E

Endiba

Family • Compositae - Cichorium endivia Linn . - ENDIVE - Ku ju Scientific names Cichorium endivia Willd. Cichorium casnia C. B. Clarke Cichorium crispum Mill. Cichorium esculentum Salisb. Common names Endiba (Tag.) Endive (Engl.) Ku ju (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Hindiba, Kasiniyah. DANISH: Endivie. ESTONIAN: Endiiviasigur. FINNISH: Endiivi. FRENCH: Chicorée blanche, Petite endive, Scarole.. GERMAN: Endivienwegwarte, Endivien, Endivie, Escariol. ITALIAN: Indivia. JAPANESE: Kiku jisha. NEPALESE: Kassinii.. MALAY: Andewi. POLISH: Endywia. RUSSIAN: Endivij. SWEDISH: Endiv. TURKISH: Hindiba, Yaban marulu.. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Cichorium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. (2) Hepatoprotective Activity of Cichorium endivia L. Extract and Its Chemical Constituents / Chao-Jie Chen , An-Jun Deng , Chang Liu, Rui Shi, Hai-Lin Qin, and Ai-Ping Wang / Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9049-9066; doi:10.3390/molecules16119049 (3) Molecular and biochemical evaluation of anti- proliferative effect of (Cichorium endivia, L.) phenolic extracts on breast cancer cell line: MCF7 / Ali Alshehri* and Hafez E. Elsayed / E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 3(4), pp. 74-82, June 2012 Botany Endive is a cultivated plant consisting of a dense rosette of curly leaves arising from the base. Leaves are brittle, oblong, and lobed or cut. Flowers are purple, the upper ones passing into leafy bracts. Distribution - Cultivated around Manila and other large towns. - Cultivated from imported seeds. - Grows best in the Baguio area. - Native of the Mediterranean region. Constituents - Excellent source of calcium and [...]

Espada

Family • Dracaenaceae - Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer - SPEAR PLANT Scientific names Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook. Acyntha cylindrica (Bojer ex Hook.) Kuntze Cordyline cylindrica (Bojer ex Hook.) Britton Sansevieria angolensis Welw. ex Carriere Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook. Common names Espada (Tag.) Bow string hemp (Engl.) Cylindrical snake plant (Engl.) Spear plant (Engl.) Spear sansevieria (Engl.) Snake plant (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Sansevieria cylindrica / Alexandra da Silva Antunes et al / Phytotherapy Research.Volume 17, Issue 2 , Pages 179 - 182 (2) Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer ex Hook. is an accepted name / The Plant List Botany Espada is a cylindrical, succulent perennial herb. Leaves are are green, swordlike, cylindrical and rigid, furrowed or grooved along its entire length, with pointed tips, sometimes with a dark green striped pattern, growing to a height of 2 feet or more, up to about 3 centimeters thick. Flowers are very small, white, fragrant, and crowded in small inflorescences (cymes), greenish or tinged with red, blooming once a year. Distribution  - Recently introduced to the Philippines. - Planted as an ornamental. - Native to Nepal and South Africa. Constituents  - Microstructural analysis of leaves of S. cylindrica showed the presence of structural fibers and arch fibres. Properties  - Study of Sanseveria cylindrica showed the flexural modulus of Sanseveria cylindrica fiber composite is much higher than those of jute or silk fiber composites. - Considered diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic, antirheumatic. Uses Folkloric - No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. Study Findings • Steroidal [...]

Estrella

Family • Campanulaceae - Isotoma longiflora Mill. - STAR OF BETHLEHEM - Tong ban cao Scientific names Hippobroma longiflora (L.) G. Don. Rapuntium longiflora Mill. Isotoma longiflora Mill. Common names Estrella (Tag., Span.,) Lagrimas de San Diego (Span.) Revienta caballos (Span.) Madamfate (Engl.) Star of Bethlehem (Engl.) Longflower laurentia (Engl.) Tong ban cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ma zui cao CHUUKESE: Amwik FRENCH: Etoile de Bethleem, Lastron blanc HAWAIIAN: Udel ra badrei POHNPEIAN: Ehmah, Wahnrohs, Pwetepwet SPANISH: Lagrimas de San Diego TAHITIAN: Fetia YAPESE: Adilep Botany Estrella is a low annual herb, erect, spreading, branched or simple. smooth or slightly hairy, about 30 to 50 centimeters high. Leaves are alternate, soft, and oblanceolate, with short stalks or without stalks, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with serrate margins, narrow at both ends, pointed at the tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, five-lobed and star-shaped, borne singly at the axils of leaves. Calyx is green, 5-angled, and ovoid; tube is about 1 centimeter long. Five lobes are linear, denticulate, about 1.5 centimeter long. Corolla is white; tube is slender, 8 to 10 centimeters long; the lobes spreading, lanceolate, and 2.5 centimeters long. Capsule is nodding, about 2 centimeters long, and slightly protruding from the calyx-tube. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Minor Seed Oils XVIII: Examination of Twelve Seed Oils / Prof. Dr. R. C. Badami, Miss J. K. Thakkar / DOI10.1002/lipi.19840860409 DOI (2) Isotoma longiflora / Herbal Medicine / (3) Hippobroma longiflora / Common names / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) Distribution  Cultivated in gardens. Found along drains, [...]

