeginetia indica L., a parasitic plant / Go Ohe et al / Cancer immunology and immunotherapy, 2001, vol. 50, no5, pp. 251-259 (4) Effects of a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guan-Jen-Huang (Aeginetia indica Linn.), on Renal Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis / [...]


Family • Boraginaceae - Trichodesma zeylanicum Burm. f - CAMEL BUSH Scientific names Trichodesma zeylanicum Burm. f Boraco africana Blanco Boraco indica Blanco Boraco zeylanica Burm. f. Pollichia zeylanica F.M. Common names Dilang-usa (Tag.) Mabulo (Tag.) Sigang-dagat (Tag.) Trikantaka (India) Camel bush (Engl.) Cattle bush (Engl.) Rough blue bell (Engl.) Other vernacular names HINDI: Dhadhona, Hetemuria, Jalasirasa. KANNADA: Ethina naalige gida, Gaaya maari. SANSKRIT: A mbusirishika, Dhindhinika, Durbala,Jjhingi. TAMIL: Kalutaikkali. TELUGU: Pedda gurragutti. Botany Dilang-usa is an erect, branched and hairy annual herb, 30 to 70 centimeters in height. Leaves are hairy, oblong to lanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, on short stalks, pointed at both ends. The hairs on the upper surface of the blade arise from tubercles. Flowers are borne on long stalks, in axillary or terminal racemes, of four or five flowers. Calyx is densely hairy, about 1 centimeter long in the flower. Corolla is pale blue, about 1.3 centimeters in diameter. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Trikantaka, Indian Medicinal Plants (2) Chewa medical botany: a study of herbalism in southern Malawi / Brian Morris (3) Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences / Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 2(3), pp. 29-42, Sep-Oct 2009 (4) Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm. f.) Formulation in Excision Wounds in Albino Rats / Frank Ngonda* / Annual Research & Review in Biology 4(6): 828-839, 2014 (5) Anti-inflammatory activity of alkanoids and triterpenoids from Trichodesma amplexicaule Roth. / Abstract [...]


Family • Bombacaceae - Durio zibethinus Murr. - DURIAN - Liu Lian Scientific names Durio zibethinus Murr. Durio acuminatissima Merr. Durio foetida Thunb. Common names Dulian (Lan., Sul., Mag., Bag.) Duren (Indonesia) Durian (Lan., Span., Engl.) Durio (Bag.) Duryan (Tag., Ilk.) Duyan (Sul.) Civet-cat fruit tree (Engl.) Civet fruit (Engl.) Common durian (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Du-yin. CHINESE: Liu lian. DUTCH: Doerian, Stinkvrucht. GERMAN: Durianbaum, Stinkfrucht, Zibetbaum. JAPANESE: Durian. KHMER: Thu-reen. KOREAN: Du ri an. LAOTIAN: Thourien. MALAY: Duren (Java), Durian (Malaysia), Durian puteh. PORTUGUESE: Durião. SPANISH: Durión. THAI: Thurian. VIETNAMESE: S[aaf]u r[ee]ng, Sau rieng. Gen info  In Southeast Asia, considered the "King of Fruits." Botany Durian is a tree that grows to a height of 20 meters or more. Leaves are dark green, smooth and shiny above, cinnamon-colored and scaly beneath, oblong to obovate-oblong, about 15 to 25 centimeters long, 5 to 9 centimeters wide. Flowers are white to yellowish-white, about 7.5 centimeters in diameter, with a pouchlike calyx. Fruit is globular, very large, 15 to 25 centimeters long, covered by a hard shell with stiff, sharp spines, weighing as much as 3 kilos or more. Shell breaks into five parts to which the flesh adhere. In each section of the fruit, there are 2 to 6 very large seeds covered by the flesh (aril). The flesh is soft and whitish, with the consistency of soft cheese, with a characteristic unpleasant rank and repugnant odor of bad smelling cheese. The seeds are eaten, either boiled or roasted. Distribution - Cultivated for [...]


