Family • Gramineae / Poaceae - Hackelochloa granularis O. Kuntze - PITSCALE GRASS - Hai shi cao Scientific names Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze Manisuris granularis (L.) L.f. Manisuris granularis (L.) Sw. Mnesithea granularis (L.) de Koning & Sosef Cenchrus granularis Linn. Rytilix glandulosa Raf. Rytilix granularis (L.) Skeels Qiu sui cao (Chin.) Common names Ginketkaran (Bag.) Pitscale grass (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhu sui cao, Hai shi cao. HINDI: Trinpali (kangni). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal Plants Against Liver Diseases / Pandey Govind / IRJP 2(5) 2011, pp 115-121 (2) Hackelochloa granularis (L.) Kuntze / Synonyms / The Plant List (3) Majith (Manjith) based Indigenous Herbal Medicines for Anal Fistula or Bhagandar / Pankaj Oudhia's Medicinal Plant Database / Pankaj Oudhia / Botany Gingetkaran is a grass with stems 20 to 60 centimeters high, erect, at length much-branched and softly hairy. Leaves are 5 to 15 centimeters long, 0.5 to 1.2 centimeters wide, flat, hairy on both surfaces, the margins ciliate. Spikes are 1 to 2 centimeters long and slender, resembling a string of minute beads. Sessile spikelets are 1 to 2 millimeters long, about 1 millimeter in diameter; the pedicellate ones are equal in length to the sessile or longer of the two equal green glumes. Distribution - From the Batanes Islands to Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, in disturbed soil, open waste places, old clearings, etc, at low and medium altitudes. - Pantropic. s Uses  Folkloric - In India, whole plant parts used as hepatogenic or hepatoprotective. - In Behar, prescribed internally, with a little [...]


Family • Gracilariaceae - Gracilaria compressa - AGAR-AGAR / CEYLON MOSS - Long xu cai Scientific names Gelidium corneum Gracilaria bursa-pectoris (S.G. Gmelin) Gracilaria compressa (C. Agardh) Greville Gracilaria lichenoides (L.) Harv. Common names Agar-agar (Engl.) Gurguraman (Sbl.) Ceylon moss (Engl.) Kanten (Jap.) Gulaman (Ap., Bik., Pang., Tag.) Long xu cai (Chin.) Guraman (Ilk.) Red alga (Engl.) Botany Gracilaria lichenoides is one of the most common edible alga, 15 to 25 centimeters high, rising from a peltate holdfast. Fronds are elongated, cylindrical, 2 to 3 centimeters in diameter at their thickest, gradually diminishing upwards, soft or subcartilaginous, smooth and irregularly and dichotomously branched. Color is purplish with a tinge of green when fresh, becoming yellowish white when dry. Branches are rather fastigiate, bare below, divided above with tapering branchlets, which are often forked at the apex with short divaricate segments. Fructications consist of small, stalkless, more or less spherical, slightly elongated bodies. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) The Chemical Structure of Agar from Gracilaria compressa, G. cervicormis, G. damaecornis, and G. domingensis / M Lahaye and W. Yaphe / Botanica Marina, Vol 32, pp 369-377, 1989. Distribution - Common in the Philippines. - Plentiful on rocks and sandy places. - Also reported on the coast of the Indian Ocean, Burma, the Malay Archipelago, Java, and Australia. Constituents - Plant yields gelose, 60%; protein, 2.3%; fat, 0.1%; carbohydrate, 72.5%; galactose; fructose; pentose; iodine, 0.05%. - Dried alga contains salts, such as sulfate and chloride of soda, and sulphate and phosphate of lime, and contains [...]


