Family • Pontederiaceae - Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms-Laub. - ARROWLEAF FALSE PICKERELWEED - Jian ye yu jiu huo Scientific names Monochoria dilatata Kunth Monochoria hastaefolia Presl. Monochoria hastata (L.) Solms-Laub. Pontederia dilatata Buch.-Ham. Pontederia hastata Linn. Jian ye yu Jiu huo (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Nukha. HINDI: Launkia. Common names Gabi-gabi (Bis.) Gabi-gabihan (Tag.) Kosol-kosol (Bis.) Payau-payau (Bis.) Arrowleaf false pickerelweed (Engl.) Arrow leaf pondweed (Engl.) Leaf pondweed (Engl.) Pickerel weed (Engl.) Botany Gabi-gabihan is fast-growing perennial herb. Leaves are long-petioled. Petioles are stout, up to 60 centimeters long, sheathing below. Blade is broadly ovate, 10 to 30 centimeters long, the base prominently hastate, the sinus very broad, the lobes spreading and oblong-ovate. Inflorescence is spicate, many flowered, 4 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are blue, about 1 centimeter long, the lower ones with elongated pedicels. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Emergent aquatic macrophytes / Use of algae and aquatic macrophytes as feed in small-scale aquaculture – A review / Distribution - In open wet lands, swamps, etc., at low and medium altitudes from Luzon to Mindanao. - Also occurs in India to southern China and Malaya. Constituents Particularly rich in protein, 39.5%. Properties Alterative, cooling and tonic. Parts utilized: Leaves. Uses Edibility - In Malaya and Java, the leaves are eaten as vegetable, raw or cooked. - In Bengal, tender stalk and leaves eaten as vegetable. Folkloric  - The leaves are used for poulticing boils after they have burst. - Juice of roots used for stomach pains, asthma, toothache. - Juice of leaves used [...]

Golden candle

Family • Acanthaceae - Pachystachys lutea Nees - GOLDEN SHRIMP PLANT Scientfici names Pachystachys lutea Nees Justicia lutea (Nees) Ruiz & Pav. ex B. D. Jacks .[illeg.] Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Hunboronia. MAYA: Camaron amarillo. Common names Golden shrimp (Engl.) Yellow shrimp plant (Engl.) Lollipop plant (Engl.) Shrimp plant (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Occupational contact dermatitis from golden shrimp plant (Pachystachys lutea) / E. Paulsen, S. L. Andersen and K. E. Andersen / Contact Dermatitis 2009: 60: 1–2 (2) Use of Indigenous Plants in Traditional Health Care Systems by Mishing Tribe of Dikhowmukh, Sivasagar District, Assam / Ratna Jyoti Das, Kalyani Pathak / International Journal of Herbal Medicine 2013; 1 (3): 50-57 (3) Pachystachys lutea Nees / The Plant List Botany Golden candle is a subtropical shrub growing 80 centimeters or taller. Leaves are opposite, narrow-ovate, up to 12 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are in a large terminal spike, up to 10 centimeters long, with large, golden yellow cordate bracts. Corolla is white. Fruit is a capsule. Distribution - Native to Peru. - Common in Baguio gardens. - Propagated by cuttings or seeds. Uses Folkloric - No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. - In the Caribbean, one specie is used as a hallucinogenic beverage. - Also used to treat fever, coughs, colds, and hair loss. - The Mishing tribe of Assam use the roots to treat pneumonia. Study Findings • Occupational Contact Dermatitis / Low Allergenic Potential: The allergenic potential of golden shrimp plant is probably low, requiring prolonged contact for [...]


