Family • Araliaceae - Schefflera elliptifoliola Merr. - Ch'i-yeh Lien Scientific names Schefflera elliptifoliola Merr Schefflera auranticarpa Elmer ex Merr. Common names Galamai (Tag.) Ch'i-yeh lien (Chin.) Gen info Schefflera are shrubs or trees, sometimes climbers or epiphytes, usually with palmately compound leaves. Several recent phylogenetic studies have shown Schefflera is clearly polyphyletic, and that the Asian species belong to sa single, well supported, morphologically coherent clade, which might have to be transferred to some other genera. There are nearly 1100 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres; about 5 or 6 species endemic in the Philippines. Botany Galamai is an epiphytic shrub or woody vine, smooth except for more or less hairy inflorescences. Leaves are compound, each with 9 to 11 leaflets. Petioles are 13 to 18 centimeters long, inflated and clasping at the base. Leaflets are elliptic to obovate-elliptic, usually 7 to 13 centimeters in length, occasionally as long as 25 centimeters, 4.5 to 7 centimeters wide, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base, and borne on stalks 3 to 5.5 centimeters long. Panicles are terminal, up to 20 centimeters, with stalks 4 to 10 centimeters long, and with few to many bracts resembling inflated petiolar bases. Flowers are small, 5-parted, 8 to 12 millimeters in length, and borne in rounded clusters (umbels). Fruit is subellipsoid, and 3 to 4 millimeters long, with five cells. Distribution  - Found only in the Philippines. - In primary forests at low and medium altitudes, in Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes, Mindoro, and Mindanao. Parts [...]


Family • Punicaceae - Punica granatum Linn. - POMEGRANATE - Shi liu Scientific names Punica granatum Linn. Punica multiflora hort ex. Siebold & Voss Punica nana L Punica spinosa Lam. Common names Dalima (Sul.) Granada (Span., Tag.) Pomegranate (Engl.) Shi liu (Chin.) Other vernacular names CROATIAN : Sipak. DANISH : Granatæble. DUTCH : Granaatappel. ESTONIAN : Harilik granaadipuu. FRENCH : Ecorce de grenade (rind), Ecorce de grenadier (écorce-bark), Grenade (fruit), Grenadier (tree). GERMAN : Granatapfel, Granatapfelbaum, Granatapfelstrauch, Granatwurzelrinde (rind). GREEK : Rodi, Rodia. ITALIAN : Granato , Granato a frutto dolce, Melagrana, Melograno, Pomogranato. JAPANESE : Zakuro, Zakuro, Zakuro. KOREAN : Seog ryu MALAY : Buah delima, Delima (Indonesia), Delima (Bali). NEPALESE : Anaar, Daariim. NORWEGIAN : Granateple. RUSSIAN : Granat. SANSKRIT : Darimba, Madhubiija. SPANISH : Granada, Granado, Mangrano. THAI : Ma ko, Thap thim. Gen info Pomegranate has been in traditional medicinal use for more than 3000 years. Ancient and mystical, it has been written about in the Old Testament of the Bible, the Jewish Torah, and the Babylonian Talmud as a sacred fruit with powers that bestow fertility, abundance, and good luck. It is also part of the iconography of rituals, art, and mythology - the personal emblem of the Roman Emperor, Maximilian, the symbol and heraldic device of the ancient city of Granada in Spain. Botany Granada is a shrub growing 2 to 3 meters high. Branchlets are slender and 4-angled. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic; 4 to 6 centimeters long, short-stalked, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are red and [...]