Family •Acanthaceae - Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier f. - METAL LEAF Scientific names Hemigraphis colorata (Bl.) Hallier Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. f.) t. Anders. Ruellia alternata Ruellia colorata Blume Common names Dahon-pula (Tag.) Dahong piula (Tag.) Cemetery plant (Engl.) Metal leaf (Engl.) Purple waffle plant (Engl.) Red flame ivy (Engl.) Red ivy (Engl.) Other vernacular names INDIA: Murikootti, Murian pacha. INDONESIA: Keji beling, Sambang getis, Sarap, Lire, Remek daging, Reundeu beureum. MALAYSIA: Benatu api. PAPAU NEW GUINEA: Kwaiwa. VANUATU: Noyon gengen. Gen info Hemigraphis is a genus of about 90 species of low-growing, slender-stemmed annuals, perennials and subshrubs. Botany Dahon-pula is a prostrate herb. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 4.5 to 8 centimeters long, 3.5 to 4.5 centimeters wide, with a subobtuse tip and rounded and heart-shaped base with toothed margins. Upper surface of the leaves is dark purple throughout. Flowers are white, borne in terminal spikes up to 7 centimeters long, with large imbricate bracts. Calyx is green and 5-parted. Corolla is tubular, cylindric below, swollen above, 10 to 15 millimeters long, and 5-lobed. Capsule is linear. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Common Plants Can Eliminate Indoor Air Pollutants / Science Daily, Nov 5, 2009 / (2) Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L. / Anitha VT, Antonisamy JM, Jeeva S. / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Jan;5(1):52-7. (3) EFFECT OF HEMIGRAPHIS COLORATA (BLUME) H. G. HALLIER LEAF ON WOUND HEALING AND INFLAMMATION IN MICE / A. SUBRAMONIAM, D. A. EVANS, S. RAJASEKHARAN, G. SREEKANDAN NAIR / Indian Journal of [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Dischidia vidalii Becc. Scientific names Dischidia vidalii Becc. Dischidia pectenoides Pearson Dischidia lanceolata F.-Vill. Common names Dapo-sa-boho (Tag.) Lobo-lobo (Tag.) Botany Dapo-sa-boho is an herbaceous, epiphytic, often-twining, smooth vine usually growing on dead bamboos, with slender, pendulous branches. Leaves are opposite, and of two kinds: the normal - elliptic-ovate to lanceolate, thick and fleshy, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long; and the inflated - 4 to 6 centimeters long, 4 to 5 centimeters wide, and usually about 2 centimeters thick, the interior being more or less filled with rootlets from the leaf-axil and with a much smaller, interior ascidium which is usually the domicil of a colony of small black ants. Inflorescence is axillary, solitary, and umbellate, with a peduncle 1 to 2 centimeters long. Flowers number 3 to 8 in each umbel. Calyx is small and green. Corolla is cylindric, red, and about 8 millimeters long. Follicles are slender, and 5 to 7 centimeters long. Distribution - Endemic species found on dead or drying climbing bamboo (Schizostachyum) at low altitudes in Bataan, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon. Parts used Leaves Uses  Folkloric Leaves are crushed, salted, and applied externally on a piece of cloth to goiter. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Umbelliferae / Apiaceae - Anethum graveolens - GARDEN DILL, DILLY Scientific names Anethum graveolens Peucedanum graveolens Anethum sowa Common names Dill Garden dill Botany An annual plant cultivated for culinary spice use. It grows to a meter in height. The leaves are filiform leaflets. The flat umbels yield yellow flowers producing oval dill seeds.   Parts used Seeds Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Effects of anethum graveolens and garlic on lipid profile in hyperlipidemic patients / Javad Kojuri et al / Lipids in Health and Disease 2007 / 6:5 / doi:10.1186/1476-511X-6-5 (2) The effects of Anethum graveolens L. on female reproductive system / Monsefi M et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research, 2006, vol. 20, no10, pp. 865-868 (3) Hypolipidemic Activity of Anethum graveolens in Rat / Valiollah Hajhashemi and NZaser Abbasi / Phytotherapy Research / Volume 22 Issue 3, Pages 372 - 375 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2329 (4) Evaluation of the effect of Anethum graveolens L. crude extracts on serum lipids and lipoproteins profiles in hypercholesterolaemic rats  (5) Effects of Anethum graveolens L. seed extracts on experimental gastric irritation models in mice / Hossein Hosseinzadeh et al / BMC Pharmacology 2002, 2:21doi:10.1186/1471-2210-2-21 (6) The antimycobacterial constituents of dill (Anethum graveolens) / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 2005, vol. 19, no11, pp. 938-941 (7) Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi / Gurinder J Kaur et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009, 9:30doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-30 Properties and constituents - Has the medicinal value of caraway and aniseed. - Antihalitosis, antispasmodic, diuretic, carminative, galactagogue, [...]