Eucalyptus

Family • Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus globulus Labill - BLUE GUM TREE - Lan an Scientific names Eucalyptus globulus Labill Common names Australian blue gum tree (Engl.) Eucalipto (Bis.) Blue gum eucalyptus (Engl.) Iron bark (Engl.) Blue gum tree (Engl.) Stringybark (Engl.) Eucalyptos (Tag.) Lan an (Chin.) Botany Eucalyptus is an evergreen tree that reaches a height of 15 meters or more. Bark is grayish, peeling off in thin, long strips, whitish gray underneath. Young leaves are cordate, glaucous-blue, and clasping the stem. Mature leaves are leathery, lanceolate, dark green, usually somewhat sickle-shaped, more than 30 centimeters long. Flowers are white, about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is obovoid or somewhat rounded, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - Usually planted as a garden plant in Baguio and Manila. - Grows vigorously in the Baguio area. - Native to Australia. - Also in North and South Africa, India, and southern Europe. Constituents  • Yields a volatile oil, 0.01 - 1.96% - cineol, 80%, d-alpha pinene, camphene, fenchene, butyric and caprionic aldehydes, ethyl and iso-amyl alcohols, acetic acid, cymol, sesquiterpene, eudesmos, 1-pinocarveol. • Of the more than 300 species, the species with the highest yield of eucalyptus oil are E. globosus, E. tereticornis, E. polyanthemos and E. citriodora. • Leaves, buds, branches and bark yield taxifolin and eriodictyol. • Study of essential oil yielded 53 oil components:1,8-cineole, α-pinene, limonene, aromadendrene, δ-cadinene, and globulol were the most abundant compounds, representing 93% of the total oil. • Study of fruits yielded 15 compounds: beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid, [...]

Eucalyptus cinerea

Family • Myrtaceae - Spiral eucalyptus - Eucalyptus cinerea Muell. ex Benth - SILVER DOLLAR TREE Scientific names Eucalyptus cinerea F. Muell. ex Benth Common names Argyle apple (Engl.) Mealy stringybark (Engl.) Silver dollar eucalyptus (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemical composition of the essential oil of nine Eucalyptus species growing in Morocco / S Zrira, J M Bessiere et al / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Vol 19 Issue 2, Pages 172 - 175, Published Online: 4 Feb 2004 / DOI 10.1002/ffj.1289 (2) Fumigant and Repellent Properties of Essential Oils and Component Compounds Against Permethrin-Resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina / Ariel Ceferino Toloza et al / Journal of Medical Entomology 43(5):889-895. 2006 / doi: 10.1603/0022-2585(2006)43[889:FARPOE]2.0.CO;2 (3) Essential Oils from Edible Plants as Insecticides Against the House Fly / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 8 (6), November-December 2009 Botany Spiral eucalyptus is a small tree with reddish brown, drooping branches. Leaves are opposite, stiff, leathery, silvery green to grayish blue, rounded, up to 7 centimeters across when young, becoming ovate to lanceolate, with a yellow midrib when mature. Distribution - Native to New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. - Recently introduced with limited distribution and cultivation. - Usually planted as a garden plant. Constituents  - Yields essential oils, most effective is 1,8-cineole and anisole. - Study evaluated the essential oil from different plant parts - leaves, flowers, and fruits. 1,8-Cineole was the main compound from leaves in spring, and flowers and fruits in winter. Other compounds in the aerial parts were [...]

Everlasting

Family • Asteraceae - Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Willd. - EVERLASTING DAISY Scientific names Helichrysum bracteatum (Vent.) Willd. Helichrysum bracteatum var. bracteatum Common names Everlasting (Engl.) Strawflower (Engl.) Everlasting daisy (Engl.) Paper daisy (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemical Constituents of the Flowers of Helichrysum bracteatum / Liu Hai-yang; He Hong-ping; Yang Xian-wen; Chen Mu-wei; Hao Xiao-jiang / Natural Product Research & Development, Jun2007, Vol. 19 Issue 3, p 423 (2) Helichrysum bracteatum (Venten.) Willd. / The Plant List (3)  Studies on Anthocyanin in Purple Flower of Helichrysum bracteatum / Uang Shaoyong, Wu Dixin, Bi Wangfu, Cao Yuying / Journal of Beijing Forestry University, 1992. (4) Polyphenolic components of flowers of Helichrysum bracteatum / Current Science, Vol 69, No 1, July 10, 1995 (5) Polyphenoic components of flowers of Helichrysum bracteatum / Chapter II Botany Everlasting is a stout annual herb growing to a height of 30 to 60 centimeters , with terete and sparingly branched stems. Leaves are alternate, oblong-lanceolate, with entire margins, and narrowed at the base. Blade is green on both sides. Flower head is terminal, up to 6 centimeters across, golden yellow, pink, orange to ivory white, enclosed by strawlike imbricated bracts of varying colors of red, yellow, brown and white. Distribution - Common in the Nilgiris and Kodaikanal hills of south India. - Introduced - Thrives best in the high altitudes, i.e., Baguio and Tagaytay. Constituents  • Reported to yield lignins and aurones. • Studies have yielded flavonoids with a predominance of apigenin and luteolin along with 7-glucoside.source  • Study [...]