Family • Compositae - Bidens pilosa Linn. - BEGGAR TICKS - San ye gui zhen cao Scientific names Bidens pilosa Linn. Bidens sundaica Blume Bidens leucorrhiza (Lour.) DC. Bidens odorata Cav. Gui zhen cao (Chin.) Common names Anguad (Ig.) Burbutak (Tag.) Dadayem (Iv.) Nghuad (Tag.) Ñguad (Tag.) Pisau-pisau (C. Bis.) Puriket (Bon.) Beggar ticks (Engl.,) Water marigold (Engl.) Spanish needles (Engl.) Black jack (Engl.) San ye gui zhen cao (Chin.) Botany Dadayem is an erect, branched perennial herb, glabrous or hairy, 0.2 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are 1- to 2-pinnatifid and 15 centimeters long or less, the upper ones being usually much smaller; segments ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 5 centimeters long and toothed. Flowering heads are about 8 millimeters long. Disc flowers are brown or yellowish and the ray ones yellow or nearly white. Inner involucral bracts have broad, scarious margins. Flowering head about 8 millimeters long. Fruits are achenes, black, long and slender, linear, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long and characterized by four projections at the apex. Distribution In waste places, chiefly at medium altitudes, ascending to 2,200 meters from Batanes and Babuyan Islands and Northern Luzon to Mindanao. Constituents  - A rich source of phytochemicals, especially flavonoids and polyynes. - Plant contains iodine; the leaves, tannin and saponin; the flowers, sulfur. - Earlier studies have isolated sterols, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, hydrocarbons. - Flavonoids metabolites are subdivided into aurones, chalcones, flavanones, flavones, and flavonols. The terpenoid metabolites are divided into sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sterols, triterpenes, tetraterpenes. - Metabolic profiling yielded a new compound, heptanyl 2-O-?-xylofuranosyl-(1→ß6)-glucopyranoside (1), [...]


Family • Loranthaceae - Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. Scientific names Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. Dendrophthoe cryanthus G. Don. Loranthus ferrugineus Jack Etubila ferrugineus Rafin. Loranthus cryanthus DC. Cichlanthus ferrugineus Van Tiegh. Loranthus chrysanthoides Korth. Cichlanthus chrysanthus Van Tiegh. Dendrophthoe chrysanthoides Miq. Scurrula chrysanthoides Danser Dendrophthoe ferrugineus G. Don. Scurrula ferruginea Danser Common names Dapong-kahoi (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the vascular activities of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. in rat thoracic aorta / Mohammad Jamshed A. Siddiqui, Mun F. Yam, Raghava N. Sriramaneni et al / Journ of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 127, Issue 1, 8 Jan 2010, Pages 19-25 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.057 (2) In Vitro Cholinomimetic Effect of Loranthus Ferrugineus in Isolated Guinea Pig Ileum / Omar Ziad Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman, Mohammad Jamshed Ahmad Siddiqui et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 2, Issue 4 , Pages 288-293, December 2009 (3) In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Profile of Loranthus ferrugineus: Evidence for Noncompetitive Antagonism of Norepinephrine-induced Vascular Contraction / Omar Z Ameer, Ibrahim M Salman et al / Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies, Volume 3, Issue 4 , Pages 272-282, December 2010 Botany Dapong-kahoi is a bushy parasitic shrub. Branchlets and leaves beneath are densely covered with a tomentum of long- and short-branched hairs. Leaves are opposite, and shortly petioled, usually roundish-elliptical, 5 to 10 cm long, 2 to 5 cm wide, and smooth above when old. Inflorescence is usually 2- to 5-flowered. Flowers are 1.2 to 2.5 cm long, in axillary, stalkless or short-peduncled fascicles. Calyx tube is obovate or pear-shaped, 2.5 to 3.5 mm long, with the limb entire. Corolla is [...]