Family • Arecaceae - Arenga tremula (Blanco) Becc. - PHILIPPINE DWARF SUGAR PALM - Fei Lu Bin Guang Lang Scientific names Caryota tremula Blanco Wallichia tremula Mart. Arenga mindorensis Becc. Saguerus mindorensis O. F. Cook Didymosperma tremulum Wendl. & Drude Shan zong Chin.) Common names Abigi (Bik.) Dumayaka (Tag.) Abiki (Bik.) Gumaka (Bik.) Baris (Bag.) Gumayaka (Tag.) Bat-bat (Tagb.) Rumaka (Bik.) Bilis (Bik.) Tipon-tipon (Bik) Dayaka (Tag.) Dwarf sugar palm (Engl.) Dumaka (Tag.) Fei Lu Bin Guang Lang (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Arenga names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. Botany Unlike the kaong, gumayaka is a small, trunkless palm with thick and adventitious roots. Stems are not long, but relatively slender and occurring in clumps. Leaves are up to 5 to 8 meters long, spreading, with petioles 1 to 2 meters long, green, channeled along the base where the edges are fringede with black, ascending bristlelike fibers. The leaflets are linear, varying from 50 to 80 centimeters long and 1.5 to 4 centimeters wide, sometimes partially united at the apex, opposite or in alternating pairs, subglaucous underneath, the constricted base with a small lobe, truncate apex finely toothed, the midrib ridged beneath. Peduncles are about 30 centimeters long and 2.5 centimeters thick. Male flowers are on separate stalks, about 1 centimeter long, the petals bulgiing out [...]


Family • Pontederiaceae - Monochoria vaginalis Presl. - OVAL-LEAF PONDWEED Scientific names Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.) C Presl ex Kunth Monochoria linearis (Hassk.) Miq. Monochoria ovata Kunt. Pontederia vaginalis Burm. Ye she cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Nukha. CAMBODIA: Chrach. INDONESIA:Eceng padi, Eceng leutik, Wewehan. JAPANESE: Ko-Nagi, Sasa-Nagi. JAVANESE: Bengok, Wèwèhan. KHMER: Chrach. MALAY: Kakapola. MALAYSIA: Kelayar, Keladi agak. SINHALESE: Diyahabarala. SUNDANESE: Biah Biah. TELUGU: Nirkancha. THAILAND: Khakhiat, Ninlabon, Phakhin. VIETNAMESE: Rau ch[os]c, Rau m[as]c l[as] thon. Common names Biga-bigaan (Tag.) Bil-lagut (Ilk.) Gabi-gabi (P. Bis., C. Bis.) Gabing-uak (Tag.) Hahalung (If.) Hakhaklung (If.) Kalabua (Tag.) Lagtang (Bik.) Lapalapa (Ilk.) Saksaklung (Ig.) Saksakong (Bon.) Upi-upi (Bik.) Arrow leaf monochoria Heartshape false pickerelweed (Engl.) Pickerelweed (Engl.) Oval-leaf pondweed (Engl.) Botany Gabing-uak is an aquatic herb, smaller than gabi-gabihan (Monochoria hastata). Rootstocks are short, suberect or creeping, and spongy. Leaves are extremely variable, long-petioled, linear to ovate, oblong-ovate to broadly ovate, with a sharply acuminate apex and cordate base, and with broad lobes, 6 to 10 centimeters long. Petioles are usually less than 30 centimeters long. Inflorescence is spicate, 3 to 6 centimeters long, and few-flowered. Flowers are blue, about 1 centimeter long, pedicles less than 1 centimeter long. Capsules are oblong. Distribution  - At low and medium altitudes in open wet places, rice paddies, swamps, etc., from Luzon to Mindanao. - Widely distributed in India to China, Malaysia and Japan. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Indian medicinal plants: a compendium of 500 species / P. K. Warrier, V. P. K. Nambiar / Volume 4 (2) A study on [...]