Family • Rutaceae - Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa - TOOTHBRUSH PLANT - Shan xiao ju Scientific names Glycosmis pentaphylla (Retz.) Correa Glycosmis citrifolia Lindl. Glycosmis cochinchinensis Pierre Glycosmis angularis Elm Glycosmis greenei Elm Glycosmis arborea Common names Aniñguai (Pang.) Gingging (Tag.) Linauin (Ilk.) Mabutan (Sul.) Mayongtung (P. Bis.) Panigiran (Ibn.) Patulautulau (Ibn.) Panalayapen (Ilk.) Gin berry (Engl.) Orangeberry (Engl.) Toothbrush plant (Engl.) Shan xiao ju (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Shi ling ju. FRENCH: Glycosmisier de Cochinchine. HINDI: Ban nimbu. KANNADA: Gunaamani, Guroda, MALAYALAM: Kuttippanal, Panal. MALAYSIA: Napan, Nerapan, Merapi. SANSKRIT: Asvasakhotah, Kupiluh. TAMIL: Anam. THAI: Khoei tai, Luk khoei tai. Botany Gingging is a shrub growing 1 to 5 meters high. Leaves usually have 3 to 5 pinnately arranged leaflets, though these are sometimes reduced to one or two, all forms being often found on the same plant. Leaflets are oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate, 5 to 18 centimeters long, and 2 to 7 centimeters wide. Flowers are small, white, about 6 millimeters in diameter, borne in axillary, solitary or paired, interrupted, narrow, cymose panicles which are 5 centimeters long or less. Fruit is fleshy, pink or reddish, rounded, 1 centimeter in diameter, and contains a single nearly spherical seed which is about 4 millimeters in diameter. Mesocarp is fleshy and sweet. Distribution - In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,100 meters, from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most if not all islands and provinces. - Also occurs in India to Indo-China and Malaya. Additional Sources and Suggested [...]


Family • Portulacaceae - Portulaca oleracea (Linn.) - PURSLANE - Ma-ch'ih Hsien Scientific names Portulaca oleracea (Linn.) Common names Alusiman (Bik.) Ausiman  (Bik.) Bakbakad (If.) Dupdupil (Bon.) Golasiman (Tag.) Gulasiman (Bik.) Kantataba (Pang.) Kolasiman (Tag.) Lungum (If.) Makabling (Tag.) Ngalug (Ilk.) Olasiman (Bik., Tag., C. Bis.) Sahikan (Bik., Tag.) Ulasiman (Bik., Tag.) Porcelana (Ital.) Common purslane (Engl.) Little hogweed (Engl.) Purslane (Engl.) Pigweed (Engl.) Wild portulaca (Engl.) Ma-ch'ih Hsien (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Baqla hamqa, Farfan, Farfag, Farfagin, Furfir, Riyla. BURMESE: Mya-byit, Myet-htauk. CHINESE: Ma chi xian, Ma zha cai, Ma chi cai, Ma xian cai. DANISH: Haveportulak. DUTCH: Postelein, Postelijn . FINNISH: Portulakka, Vihannesportulakka. FRENCH: Porcelane, Porcelin, Pourpier, Pourpier commun. GERMAN: Portulak, Gartenportulak. GREEK: Adrajne agria, Antrakla, Glystrida. HINDI: Koorsa, Koursa, Kursa. INDONESIA: Gelang, Krokot. ITALIAN: Porcellana, Portulaca comune. JAPANESE: Poochuraka, Poruchuraka, Suberi-hiyu. NORWEGIAN: Portulakk. PERSIAN: Kholza, Perpehen. PORTUGUESE: Baldroaga, Beldroega, Bredo-femea. SANSKRIT: Lonica, Louina, Lonamla, Loni. SPANISH: Buglosa, Colchón de niño (El Salvador), Flor de las once (Colombia), Flor de un día, Lega (Argentina), Hierba grasa, Peplide, Porcelana, Tarfela, Verdalaga, Verdolaga, Yerba aurato, Yerba orate. SWEDISH: Portlak, Portulak, Trädgårdsportlak. THAI: Phak bia yai. VIETNAMESE: Rau sam, Ma hien, Phjac bia, Slom ca. Botany Olasiman is an annual, prostrate or spreading, succulent, branched, smooth, often purplish herb, with the stems 10 to 50 centimeters long. Nodes are without appendages. Leaves are fleshy, flat, oblong-obovate, 1 to 2.5 centimeter long, with obtuse apex and wedge-shaped base. Flowers are yellow, stalkless, axillary and terminal few-flowered heads. Heads are solitary or cymose with [...]