Family • Rubiaceae - Dentella repens (Linn.) Forst. - CREEPING DENTELLA - Xiao ya cao Scientific names Oldenlandia repens (Linn.) Dentella repens (Linn.) Forst. Common names Dilang-butiki (Tag.) Creeping lickstoop (Engl.) Creeping dentella (Engl.) Xiao ya cao (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal weeds of crop fields and role of women in rural health and hygiene in Nalbari district, Assam / D K Bhattacharjya, P C Borah / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 7(3), July 2008, pp 501-504 (2) Dentella repens / GLOBinMed Botany Dilang-butiki is a prostrate, nearly or quite smooth, somewhat succulent, slender, branched, herbaceous annual weed, rooting at the nodes. Leaves are narrowly oblong-obovate to narrowly elliptic, and 1 centimeter long or less. Flowers are stalkless, white, about 2 millimeters long, and borne singly in the axils of the leaves. Fruit is an indehiscent capsule, ovoid, about 4 millimeters long, crowned by the sepal, usually densely hairy and many seeded. Seeds are small, angular, reticulate and dark brown. Distribution - A weed in open, waste places in and about towns at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Introduced from Mexico. - Also occurs in India to southern China and through Malaya to Australia and Polynesia. Parts used Roots. Uses Folkloric - Malays used the plant for poulticing sores. - In the Nalbari district, Assam, crushed warm leaf is given for loose motion in infants. Plant juice is taken once daily for blood pressure. Study Findings • Smooth Muscle Activities: Of 27 plants studied, 48% demonstrated smooth muscle [...]


Family • Verbenaceae - Duranta repens Linn. - GOLDEN DEW DROP - Jia lian qiao Scientific names Duranta repens Linn. Duranta plumieri Jacq. Duranta erecta Linn. Common names Duranta (Tag.) Golden dew drop (Engl.) Golden eardrops (Engl.) Pigeon berry (Engl.) Skyflower (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHIINESE: Jia lian qiao. FRENCH: Durante dressée. MARSHALLESE: Jab meloklok. SPANISH: Cuentas de oro, San Jacinto. Botany Duranta is a smooth, unarmed shrub, growing to a height of 1-3 meters, with straggling and drooping branches. Leaves are small, obovate-elliptic, 3 to 6 centimeters long, with pointed or rounded tips and pointed base; the margins, entire or slightly toothed. Racemes are axillary with terminal panicles, spreading and slender, up to 12 centimeters long. Flowers are scentless, borne on one side of the rachis, white or lilac-blue with two violet stripes, about 1 centimeter long and 1 centimeter wide. Fruit is fleshy, ovoid, orange-yellow and 7 to 8 millimeters long. Distribution - Native of tropical America. - A common hedge and fence screen in Baguio. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) New Triterpene Saponins from Duranta repens Linn. and Their Cytotoxic Activity /Molecules 2009, 14(5), 1952-1965 / doi:10.3390/molecules14051952 (2) Thrombin Inhibitory Constituents from Duranta repens / Itrat Anis et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta Vol 84 Issue 3, Pages 649 - 655 / DOI :10.1002/1522-2675(20010321)84:3<649::AID-HLCA649>3.0.CO;2-5 (3) Estimation of Cardiac Depressant Activity of Ten Medicinal Plant Extracts from Pakistan / Tasneem Mariam Sajid et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 10 Issue 2, Pages 178 - 180 / DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199603)10:2<178::AID-PTR802>3.0.CO;2-T (4) Phytochemical investigation and antioxidant activity of [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Iresine herbstii Hook. - BLOODLEAF - Xue xian Common names Dahong pula (Tag.) Bloodleaf (Engl.) Beefsteak plant (Engl.) Chicken gizzard (Engl.) Xue xian (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Central nervous system pharmacological effects of plants from Northern Peruvian Andes: Valeriana adscendens, Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea / Capasso Anna and De Feo Vincenzo / Pharmaceutical Biology, Volume 40,ÊNumber 4, June 2002 , pp. 274-293(20) (2) In Vitro Binding Receptors Study by Valeriana adscendens, Iresine herbstii and Brugmansia arborea extracts / A. Capasso and V. De Feo / Medicinal Chemistry, Volume 3, Number 6, November 2007 , pp. 599-60 (3) CNS pharmacological effects of aqueous extract from Iresine herbstii / De Feo V et al / International journal of pharmacognosy, 1996, vol. 34, no3, pp. 184-188 (4) Identification and Distribution of Simple and Acylated Betacyanins in the Amaranthaceae / Yizhong Cai et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2001, 49 (4), pp 1971–1978 / DOI: 10.1021/jf000963h Botany Low annual herb. Leaves are broadly ovate or orbicular, purple-red wih lighter colored prominent arched veins. A common variety has green or reddish-green leaves with yellow veins. Flowers are small. Tepals greenish white or yellowish-white. Distribution Native to tropical America. Cultivated throughout the Philippines. Uses Folkloric • No folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. • In southern Brazil, used for wound healing. • In the northern Peruvian Andes, used for magic-therapeutical purposes where traditional healers use it to expel evil spirits from the body. • Used in association with other plants, such as Trichocereus pachanos, for divination, [...]


