Family • Urticaceae - Pipturus arborescens (Link) C. B. Rob. - Luo wei mu Scientific names Pipturus arborescens Link Urtica arborescens Link Urtica baccifera Blanco Pipturus asper Wedd. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Luo wei ma. Common names Agandaong (Ilk.) Damaian (Ig.) Kandamai (Tagb.) Agdalamai (Tag.) Dañget (Bon.) Lai (Bon.) Alañgisi (Bis.) Duai (Ig.) Lamai (Mbo., Sub.) Alalatang (Ap.) Gimas-gimas (P. Bis.) Moliungol (Ig.) Aludig (Ilk.) Gunoi (Mag.) Ñgaliugutgutu (If.) Añgañgeu (Bon.) Gutgutu (If.) Ñgungoi (Ig.) Aramai (Iv.) Handalamai (C. Bis.) Samai (Sul.) Arandong (Ilk.) Himaramai (Bis.) Takop-takop (Ilk.) Dalonot (Tag.) Hindalumai (Bis.) Taktakop (Ilk.) Dalonotan (Bis.) Hindaramai (C. Bis.) Luo wei mu (Chin.) Dalunot (Tag.) Botany Dalunot is a dioecious shrub or small tree attaining a height of 3 to 5 meters. Leaves are ovate, 7 to 8 centimeters long, 3 to 10 centimeters wide, with the tip tapering to a point and the base rounded or somewhat heart-shaped, the margins toothed, the upper surface green, slightly hairy and a little rough, the lower surface pale and rather densely covered with soft hairs. Male flowers are borne in dense, axillary fascicles, with greenish-white and exerted styles. Female flowers are small and greenish, in dense, axillary, hemispheric heads, 5 to 6 millimeters in diameter, with long-exerted styles. Fruit is white, very soft and fleshy, depressed, nearly spherical, about 1 centimeter in diameter, and consists of many small achenes immersed in the fleshy perianths. Distribution - Very common and wide distributed species. - In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes. - In Baguette, [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume - PASTUREWEED - Bei xian Scientific names Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume Cyathula geniculata Lour. Achyranthes prostrata Linn. Desmochaeta prostrata Linn. Pupalia prostrata (L.) C. Martius. Common names Bakbaka (Ilk.) Dayang (Tag.) Dokat-dokat (Bis.) Sait-sait (Sul.) Tuhod-manok (Tag.) Pastureweed (Engl.) Bei xian (Chin.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Andot ko. FRENCH: Cyathule couchée INDONESIA: Rumput jarang-jarang, Ranggitan, Rai-rai fofoheka. IVORY COAST: Abure ahue, Dan bie. MALAYSIA: Nyarang, Menjarang, Keremak. NIGERIA: Fula-fulfulde. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Kinjan. THAILAND: Yaa phaanngu lek, Yaa phaanghu daeng. VIETNAME: D[ow]n d[or]g[oj]ng, C[or] x[uw][ows]c, B[oo]ng d[or]. Botany Dayang is an annual, branched herb, reaching a length of 1 meter or more, with the stems prostrate and creeping below. Leaves are rhomboid-oblong, 2 to 8 centimeters long, and gradually tapering to an acute base. Spikes are terminal and axillary, slender, peduncles, and 5 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, greenish, ovoid, and about 3 millimeters long. Sepals are hairy. Fruit is an ellipsoid utricle, 1.5 to 2 millimeters long, thin-walled, hairless, one-seeded, surrounded by a stiff perianth. Seed is ovoid, 1.5 to 1.5 millimeters long, shiny brown. Distribution - In waste places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines. - Pantropic. Constituents - Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Betaine distribution in the Amaranthaceae / Gerald Blunden, Ming-he Yang et al / Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 27, Issue 1, January 1999, Pages 87-92 / doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(98)00072-6 (2) CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF SELECTED NIGERIAN PLANTS / A Sowemimo, [...]