Family • Ginkgoaceae - Ginkgo biloba L. - MAIDENHAIR TREE - Pinyin Common names Ginkgo Maidenhair tree (Engl.) Fossil tree (Engl.) Pinyin (Chin.) Kew tree Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ginkgo biloba / Wikipedia (2) Ginkgo biloba - Overview / University of Maryland Medical Center (3) Clinical use of ginkgo biloba / UpToDate / Robert B Saper MD, Suzanne W Fletcher MD, Pracha Eamranond MD (4) The use of Ginkgo biloba in Raynaud’s disease: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial / Andrew J Muir, Rosaling Robb et al / Vascular Medicine, Vol. 7, No. 4, 265-267 (2002) / DOI: 10.1191/1358863x02vm455oa (5) Alzheimer's disease / MayoClinic General info  One of the most ancient trees in existence, ginkgo biloba trees can live as long as 1000 years. its leaves are among the most extensively studied botanicals in use today. Unilke most medicinal herbs, ginkgo is not usually used in its crude state but in a standardized ginkgo biloba extract (GBE). In France and Germany, it continues to be the top ranked prescribed medicine. Botany Tall tree with a resinous trunk that can grown as high as 120 feet. Leaves are fan-shaped, long stalked. Flowers are in clusters, the male smaller than the female. The fruit is drupelike and long-stalked with a fleshy foul-smelling pulp that encloses an oval-pointed seed 1-2 cm long. Distribution Native to China. Planted in the Baguio area, but with limited survival. Chemical constituents and properties • Two main constituests are responsible for its medicinal effects: terpene lactones and ginkgo flavone glycosides. • About 40 different [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Sida cordifolia Linn. - INDIAN EPHEDRA - Ke dong Scientific names Sida cordifolia Linn. Sida herbacea Cav. Sida hongkongensis Gand. Sida rotundifolia Lam. ex Cav. Common names Gulipas (Sub.) Bala (India) Country mallow (Engl.) Flannel weed (Engl.) Heart-leaf sida (Engl.) Indian ephedra (Engl.) Ke dong (Chin.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Bariala. BENGALI: Berela. CHINESE: Yuan ye jin wu shi hua (Taiwan), Xin ye huang hua ren. GUJARATI: Jangli methi. HINDI: Bariara, Baryal. JAPANESE: Maruba kingojika. KANNADA: Kadeeru, Hithuthi. KONKANI: Thapkoti. MALAYALAM: Kurumthotti. MARATHI: Chikana, Karaiti. NEPALESE: Balu. ORYA: Bisiripi. PUNJABI: Kharenti. RUSSIAN: Sida serdtselistnaia, Sida kordifolia. SANSKRIT: Bala, Balaa. SPANISH: Escoba negra, Escobilla, llima. TAMIL: Chitaamuttie. TELUGU: Chirubenda, Mailmanikkam. THAI: Ya khat bai pom. Botany Gulipas is an erect, half-woody shrub, 0.4 to 1 meter in height, covered with soft, velvety hairs mixed with long spreading hairs. Leaves are hairy, ovate, 1.5 to 4.5 centimeters long, with blunt tip, heart-shaped base, and toothed margins. Flowers are yellow, borne in axils of the leaves, often crowded on the younger branches, forming leafy racemes. Carpels are prominently rough, the projections as long as the carpels. Distribution - Found from northern Luzon to Mindanao as a weed in open dry places, in and about towns. - Pantropic. - Probably a native of the Old World. Constituents - Early study yielded asparagin. - Whole plant yields alkaloids, four times more in the seeds than stems, roots and leaves. - Contains ephedrine and pseudo-ephedrine that is responsible for its cardiovascular and CNS stimulant effect. - [...]