Family • Orobanchaceae - Aeginetia indica Linn. - GHOST FLOWER - Ye gu Scientific names Aeginetia indica Linn. Aeginetia abbreviata Walp. Aeginetia pedunculata F.-Vill. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ye gu, Guan hen huang. HINDI: Aankuri bankuri. MALAYALAM: Keeripu. Common names Bangbañgan-ti-kiuing (Bon.) Dagatan (Tag.) Kola (Pamp.) Lapo (Ibn.) Suako-ti-uak (Ilk.) Dapong-tubo (Tag.) Cabrita (Tag.) Indian broomrape (Engl.) Forest ghost flower (Engl.) Ghost flower (Tag.) Botany Dapong-tubo is a gregarious root parasite, producing numerous tubercles or swellings. Scapes are solitary or several, very slender, from 10 to 50 centimeters high, arising from the tubercle. Flowers are solitary. Calyx is ovoid, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, purplish with longitudinal yellow stripes. Corolla is pale purple, two-lipped, tubular, bell-shaped, 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, 2.5 centimeters in diameter or less, and fimbriate in the margins. Capsules are ovoid or rounded, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long. Seeds are yellowish. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Seed extract of Aeginetia indica L induces cytokine production and lymphocyte proliferation in vitro / Chai J G et al / Immunopharmacology. 1994 Jan-Feb;27(1):13-21. (2) An extract of seeds from Aeginetia indica L a parasitic plant induces potent antigen-specific antitumor immunity in Meth A-bearing BALB/c mice / Chai J G et al / (3) Th1-cytokine induction and anti-tumor effect of 55 kDa protein isolated from Aeginetia indica L., a parasitic plant / Go Ohe et al / Cancer immunology and immunotherapy, 2001, vol. 50, no5, pp. 251-259 (4) Effects of a Chinese Herbal Medicine, Guan-Jen-Huang (Aeginetia indica Linn.), on Renal Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis / [...]


Family • Boraginaceae - Trichodesma zeylanicum Burm. f - CAMEL BUSH Scientific names Trichodesma zeylanicum Burm. f Boraco africana Blanco Boraco indica Blanco Boraco zeylanica Burm. f. Pollichia zeylanica F.M. Common names Dilang-usa (Tag.) Mabulo (Tag.) Sigang-dagat (Tag.) Trikantaka (India) Camel bush (Engl.) Cattle bush (Engl.) Rough blue bell (Engl.) Other vernacular names HINDI: Dhadhona, Hetemuria, Jalasirasa. KANNADA: Ethina naalige gida, Gaaya maari. SANSKRIT: A mbusirishika, Dhindhinika, Durbala,Jjhingi. TAMIL: Kalutaikkali. TELUGU: Pedda gurragutti. Botany Dilang-usa is an erect, branched and hairy annual herb, 30 to 70 centimeters in height. Leaves are hairy, oblong to lanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, on short stalks, pointed at both ends. The hairs on the upper surface of the blade arise from tubercles. Flowers are borne on long stalks, in axillary or terminal racemes, of four or five flowers. Calyx is densely hairy, about 1 centimeter long in the flower. Corolla is pale blue, about 1.3 centimeters in diameter. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Trikantaka, Indian Medicinal Plants (2) Chewa medical botany: a study of herbalism in southern Malawi / Brian Morris (3) Herbal medicines for wound healing among tribal people in Southern India: Ethnobotanical and Scientific evidences / Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 2(3), pp. 29-42, Sep-Oct 2009 (4) Evaluation of the Wound Healing Potential of Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm. f.) Formulation in Excision Wounds in Albino Rats / Frank Ngonda* / Annual Research & Review in Biology 4(6): 828-839, 2014 (5) Anti-inflammatory activity of alkanoids and triterpenoids from Trichodesma amplexicaule Roth. / Abstract [...]