Golden shower

Family • Fabaceae / Leguminosae - Cassia spectabilis DC. - SPECTACULAR CASSIA - Mei li jue ming Scientific names Senna spectabilis (DC.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby Cassia amazonica Ducke Cassia carnaval Speg. Cassia edulis Posada-Ar. Cassia speciosa Kunth Cassia spectabilis DC. Cathartocarpus speciosus (DC.) G.Don Pseudocassia spectabilis (DC.) Britton & Rose Common names Antsoan-dilau ? (Tag.} Palucheba ? (Tag.) Golden shower (Engl.) Golden wonder (Engl.) Spectacular cassia (Engl.) Yellow cassia (Engl.) Yellow shower (Engl.) White bark senna (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Mei li jue ming. FRENCH: Casse remarquable, Sene spectaculare. MALAYSIA: Antsoan dilaw; Panama-ngu. PORTUGUESE: Cassia de nordeste, Pau-de-ovelha, Tula-de-besouro. SPANISH: Flor de todos los santos, Algarrobilo, Candelillo, Carnaval, Casia amarilla, Frijolillo, Velero. SWAHILI: Mhomba. Botany Cassia spectabilis is a small- to medium-sized tree, 10 meters or taller, the branchlets softly hairy. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound. Leaflets are oblong-lanceolate, up to 15 pairs, 7.5 centimeters long, green and smooth above, finely hairly underneath. Flowering branches are up to 60 centimeters long. Flowers are in racemes, spikes or cymes, clustered, bright yellow, up to 3.5 centimeters across. Perianth consists of a calyx and a corolla of 5 segments each. Pods are cylindrical, brown, and up to 30 centimeters long. Distribution Introduced after the Second World War. Commonly cultivated in gardens, parks and along the highways. Constituents • Phytochemical study of the flowers yielded three new piperidine alkaloids: (-)-3-O-acetylspectaline, (-)-7-hydroxyspectaline and iso-6 -spectaline, together with known (-)spectaline. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Lipoperoxidation and Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibitory Piperidine Alkaloids from Cassia spectabilis Green Fruits / J. Nat. Prod., 2007, [...]


Family • Rubiaceae - Pavetta indica Linn. - WHITE PAVETTA Scientific names Pavetta indica Linn. Pavetta barnesii Elm. Pavetta crassicaulis Pavetta tomentosa Roxb. ex Smith Ixora indica (L.) Kuntze Common names Bohunan-ug-puso (C. Bis.) Galauan (Buk.) Gesges (Neg.) Gusokan (C. Bis.) Kaiut-karaban (Bag.) Kotbu (Ig.) Lankuilan (P. Bis.) Pangapatolen (Ilk) Pitak (Ig.) Tamayan (C. Bis.) Tandaluli (Bag.) Bride's bush (Engl.) Christmas bush (Engl.) White pavetta (Engl.) Other vernacular names AFRICAN: Bruidsboom, bruidsbos, kers(mis)bos BENGALI: Jui FRENCH: Bois de pintade HINDI: Kankara INDONESIAN: Soka MALAYSIAN: Jarum-jarum, nyarum-nyarum, gading-gading MARATHI: Papat MALAYALAM: Malikamutti SANSKRIT: Kakachdi SRI LANKAN: Pawatta THAILAND: Khem paa VIETNAM: Thanh t[as]o r[uwf]ng Botany Gusokan is an erect, nearly smooth or somewhat hairy shrub, growing to a height of 2 to 4 meters. Leaves are elliptic-oblong to elliptic-lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long and pointed at both ends. Flowers are white, fragrant, borne in considerable numbers in hairy terminal panicles, 6 to 10 centimeters long. Calyx segments are very small and toothed. Corolla-tube is slender, about 1.5 centimeters long, with obtuse lobes about half the length of the tube. Fruit is black when dry, rounded, about 6 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - From Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces and often common in primary forests, at low and medium altitudes. - Also reported from India to China and through Malaya to tropical Australia. Parts utilized Bark, leaves. Constituents • Roots contain a green resin, starch, an organic acid, a bitter glucoside resembling salicin. • Stems contain [...]