Gisol na bilog

Family • Zingiberaceae - Kaempferia rotunda Linn. - ROUND-ROOTED GALANGAL - Sha jiang Scientific names Kaempferia rotunda Linn. Other vernacular names BANGLADESH: Bhuichampa, Misri dana. CHINESE: Hai nan san qi. HINDI: Bhuichampa SANSKRIT: Bhuchampaca, Bhumichampa. THAI: Waan Hao Non. Common names Gisol na bilog (Tag.) Himalayan crocus (Engl.) Peacock ginger (Engl.) Round-rooted galangal (Engl.) Resurrection lily (Engl.) Tropical crocus (Engl.) Sha jiang (Chin.) Botany Kaempferia rotunda is a stemless herb with rhizomes that resemble those of Kaempferia galanga. Leaves are oblong and stained underneath. Spikes are radical, appearing before the leaves. Flowers are fragrant, sessile, purplish white. Calyx is 1-leafed, as long as the tube of the corolla, somewhat gibbous, with the apex generally two-toothed, with a dotted purplish color. Upper segments of the inner series of the corolla are lanceolate and acute, the lower ones divided into two broad obcordate lobes. Distribution - Of recent introduction as an ornamental. - Cultivated throughout the world. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Kaempferia rotunda Linn / J Priya Mohanty, L K Nath et al / Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 May–Jun; 70(3): 362–364. / doi: 10.4103/0250-474X.43002. (2) Composition of the essential oils of Kaempferia rotunda L. and Kaempferia angustifolia Roscoe rhizomes from Indonesia / Herman J Woerdenbag et al / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 19 Issue 2, Pages 145 - 148 / Published Online: 20 Jan 2004 (3) Chemical Constituents and Biological Activity of Kaempferia Angustifolia, K. Rotunda,Spermacoce Articularis and S. Exilis / Neoh, Bee Keat / PhD thesis, [...]


Family • Lamiaceae - Leucas zeylanica (Linn.) R. Br. - CEYLON SLITWORT - Zhou mian cao Scientific names Leucas zeylanica (Linn.) R. Br. Leucas bancana Miq. Phlomis zeylanica Linn. Spermacoce denticulata Walp. Common names Guma-guma (Sul.) Masibulan (Gad.) Ceylon slitwort (Engl.) Other vernacular names BANGLADESH: Kusha, Shetadrone, Pai thung sa (Marma). CHINESE: Zhou mian cao. Botany Guma-guma is an erect, annual, hairy herb growing to a height of 30 to 90 centimeters. Leaves are linear or elliptic-lanceolate, 5 to 7.5 centimeters long, blunt at the tip, and toothed at the margins. Whorls of many flowers are 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Calyx is 5 to 7 millimeters long, and obliquely turbinate, with minute teeth, erect or spreading horizontally. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Use of medicinal plants among tribes in Satpuda region of Dhule and Jalgaon districts of Maharashtra–An ethnobotanical survey / D L Jain et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 9(1), Jan 2010, pp 152-157 (2) Antimicrobial Activity of Plants Collected from Serpentine Outcrops in Sri Lanka / Nishanta Rajakaruna et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2002, Vol. 40, No. 03, pp. 235–244 (3) Study on Essential Oil Obtained from the Seed of Leucas zeylanica / Tian Guang-hui, Liu Cun-fang et al / DOI: CNKI:SUN:AJSH.0.2009-02-016 (4) LEUCAS ZEYLANICA (L.) R. Br. / Vernacular names / MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BANGLADESH (5) Leucas zeylanica (L.) R. Br. protects ethanol and hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress on hepatic tissue of rats / Shahdat Hossain, Mijanur Rahman, Nusrat Fatima, Mozammel Haque, Jahirul Islam / International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, Vol [...]