Family • Bombacaceae - Durio zibethinus Murr. - DURIAN - Liu Lian Scientific names Durio zibethinus Murr. Durio acuminatissima Merr. Durio foetida Thunb. Common names Dulian (Lan., Sul., Mag., Bag.) Duren (Indonesia) Durian (Lan., Span., Engl.) Durio (Bag.) Duryan (Tag., Ilk.) Duyan (Sul.) Civet-cat fruit tree (Engl.) Civet fruit (Engl.) Common durian (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Du-yin. CHINESE: Liu lian. DUTCH: Doerian, Stinkvrucht. GERMAN: Durianbaum, Stinkfrucht, Zibetbaum. JAPANESE: Durian. KHMER: Thu-reen. KOREAN: Du ri an. LAOTIAN: Thourien. MALAY: Duren (Java), Durian (Malaysia), Durian puteh. PORTUGUESE: Durião. SPANISH: Durión. THAI: Thurian. VIETNAMESE: S[aaf]u r[ee]ng, Sau rieng. Gen info  In Southeast Asia, considered the "King of Fruits." Botany Durian is a tree that grows to a height of 20 meters or more. Leaves are dark green, smooth and shiny above, cinnamon-colored and scaly beneath, oblong to obovate-oblong, about 15 to 25 centimeters long, 5 to 9 centimeters wide. Flowers are white to yellowish-white, about 7.5 centimeters in diameter, with a pouchlike calyx. Fruit is globular, very large, 15 to 25 centimeters long, covered by a hard shell with stiff, sharp spines, weighing as much as 3 kilos or more. Shell breaks into five parts to which the flesh adhere. In each section of the fruit, there are 2 to 6 very large seeds covered by the flesh (aril). The flesh is soft and whitish, with the consistency of soft cheese, with a characteristic unpleasant rank and repugnant odor of bad smelling cheese. The seeds are eaten, either boiled or roasted. Distribution - Cultivated for [...]


Family •Acanthaceae - Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) Hallier f. - METAL LEAF Scientific names Hemigraphis colorata (Bl.) Hallier Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. f.) t. Anders. Ruellia alternata Ruellia colorata Blume Common names Dahon-pula (Tag.) Dahong piula (Tag.) Cemetery plant (Engl.) Metal leaf (Engl.) Purple waffle plant (Engl.) Red flame ivy (Engl.) Red ivy (Engl.) Other vernacular names INDIA: Murikootti, Murian pacha. INDONESIA: Keji beling, Sambang getis, Sarap, Lire, Remek daging, Reundeu beureum. MALAYSIA: Benatu api. PAPAU NEW GUINEA: Kwaiwa. VANUATU: Noyon gengen. Gen info Hemigraphis is a genus of about 90 species of low-growing, slender-stemmed annuals, perennials and subshrubs. Botany Dahon-pula is a prostrate herb. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 4.5 to 8 centimeters long, 3.5 to 4.5 centimeters wide, with a subobtuse tip and rounded and heart-shaped base with toothed margins. Upper surface of the leaves is dark purple throughout. Flowers are white, borne in terminal spikes up to 7 centimeters long, with large imbricate bracts. Calyx is green and 5-parted. Corolla is tubular, cylindric below, swollen above, 10 to 15 millimeters long, and 5-lobed. Capsule is linear. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Common Plants Can Eliminate Indoor Air Pollutants / Science Daily, Nov 5, 2009 / (2) Anti-bacterial studies on Hemigraphis colorata (Blume) H.G. Hallier and Elephantopus scaber L. / Anitha VT, Antonisamy JM, Jeeva S. / Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012 Jan;5(1):52-7. (3) EFFECT OF HEMIGRAPHIS COLORATA (BLUME) H. G. HALLIER LEAF ON WOUND HEALING AND INFLAMMATION IN MICE / A. SUBRAMONIAM, D. A. EVANS, S. RAJASEKHARAN, G. SREEKANDAN NAIR / Indian Journal of [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Dischidia vidalii Becc. Scientific names Dischidia vidalii Becc. Dischidia pectenoides Pearson Dischidia lanceolata F.-Vill. Common names Dapo-sa-boho (Tag.) Lobo-lobo (Tag.) Botany Dapo-sa-boho is an herbaceous, epiphytic, often-twining, smooth vine usually growing on dead bamboos, with slender, pendulous branches. Leaves are opposite, and of two kinds: the normal - elliptic-ovate to lanceolate, thick and fleshy, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long; and the inflated - 4 to 6 centimeters long, 4 to 5 centimeters wide, and usually about 2 centimeters thick, the interior being more or less filled with rootlets from the leaf-axil and with a much smaller, interior ascidium which is usually the domicil of a colony of small black ants. Inflorescence is axillary, solitary, and umbellate, with a peduncle 1 to 2 centimeters long. Flowers number 3 to 8 in each umbel. Calyx is small and green. Corolla is cylindric, red, and about 8 millimeters long. Follicles are slender, and 5 to 7 centimeters long. Distribution - Endemic species found on dead or drying climbing bamboo (Schizostachyum) at low altitudes in Bataan, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon. Parts used Leaves Uses  Folkloric Leaves are crushed, salted, and applied externally on a piece of cloth to goiter. Availability Wild-crafted.