Family • Guttiferae - Cratoxylon blancoi Blume Scientific names Hypericum olympicum Blanco Cratoxylon blancoi Blume Cratoxylon micradenium F.-Vill. Cratoxylon hornschuchii Naves Cratoxylon arborescens F.-Vill. Cratoxylon sumatranum F.-Vill Ancistrolobus micradenius Turez. Common names Alinggogon (Bik.) Oriñgon (P. Bis.) Bagatubang (S. L. Bis.) Paguiliñgan (C. Bis.) Bansilai (C. Bis.) Paguligin (Tag.) Baringkokoron (Ilk.) Paguliñgon (P. Bis.) Barinkukuron (Pang.) Paguriñgon (Bis.) Baringkukurung (Ilk.) Salinggogon (Bik.) Gansilai (Sul., Yak.) Ugiñgan (Ibn.) Goyong-goyong (Pang.) Uling (Ig.) Guyong-guyong (Tag., Bik.) Uring (Ig.) Kansilan (P. Bis.) Uring (Ig.) Kansilai (Tag., P. Bis., Sul.) Botany Guyong-guyong is a smooth, branched, small- to medium-sized tree, up to 20 meters high. Leaves are opposite, ovate, oblong or oblong-elliptic, 5 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 7 centimeters wide, smaller at the apex, entire, pointed at the apex, blunt or rounded at the base. Petioles are very short. Flowers are red and small, borne on terminal or axillary panicles, 5 to 7 centimeters long. Fruit is smooth, dark reddish-brown, ellipsoid, about 1 centimeter long, subtended at the base by a persistent calyx, dehiscing apically into 3 parts, containing numerous small, thin, brown, winged seeds, each 5 millimeters long. Distribution - In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Endemic species. Properties - Considered galactagogue and abortifacient. Parts used Bark and leaves. Uses  Folkloric - Crushed leaves placed on the forehead and breast for colds. - Internally, decoction of bark and leaves used as abortifacient. - Decoction of bark used as galactagogue. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Araliaceae - Schefflera insularum (Seem.) Harms Scientific names Aralia octophylla Blanco Heptapleurum insularum Seem. Polyscias digitata Blanco Schefflera decidua Blanco Schefflera mindanaensis Merr. Schefflera insularum (Seem) Harms Common names Galamai-amo (Tag.) Kalangkang (P. Bis.) Kulolo (Sub.) Pararan (Bag.) Gen info Schefflera are shrubs or trees, sometimes climbers or epiphytes, usually with palmately compound leaves. Several recent phylogenetic studies have shown Schefflera is clearly polyphyletic, and that the Asian species belong to sa single, well supported, morphologically coherent clade, which might have to be transferred to some other genera. There are nearly 1100 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres; about 5 or 6 species endemic in the Philippines. Botany Galamai-amo is a woody vine growing 2 to 6 meters or more. Leaves are palmately compound, smooth, crowded at the ends of the branches, with 7 to 9 leaflets. Leaflets are of different sizes in the same leaf, oblong or oblong elliptic, 10 to 24 centimeters in length, 3 to 8.5 centimeters wide, and upon 5- to 7-centimeter-long stalks, narrowly pointed at the apex and pointed at the base. Flowers are pale white, umbellately clustered upon short stalks, 1 centimeter long, and borne on terminal or subterminal compound inflorescences 15 to 30 centimeters long. Fruit is orange, ovoid, prominently ridged when dry, 7 to 9 millimeters in diameter. Distribution  - Found only in the Philippines. - Common in primary forests along streams at low altitudes in Laguna, Quezon, Camarines, Albay, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Masbate, Polillo, Catanduanes, [...]


Family • Passifloraceae - Passiflora quadrangularis Linn. - PASSION FLOWER - Da guo xi fan ilan Scientific names Passiflora quadrangularis Linn. Common names Granadilla (Span., Tag.) Granada (Pang.) Kasaflora (Ilk.) Parola (Ilk.) Giant granadilla (Engl.) Square-stemmede passion flower (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ri ben zhao, Da zhuan xin lian, Da xin fan lian. DANISH: Kaempepassionsblomst. DUTCH: Djari markoesa (Surinam), Groote markoesa (Surinam), Vierhoekige passiebloem. FRENCH: Barbadine, Grenadille géante, Passiflore quadrangulaire. GERMAN: Melonengranadille, Riesengranadilla. ITALIAN: Passiflora quadrangolare. MALAY: Buah mankisa, Manesa, Marquesa, Markiza, Markeesa, Markiza, Markoesa, Mentimun , Timun belanda. PORTUGUESE: Maracujá-assú, Maracujá de caiena, Maracujá-grande, Maracujá-mamao, Maracujá-suspiro, Martírio quadrangular. SPANISH : Badea, Corvejo (Colombia), Granadilla de fresco, Granadilla grande, Granadilla para refrescos (El Salvador), Granadilla real, Parcha granadina, Parcha de Guinea, Sandia de pasión (Bolivia), Tambo, Tumbo (Ecuador). THAI: Su khon tharot. VIETNAMESE: Dua gan tay. Botany Granadilla is a stout, smooth, herbaceous vine, reaching a length of 10 to 15 meters. Stems are four-angled and narrowly winged. Leaves are entire, ovate to elliptic, 10 to 15 centimeters long, with pointed tip and broadly rounded base. Stalks bear scattered glands. Flower is large, solitary and fragrant; petals are reddish, the corona-filaments are violet. Fruit is large, fleshy, edible, ellipsoid, 15 to 20 centimeters long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Passiflora names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE (2) Cholesterol-dependent hemolytic activity of Passiflora quadrangularis leaves / L N Yuldasheva, E B Carvalho et al / Braz J Med Biol Res, July 2005, Volume 38(7) [...]