Family • Loganiaceae - Fagraea cochinchinensis (Lour.) A. Chev. - iRONWOOD - Long dan cao Scientific names Fagraea cochinchinensis (Lour.) A. Chev. Aidia cochinchinensis Lour. Aidia densiflora Wall. Cryptophyllum fragrans A. DC. Randia cochinchinensis Lour. Fagraea fragrans Roxb. Common names Dolo (Tagb.) Dulo (Tagb.) Susulin (Tag.) Teka (Kuy.) Uling (Tagb.) Uring (Kuy.) Ironwood (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMA: Nan. CAMBODIA: Tatraou. CHINESE: Long dan cao. FIJI: Buabua. INDIA: Tembuso tammuso. INDONESIA: Ki badak, Kayu tammusu, Ambinaton. LAOS: Man pa. MYANMAR: Anan, Ahnyim. MALAYSIA: Tembusu hutan, Tembusu padang, Tembusu tembaga. THAILAND: Kankrao, Man pla, Tham sao. VIETNAM: Tatrao, Trai, Trai nam bo. Botany Dolo is a small tree reaching a height of 15 meters. Leaves are opposite, leathery, elliptic, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, with the stalks often 2 centimeters or more in length with the base of the blade running down the sides of the stalks. Stipules form a cup around the stem on which the leaves grow. Flowers are fragrant and borne in considerable numbers on compound inflorescences 5 to 8 centimeters long, in the axils of leaves and towards the ends of the branches. Calyx is deeply divided with rounded lobes. Corolla is yellowish-white with 5 conspicuous lobes, about 1.5 centimeters in length. Fruit is a berry, reddish when ripe, somewhat rounded, and about 6 millimeters in diameter. Seeds are very small, brown, less than 1 millimeter in diameter, angular in shape, with a very thin seed aril. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Randia cochinchinensis / [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Kulotan / Mangkit - Urena lobata Linn. - CAESAR WEED - Di tao hua Scientific names Urena lobata Linn. Urena lobata var. americana (L. f.) Gurke Urena americana L. f. Urena grandiflora DC. Urena trilobata Vell. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xiao fan tian hua, Ye mian hua, Tian fu rong, Cao mai fan tia hua, Xiao feng cao, Qian chui cao. FRENCH: Cousin urène (Caribbean), Grand mahot-cousin (Caribbean), Jute Africain, Jute de Cuba, Jute du Congo, Jute paka, Uréna, Uréna du Brésil. GERMAN: Kongojute. HINDI: Bachita, Lapetua, Paka, Pathia, Unga. MALAYALAM: Vatturam, Uthiram. PORTUGUESE: Aguaxima (Brazil), Carrapicho-de-lavadeira (Brazil), Carrapicho-redondo (Brazil), Embira (Brazil), Guaxima, Guaxima-rósea (Brazil), Malvaísco (Brazil), Malva-de-embira (Brazil), Malva-rósea (Brazil), Uaicima. RUSSIAN: Kongolezskij dzhut, Madagaskarskij dzhut, Urena lopastnaia. SPANISH: Aramina, Cadillo (Cuba), Malva blanca (Cuba). VIETNAMESE: Ke hoa dao. Common names Afulut (Gad.) Anonongkot (Bik.) Bagouan (If.) Baranggot (Bik.) Batikil (If.) Dalupang (P. Bis., Tag., Pamp.) Daupang (Sul.) Dopong (Sul.) Kolokot (Ting.) Kollokollot (Ilk.) Kulot (Pang.) Kulit (Pang.) Kulotan (Tag., Bis.) Kullukullut (Ilk.) Kulut-kulutan (Tag.) Mangkit (Ig.) Molopolo (Tag., Pamp.) Palisin (Tag.) Poot-si-nuang (Is.) Pirikit (Neg.) Saligut (Bon.) Supang (Sub.) Tapanding (Mag.) Caesar weed (Engl.) Bur mallow (Engl.) Congo jute (Engl.) Di tao hua (Chin.) Botany Dalupang erect, branched shrub 0.6 to 2.5 meters high. Plant is exceedingly variable and more or less hairy, stems often with reddish branches. Leaves are pale beneath, ovate to suborbicular, 3 to 9 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base, more or less toothed or somewhat lobed or angled, the lobes not exceeding beyond the middle of [...]