Glory bush

Family • Melastomataceae - Tibouchina urvilleana (D.C.) Cogn. Scientific names Tibouchina urvilleana (D.C.) Cogn. Tibouchina semidecandra (Shrank & Mart.) Cogn. Other vernacular names BRAZIL: Buscopam-de-casa. Common names Glory bush (Engl.) Glory flower (Engl.) Lasiandra Princess flower (Engl.) Purple glory tree (Engl.) Botany Glory bush is a shrub growing to a height of 4 meters, with 4-angled, reddish and rough branches. Leaves are simple, opposite, 5-nerved, ovate or oblong-0vate, up to10 centimeters long and 4 centimeters wide, hairy above and smooth below, with finely serrate margins. Flowers are showy, with rosy purple to violet petals, up to 5 centimeters long. Stamens are 10, purple. Fruit is a capsule. Distribution - Recently introduced to Baguio. - Native to Brazil. Constituents - Leaves have yielded flavonol glycosides as quercetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside and quercetin 3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside. - Stems have yielded hydrolyzable tannin oligomers, mainly ellegatannins known as nobotanins. - Flowers have yielded anthocyanins, malvidin and peonidin derivatives. - Hexane extract of leaves yielded glutinol, taraxerol, a mixture of α- and β-amyrins, β-sitosterol, and ursolic and oleanolic acids as a mixture. An ethanolic extract yielded only ß-sitosterol. Methanol extract yielded β-sitosteryl β-D- glucopyranoside, the flavonoids avicularin and hispidulin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and two mixtures, one constituted of asiatic and arjunolic acids and the other one of quadranoside IV and arjun- glucoside II. - Leaf extract yielded three new hydrolyzable tannins, nobotanins L, M and N. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Triterpenes and other Metabolites from Tibouchina urvilleana / Ana-Lidia Pérez-Castorena / J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 2014, 58(2), 218-222 (2) A Diacylated Anthocyanin from [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. - CHINA ROSE - Zhu jin Scientific names Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Common names Antolañga (Tag., Bis.) Antolañgan (Tag., Bis.) Arotañgan (Pamp.) Gomamela (Tag.) Gumamela (Tag., bis., Pamp.) Kayanga (Ilk., Bik., Bis.) Saysaya (Bon.) Tapolanga (Tag., Pamp.) Tapurang (Bis.) Tapuranga, (Bis.) Tarokanga (Bis., Pamp.) Taukangga (Sul.) China rose (Engl.) Chinese hibiscus (Engl.) Hibiscus (Engl.) Rose of China (Engl.) Shoeflower (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhu jin, Da hong hua, Fo sang, Fu sang. DANISH: : Kinesisk rose. DUTCH: Chinese roos. FRENCH: Hibiscus de Chine, Hibiscus rose de Chine , Rose de Chine. GERMAN: Chinesischer Roseneibisch. ITALIAN: Rosa della Cina. JAPANESE: Fusou, Haibisukasu. MALAY: Bunga raya. NEPALESE: Baarhmaase phuul, Gudahal, Japaa kusum, Japa puspii, Rakta puspi. POLISH: Ketmia róza-chinska. PORTUGUESE: Hibisco, Mimo-chinês (Brazil), Rosa da China, Mimo de Vênus (Brazil). SPANISH: Rosa de China. THAI: Chaba. General info About 300 species are found worldwide. Its beauty makes it one of the most widely cultivated of flowers, in brilliant hues of red, orange, or purplish-reds, with short-lived but continuing blooms. The red flowered variety has been preferred in medicine. Botany Gumamela is an erect, much-branched, glabrous shrub, 1 to 4 meters high. Leaves are glossy green, ovate, acuminate, pointed, coarsely-toothed, 7 to 12 centimeters long, alternate, stipulate. Flowers are solitary, axillary, very large, about 10 centimeters long, and 12 centimeters in diameter. Outermost series of bracteoles are 6, lanceolate, green, and 8 millimeters long or less. Calyx is green, about 2 centimeters long, with ovate lobes. Petals are red, orange [...]