Family • Leguminosae - Dalbergia cumingiana Benth. Scientific names Dalbergia cumingiana Benth. Dalbergia cumingii Benth. Dalbergia zollingeriana Miq. Common names Bilauini (Ibn.) Ganak (Ibn.) Hamurauon (S. L. Bis.) Kanak (Ibn.) Karbilan (Bik.) Tahidlabuyo (Tag.) Botany Ganak is a woody vine with alternate, odd-pinnate leaves which are 10 to 20 centimeters in length, with 5 to 9 leaflets. Leaflets are elliptic, the larger ones being 5 to 7 centimeters long and 2 to 3 centimeters wide, and rounded at both ends. Flowers are white, and clustered toward the ends of compound inflorescences. Pods are elliptic or oblong, 2 to 3 centimeters long, and about 1 centimeter wide, with 1 to 3 seeds in each pod. Distribution - Throughout the Philippines in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes. Constituents Wood contains a volatile oil, 0.5%. Uses  Folkloric Vine used for curing stomach pains of small children. Study Findings  • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.

Green peperomia

Family • Piperaceae - Peperomia obtusifolia Linn. Scientific names Peperomia obtusifolia Linn. Common names Green peperomia (Engl.) Baby rubberplant Blunt-leaved peperomia Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phenolic compounds from Peperomia obtusifolia / Tanaka T et al / Phytochemistry, 1998, vol. 49, no1, pp. 229-232 (2) Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals / Can plants control indoor air pollution? / Environmental Protection Agency (3) Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) (4) Comparison of plants used for skin and stomach problems in Trinidad and Tobago with Asian ethnomedicine Botany Fleshy, erect, succulent herb. Leaves are alternate, fleshy, spatulate-obovate, waxy green, up to 6 cm long, with a rounded or slightly notched apex and a tapering base with a short brown petiole. Spikes up to 15 cm long. Distribution  A popular ornamental pot plant or hanging plant and ground cover in the Philippines. Propagated by stem cuttings. Chemical constituents and properties  • Antiscorbutic, antimalarial, antiarthritic. • A study isolated firve phenolic compounds with a methyl, isoprenyl and geranyl group on a benzene ring core. Uses Folkloric No known folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. In the Guianas, folkloric use for malaria and arthritis. Decoction of stem and leaves applied as febrifuge. Also, used for albuminuria, The French Guiana Wayapi crush the aerial parts into tampons on hypertrophied lesions caused by malaria. The Kubeo Indians of Columbia use the crushed leaves over painful arthrtic joints. Succulent leaves used as antiscorbutic. In Asian ethnomedicine, used for skin and stomach problems and diarrhea. Study Findings • Of the ethnomedicinal plants used [...]

Garlic vine

Family • Bignoniaceae - Pachyptera alliacea (Lamk.) Gentry - FALSE GARLIC Scientific names Pachyptera alliacea (Lamk.) Gentry Bignonia alliacea Adenocalymma alliaceum Adenocalymma pachypus Adenocalymma sagotii Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A. H. Gentry Pseudocalymma alliaceum Pseudocalymma pachypus Pseudocalymma sagotti Common names Fake garlic (Engl.) False garlic (Engl.) Garlic vine (Engl.) Purple garlic vine (Engl.) Wild garlic (Engl.) Ajos sacha (Span.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Pharmacognostic and phytochemical evaluation of aerial parts of Bignonia alliaceae / Devang Pandya, Vishal Patel, Tusharbindu Desai, Nirali Chaniyara, Mital Sankhavara and Vaishali Koyani / Int. J. of Pharm. & Life Sci. (IJPLS), Vol. 3, Issue 1: Jan.: 2012, 1339-1344 (2) Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / Botany.SI.edu (3) Antimicrobial Activity of Nine Common Plants in Kerala, India / V. K. Sasidharan, T. Krishnakumar and C. B. Manjula / PJS, 1998, Vol. 127 No. 1 January– March Botany Pachyptera alliacea is a shrubby vine, with numerous woody vines from the roots tht grow 2 to 3 meters to a shrub-like appearance. Leaves are ovate, up to 15 centimeters long, with acute tip, leathery, dull to bright green. Flowers are in clusters, borne at the axils of leaves. Petals are usually deep lavender, with a white throat that fade to a pale lavender, then to almost white. Distribution - Naturalized in the Philippines. - Native to the Amazon rainforest. - Grown as ornamental in towns and cities. Constituents - Leaves and flowers yield beta sitosterol, stigmasterol, daucosterol, and fucosterol. - As in garlic, sulfur compounds are also found [...]