Family • Rutaceae - Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle - LIME - Lai meng Scientific names Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle C. acida Roxb. C. acidissima C. bergamia C. excelsa Wester C. javanica Blume C. lima  Lunan C. limetta Risso var. aromatica Wester C. notissima Blanco Limonia acidissima Houtt. Limonia aurantifolia Christm. Limonia spinosum Mill. Common names Bilolo (Tag.) Dalaya (Ibn.) Dalayap (Ilk., Pamp., P. Bis.) Dayap (Tag.) Dulugot (Neg.) Gorong-gorong (Ilk.) Gugulo (If.) Lime (Engl.) Sour lime (Engl.) Limon (Span.) Muyong (Bon.) Sua (Bik.) Lai meng (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC : Limah, Limoo. ASSAMESE: Nemutênga. BENGALI : Kaghzinimbu, Lebu, Patinebu. CHINESE: Lu meng, Fei lu bi ning meng, Suan ning meng. DANISH : Lime. DUTCH : Lemmetje, Limoen. FINNISH : Floridan limetti, Limetti. FRENCH : Citronnier gallet, Limette acide, Limettier, Lime mexicaine. GERMAN: Limettenbaum, Limettenzitrone, Saure Limette. GUJARATI : Khatalimbu, Khattalimbu. HINDI: Jambhiirii, Lemuu, Liimuu, Neebuu, Nimbu, Nimbuu, Kagzi nimbuu, Kagzi nimboo, Kagzi nimbu. ITALIAN : Lima acida, Lima, Limetta mexicana. JAPANESE: Raimu, Remon riaru (as C. excelsa). KANNADA : Limbe, Limbe hannu, Nimbe, imbe hannu, Suṇṇa. MALAY : Limau nipis, Limau neepis, Limau asam (Malaysia), Jeruk neepis, Jeruk nipis (Indonesia). MALAYALAM : Erumichinarakam. MARATHI: Ambatanimbu, Limbu, Mavalanga. PORTUGUESE : Limão-ácida, Limão-galêgo, Limeira. RUSSIAN: Laim, Laim nastoiashchii kislyi. SANSKRIT: Matulunga, Nimbukah, Jambhiir. SPANISH : Lima ácida, Lima chica, Lima gallega, Limero, Limón agrio, Limón ceutí, Limón chiquito, Limón común, Limón corriente, Limón criollo, Limón de pica, Limón sutil. TAMIL: Campalam, Campiram, Elumiccai, Elumichai. TELUGU: Nimma, Nima. THAI: Manao. URDU: Limu. VIETNAMESE : Chanh ta. Botany Dayap is a small tree or shrub, 2 [...]

Doña Aurora

Family • Rubiaceae - Mussaenda Philippica A. Rich. var. aurora Sulit Scientific names Mussaenda Philippica A. Rich. var. aurora Sulit Common and local names Doña Aurora (Tag.) Botany Doña Aurora is a shrub or small tree, 3 to 5 meters high. Leaves are opposite, broad-ovate, with short-pointed tips, dark green and glossy. Calyx lobes are expanded into white or greenish-white, large, leaf-like, oval bracts; the green blade expanded with short-acute or blunt tip. Flowers are small, tubelike, expanded into 5, ovate lobes, yellowish orange in color. Hybrids M. philippica var. aurorae is the progenitor of the horticultural hybrids - Doña Alicia, Doña Luz. Mussaenda Doña Luz is a hybrid between M. Doña Aurora and M. Doña Trining. Distribution The cultivar is native to the Philippines, popularly grown in most towns and cities. Parts used  Roots, leaves, sepals. Uses Folkloric (Folkloric uses derived fromMussaenda philippica /Kahoi-dalaga) - Plant is used for dysentery and snake bites. • Decoction of roots and leaves used for affections of the chest and lung. • Root and the while, full-grown sepals are used in jaundice. • Bark used for stomach ache. • Externally, decoction of leaves used as emollient. • For influenza, the tambalan healers of Samar use the scrappings of the bark of M. philippica and C. dichotoma. Mixed and pounded, the expressed juice strained and mixed with lemon extract; taken three times daily. Availability Wild-crafted.