Family • Zingiberaceae - GISOL - Kaempferia galanga Linn.- RESURRECTION LILY - Shan nai Scientific names Kaemferia rotunda Blanco Kaemferia latifolia Hornem. Kaempferia galanga Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Sha jiang. HINDI: Chandramula. GERMAN: Kleiner Galgant. LAOS: 'Van 'horn. INDONESIA: Kencur, Cekur, Bataka. MALAYSIA: Chekur, Cekur jawa, Cengkur. RUSSIAN: Kempferiya galanga. THAI: Proh hom, Waan horn, Waan teen din. VIETNAMESE: Dia li[eef]n, S[ow]n nai, Tam n[aj]i. Common names Disol (Ilk.) Doso (Bon.) Dosol (Bon.) Doto (Bon.) Duso (Tag.) Dusog (Tag.) Dusol (Tag.) Gisol (Tag.) Kisol (Buk., Bis.) Kosol (Bis.) Kusol (Pamp.) Galangal Shan nai (Chinese) Lesser galanga (Engl.) Common resurrection lily (Engl.) Botany Dusol is a smooth, stemless herb arising from tuberous aromatic rootstocks with fibrous cylindric roots. Leaves are horizontally spreading, orbicular to broadly ovate, 7 to15 centimeters long, with rounded base. Flowers are few, about 4 to 6 or more, with lanceolate bracts which are about 3.5centimeters long. Corolla tube is slender, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long; with a lip cleft to the middle, about 2.5 centimeters wide, white or pale pink spotted with violet. Staminodes are obovate, about 1 to 2 centimeters long. Staminal crest is quadrate, and 2-lobed. Distribution - In open grasslands at low and medium altitudes, in the Bontoc and Baguio areas, the Rizal provinces, and in Mindanao. - Occurs in India through Malaya to the Moluccas. - Cultivated in Java, Malaya and India for culinary and medicinal purposes. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Anti-tumour promoter activity in Malaysian ginger rhizobia used in traditional medicine / Br J [...]


Family • Anonaceae - Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray. - Meng hao zi Scientific names Anaxagorea luzonensis A. Gray. Anaxagorea zeylanica Hook. f. Anaxagorea fruticosa (T. & Binn. Ex Miq) Scheff. Rhopalocarpus fruticosa Teijsm. & Binn. Ex. Miq. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Meng hao zi THAI: Kamlang wua taloeng. Common names Bagang-aso (Bik.) Bobonoyang (C. Bis.) Dalairo (Tag.) Kahoi-dalaga (Tag.) Koles-talano (Tag.) Pauli (P. Bis.) Sagaak (Tag.) Talaylo (Tag.) Chang bing deng tai shu (Chin.) Botany Dalairo is a low undershrub. Leaves are oblong, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, smooth, and obtuse at the ends. Flower is solitary, leaf-opposed, and about 2 centimeters in diameter. Sepals are ovate, and the petals ovate or oblong. Fruit is clavate, and 3 to 4 centimeters long. Seeds are shining, black, and obovoid. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Studies on the Constituents of Anaxagorea luzonensis A. GRAY / Ryoko Gonda, Tadahiro Takeda and T Akiyama / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 48(8) 1219—1222 (2000) (2) PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND ANTI-TYROSINASE ACTIVITY OF ANAXAGOREA LUZONENSIS A GRAY / Wiyada Nooring / MASTER OF SCIENCE PROGRAMME IN PHARMACEUTICAL CHEMISTRY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY(INTERNATIONAL PROGRAMME) (3) Studies on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils and alcoholic extracts of Gentiana asclepiadea L. / Vladimir Mihailović*, Nenad Vuković, Neda Nićiforović, Slavica Solujić, Milan Mladenović, Pavle Mašković and Milan S. Stanković / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(7), pp. 1164-1174, 4 April, 2011 (4) ACUTE ORAL TOXICITY TEST OF ANAXAGOREA LUZONENSIS A. GREY AND ZIZIPHUS ATTOPENSIS PIERRE. EXTRACT IN RATS / Kunhachan, Phanukit; Sematong, Tuanta; Siriarchavatana, Parkpoom; Poonsiri, Chantara; Khayungarnnawee, Amonrat; [...]


RICE BRAN Common names Darak (Tag.) Rice bran (Engl.) Rice polishings (Engl.) General info Darak was first used in the early 1900s for "taon," a disease afflicting children, successfully treated with daily doses of a sweetened decoction of dry roasted darak. The affliction was later identified as "beriberi." Twenty years later, Manuel Zamora, a pharmacist, developed a darak extract in syrup form, bottling it as "Tiki-tiki." Rice is grown in over 100 countries, and with over 18,000 varieties it accounts for about 25% of the world's grain production. Rice bran is the by-product of the rice milling process. It is the hard outer layer between the inner white rice grain and the outer hull (husk). Milling of the paddy yields 70% rice (endosperm) as the major product, with by-products of 20% rice husk, 8% rice bran and 2% rice germ. Rice bran (which includes the germ) accounts for 60% of the nutrients found in each rice kernel. Constituents - Each 100 kg of paddy rice will yield about 5 to 10 kg of bran. - Contains vitamins A, B complex, D and E; fat, 20%; carbohydrates; proteins; adenine; choline; arachidic, behenic, lignoceric, palmitic, and oleic acids; phytosterin. - Rice bran along with the germ yields phytonutrients like oryzanols, tocopherols, tocotrienols, phytosterols, 20% oil and 15% protein, 50% carbohydrate (mostly starch) dietary fibers like beta-glucan, pectin, and gum[3,8- 10]. - Yields a rice bran oil rich in vitamin E tocopherol and tocotrienol. It has a saturated fatty acid to good monosaturated [...]