Green wax flower

Family • Asclepiadaceae - Dregea volubilis (Linn. f.) Benth. - SNEEZING SILK - Nan shan teng Scientific names Dregea volubilis (Linn. f.) Benth. Asclepias volubilis Linn. f. Hoya viridiflora R. Br. Drega viridiflora F.-Vill. Wattakaka volubilis (Linn. f.) ? Common names Kratung-maba (Thailand) Cotton milk plant (Engl.)een Green wax flower (Engl.) Sneezing silk (Engl.) Nan shan teng (Chin.) Botany Dregea volubilis is a stout, smooth, hoary or mealy, woody vine. Leaves are ovate or somewhat rounded, 7.5 to 15 centimeters long, 5 to 10 centimeters wide, rather leathery, rounded or pointed at the base, and pointed at the tip. Cymes are axillary or interpetiolar, and umbel-like. Flowers are green, about 1 centimeters across. Follicles are usually double, broadly lanceolate, 7.5 to 10 centimeters long, turgid, longitudinally ribbed, and velvety until mature. Seeds are elliptic, concave, smooth, shining, sharp-edged, and crowned with very fine, white, silky hairs. Distribution - In the Babuyan Islands( Camiguin), Lubang, Luzon (Rizal, Bontoc and Batangas Provinces), and Panay, in thickets at low altitudes. - Also occurs in India to Java. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anti-lipid peroxidative properties of Wattakaka volubilis (Linn.f.) Stapf. / TS Divya, PG Latha et al / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 8(2), 2009, pp 137-141 (2) Preliminary Phytochemical Evaluation of Certain Anticancer Crude Drugs Used by Adivasis of Rayalaseema Region, Andhra Pradesh, India / P Venkata Krishnaiah et al / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 693-97. 2008. (3) ACUTE AND SUB-CHRONIC TOXICITY STUDY OF DREGEA VOLUBILIS FRUIT IN MICE / Moulisha Biswas, Biswakanth Kar et al / Journal [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae - Tawa-tawa - Euphorbia hirta Linn. - ASTHMA WEED, SNAKE WEED - Fei-yang ts'ao Scientific names Euphorbia capitata Lam. Euphorbi. pilulifera Linn. Euphorbia hirta L. var. typica L.C. Wheel Euphorbia hirta Linn. Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp. Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Gakhirati bon. ARABIC: Labeinah BENGALI: Bara dudhe, Baro kherui, Baro kheruie. CHINESE: Fei yang cao, Ru zi cao, Fei xiang cao. FRENCH: Euphorbe hérisée, Malnommée. GUJARATI: Dude, Lal-dudhi, Dhedi dudheli. HINDI: Dudhi KANNADA: Achchegida, Acchacche gida, Acche gida, Haaluni,Kempu nene akki. MALAY : Gelang susu. MALAYALAM : Nela-palai, Nelapalai, Nilappala. MARATHI : Dudhi, Mothidudhi, Dudali, Dudnali, Govardhan, Mothidudhi, Motidoodhi. ORIYA: Citaakuṭi, Chitaguti, Uthisi. RUSSIAN: Molochai khirta. SANSKRIT: Dugdhika, Pusitoa. SINHALESE: Budakiriya, Dadakiriya, Kepunkiriya, Kirithala. SPANISH: Golondrina, Hierba de boca, Lecherón chico, Lecherita, Pichoga, Yerba de sapo. TAMIL: Amampatchaiarisi, Ammāṉ pachchaṟisi, Cittirappaalaatai, Pachchilai, Sitrilai pālāvi. TELUGU : Bidarie, Reddinanabrolu. URDU : Doodhiklan, Dudh khurd. Common names Bambanilag (If.) Bobi (Bis.) Bolobotonis (Pamp.) Botobotonis (Tag.) Botonis (Ilk.) Bugayau (S.L. Bis.) Butobutonisan (Tag.) Golandrina (Tag.) Magatas (Pamp.) Malis-malis (Pamp.) Mangagaw (Cebu) Maragtas, marangatas (Ilk.) Pansi-pansi (Bik.) Patik-patik (Sul.) Piliak (Sub.) Saikan (Tag.) Sisiohan (Pamp.) Soro-soro (Bik.) Tababa (Bis.) Tairas (Iv.) Tawa-tawa (TaG.) Tauataua (P. Bis.) Teta (Bon.) Asthma plant (Engl.) Australian asthma weed (Engl.) Cat's hair (Engl.) Hairy spurge (Engl.) Pill-bearing spurge (Engl.) Snake weed (Engl.) Fei-yang ts'ao (Chin.) General info Euphorbia is the largest genus of the family Euphorbiaceae with about 1600 species. All species of Euphorbia exude a milky juice when broken, and Euphorbia hirta's local name "gatas-gatas" derives from this. Botany Gatas-gatas is [...]