Dama de noche

Family • Solanaceae - Cestrum nocturnum Linn. - NIGHT BLOOMING CESTRUM - Ye xiang mu Other scientific names Cestrum parqui Usteri Common names Dama de noche (Tag., Span.) Huele de noche (Span.) Galan de noche (Span.) Night jessamine (Engl.) Night blooming cestrum (Engl.) Night blooming jessamine (Engl.) Night scented jessamine (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ye xiang mu. COSTA RICA: Zomillo. CUBA: Galan de noche, Fedora, Jasmin de noche. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Rufiana, Jazmin de noche. EL SALVADOR: Palo hediondo. GUATEMALA: Galan de noche, Reina de la noche. HAITI: Lilas de nuit, Jasmin de nuit. KONGO: Dondoko. MEXICO: Huelo do noche, Heirba hedionda, Galan de tarde. MALAY: Sedap malam. MARATHI: Raatraani. Botany Dama de noche is an erect and climbing ornamental smooth shrub, about 2 to 3 meters in height, with long often-drooping branches. Leaves are oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tips. Flowers are numerous, slender, yellowish-green, about 2 to 2.3 centimeters long, borne in lax, axillary and terminal inflorescences, 7 to 10 centimeters long. Distribution - Widely cultivated in the Philippines for its sweet-scented flowers that bloom at night. - Introduced from Tropical America. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Toxicity, Anticholinergic / EMedicine (2) Behavioral and antiepileptic effects of acute administration of the extract of the plant Cestrum nocturnumLin (lady of the night) / Héctor Pérez-Saad / Epilepsy & Behavior Vol 12, Issue 3, April 2008, Pages 366-372 / doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2007.12.012 (3) Experimental study on antitumor effect of extracts from Cestrum nocturnum in vivo / Zhong Z G et [...]


Family •Polygonaceae - Polygonum chinense L. - CHINESE KNOTWEED - Huo tan mu Scientific names Polygonum chinense L. Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross Polygonum auriculata Other vernacular names CHINESE: Huo tan mu. FRENCH: Liane rouge. JAPANESE: Tsuru soba. Common names Bota-bota (Ig.) Darnon (Ig.) Kulang-kulang (Neg.) Langingit (If.) Lutudan (Bon.) Vono (Iv.) Chinese knotweed (Engl.) Knotgrass (Engl.) Red bush (Engl.) Botany Daynon is a twining perennial herb, reaching a height of 1 to 1.5 meters. Nodes are prominent. Stems and branches are reddish-purple, glabrous, and spineless. Leaves are alternate, ovate to oblong shape, 5 to10 centimeters long, 3 centimeters wide, midrib violet-red, upper surface of leaf with an inverted "V" shaped spot. Stipules sheath on the stem just below the petioles, membranaceous, glabrous with no cilia at the margin. (Other polygonum spp. have ciliated membranaceous stipules.) Flowers are small, white or light reddish in color, arranged in heads (capitate); inflorescence axillary. Calyx are 5, enlarging when fruiting, transparent to white. Fruits are berries, globose in shape, enclosed in the enlarged and fleshy calyx at maturity. Seeds are small, black. Distribution - In thickets and forests at medium and higher altitudes 1,200 to 2,000 meters throughout the Philippines. Parts utilized:  · Entire plant. · Collected the year round. · Rinse, cut into pieces, sun-dry. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITIES OF PERSICARIA CHINENSIS LEAVES / Mei Shu, Lai, D Sudhahar, K Anandarajagopal / IJPSR, 2012; Vol 3, No 8: 2825-2830 (2) AP-1-Targeting Anti-Inflammatory Activity of the Methanolic Extract of [...]

Don Manuel

Family • Rubiaceae - Hamelia patens Jacq. - SCARLET BUSH Other scientific names Hamelia erecta Jacq. Hamelia coccinea Common names Scarlet bush (Engl.) Red head (Engl.) Fire bush (Engl.) Sanalo-todo (Span.) Ix-canan (Mayan) Hummingbird bush (Engl.) Polly red head (Engl.) Texas firecracker (Engl.) Pata de pajaro (Span.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Scarlet Bush / Hamelia partens: Raintree Nutrition / Tropical Plant Database (2) Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hamelia patens Methanol Extract in Rats and Mice / Phytotherapy Research Vol 10 Issue 8, Pages 686 - 688 / 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199612)10:8<686::AID-PTR926>3.0.CO;2-J About DOI (3) In vitro cytotoxic activity of nine plants used in Mayan traditional medicine / J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Jan 30;121(3):462-5. Epub 2008 Nov 24. (4) Methanol Extracts of Hamelia patens Containing Oxindole Alkaloids Relax KCl-Induced Contraction in Rat Myometrium / Ricardo Reyes-Chilpa et al / Biol. Pharm. Bull. 27(10) 1617—1620 (Oct 2004) General info  The Mayan name "Ix-canan" means "guardian of the forest." Botany A small, semi-woody bush that grows to a height of 3.5 meters. Leaves are red-tinged and deeply veined, 10-20 cm long. FLowers are a mass of tubular, bright reddish-orange. Fruit is an edible and juciy berry, turning green to yellow to red, and finally, black when ripe. Insert Young leaf. Distribution In the Philippines, common garden cultivation. Constituents Plant is rich in active phytochemicals, including flavanoids and alkalois. Contains oxindole alkaloids as found in Cat's Claw (Uncaria tomentosa). The plant contains apigeninc, ephedrine, flavanones, isomaruquine, isopteropodine, maruqine, narirutins, oxindole alkaloids, palmirine, pteropodoine, rosmarinic acid, rumberine, rutin, senociophyulline, speciophylline, and tannin. Properties [...]


Family • Oxalidaceae - Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC - LITTLE TREE PLANT - Gan ying cao Scientific names Biophytum sensitivum (Linn.) DC Oxalis sensitiva Linn. Oxalis cunningiana Turcz. Oxalis metziana Miquel ex Edgeworth ex Hook. f. Other vernacular names CHINESE: He cao, Xiu li cao. INDONESIA: Daun kucingan, Krambilan, Kurang-kurang. LAOS: Dok han. NEPAL: Nagbeli THAILAND: Chi yop tontaan, Krathuep yop, Khan rom. VIETNAM: L[as] chue me, Chua me l[as] me, Ta lang. Common names Damong-bingkalat (Tag.) Damong-huya (Bis.) Guyanka (Sub.) Hoya-hoya (P. Bis.) Makahiyang-lalaki (Tag.) Lubi-lubi (P. Bis.) Mahinhin (Ilk.) Makahia (Tag.) Ning-ning (Sul.) Life plant (Engl.) Little tree plant (Engl.) Gan ying cao (Chin.) Botany Damong-bingkalat is an unbranched herb with stems up to 30 centimeters in height but usually shorter. Leaves are pinnately compound, numerous, crowded at the apex of the stem, and 5 to 12 centimeters long, with 8 to 14 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets gradually increase in size upward, about 1.5 centimeters long or less, oblong to oblong-obovate, often somewhat curved. Flowers are many, crowded at the apices of the numerous peduncles. Sepals are subulate-lanceolate, striate, about 7 millimeters long. Petals are yellow. Fruit is a capsule, shorter than the persistent calyx. Distribution - In grasslands and open thickets at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Sulu. - Pantropic. Properties - Considered tonic, stimulant, stomachic, vulnerary. - Seeds considered vulnerary. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antioxidant potential of Biophytum sensitivum extract in vitro and in vivo / Guruvayoorappan C, Afira AH, Kuttan G. / J Basic [...]