Family • Compositae - Sonchus oleraceus Linn. - SOW THISTLE - Dian ku mai cai Scientific names Sonchus oleraceus Linn. Sonchus ciliatus Lam. Sonchus mairei H. Lev. Sonchus sundaicus Blume Hieracium oleracerum Linn. Lactuca oleracerea Linn. Ku ju cai (Chin.) Common names Gagatang (Ig.) Common sowthistle (Engl.) Milkweed (Engl.) Milk thistle (Engl.) Smooth sow thistle (Engl.) Swinles (Engl.) Sow thistle (Engl.) Dian ku mai cai (Chin.) Other vernacular names FRENCH: Laitron commun. INDONESIA: Tempuh wiyang, Delgiyu, Camawak. VIETNAM: rau di[ees]p d[aj]i, nh[ux] c[us]c, rau c[us]c s[uwx]a. Etymology The common name 'sow thistle' derives from its attractiveness to swine and the similarity of its leaf to the pig's ear. The scientific name's latin roots are:sonchus, hollow stem and oleraceus, delectable nature, herb used in cooking. Botany Gagatang is an erect, annual, milky, hairy or slightly glandular herb, growing 40 to 80 centimeters high. Leaves are oblong to lanceolate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, coarsely and lyrately lobed; the lobes somewhat reflexed and toothed, the terminal ones large, the lateral one pointing downwards, and those of the stem clasping at the base. Heads are peduncled, about 1 centimeter long. Bracts are smooth, thin and green. Flowers are numerous and yellow. Achenes are nearly 3 millimeters long, compressed, ribbed and rough. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sonchus oleraceus / Wikipedia (2) Antidepressant-Like Activity of Sonchus oleraceus in Mouse Models of Immobility Tests / Fabiana Cardoso Vilela, Marina de Mesquita Padilha, Geraldo Alves-Da-Silva, Roseli Soncini, Alexandre Giusti-Paiva / Journal of Medicinal Food. February 2010, 13(1): 219-222 / doi:10.1089/jmf.2008.0303. (3) Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity [...]


Family • Gramaneae / Poaceae - Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin. - POND LOVEGRASS - Sui mi zhi feng cao Scientific names Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin. Poa japonica Thunb. Poa glomerata (Walter) L H Dewey Poa interrupta Lam. Eragrostis aurea Steud. Eragrostis tenuissima Schrad. Eragrostis glomerata Walter Eragrostis hapalantha Trin. Eragrostis munitiflora Presl Eragrostis interrupta Doell. Panicum leptanthum Steud. Vilfa verticillata Steud. Sporobolus verticillata Nees Luan cao (Chin.) Common names Grama (Tag.) Pond lovegrass (Engl.) Japanese lovegrass (Engl.) Sui mi zhi feng cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xu xu cao. JAPANESE: Kogome kaze kusa. VIETNAMESE: Tinhthao nhat. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Eragrostis names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. (2) A Textbook of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria / Edited by Tolu Odugbemi / Google Books Botany Grama is an erect, loosely tufted grass, 0.8 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are 12 to 20 centimeters long, 3 to 5 millimeters wide. Panicles are elongated, erect, 20 to 40 centimeters long; branches are slender, usually fascicled, often up to 12 centimeters long. Spikelets are pedicelled, very numerous, pale, 2 to 4 millimeters long; the flowering glumes, 6 to 10, about 1 millimeter long. Distribution - In open, wet grasslands, along streams, etc., at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao. - Also occurs from tropical Asia and Africa to Japan and Malaya. Parts used Leaves. Uses  Folkloric - Infusion of fresh leaves administered externally as a poultice for headaches. Others [...]


Family • Anonaceae - Annona muricata - SOURSOP - Ci guo fan li zhi Scientific names Annona muricata Linn. Annona macrocarpa Werkle Annona bonplandiana Kunth Annona cearensis Barb. Rodr. Guanabanus muricatus M. Gomez Common names Atti (Ibn.) Babana (P. Bis.) Bayubana (Ilk.) Gayubano (Ilk., Ibn.) Guabana (Tag.) Guanabano (Tag.) Guiabano (Sbl., Tag.) Guyabana (Tag.) Guayabano (Tag.) Guyabano (Tag.) Labanus (Sul.) Labanos (Bik.) Prickly custard apple (Engl.) Brazilian pawpaw (Engl.) Nangka blanda Graviola (Engl.) Soursop (Engl.) Ci guo fan li zhi (Chin.) Other vernacular names DUTCH : Zuurzak. CHAMORRO: Laguana, Laguanaha, Syasyap. FIJIAN: Sarifa, Seremaia. FRENCH : Cachiman épineux, Corossol (Antilles), Corossolier, Corossol épineux, Sapotille. GERMAN : Sauersack, Stachelannone, Stachel-Annone. INDONESIA : Buah sirsak, Nangka belanda JAPANESE : Toge banreishi. MALAYSIA : Durian belanda, Durian makkah, Durian maki, seri kaya belanda. NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: Sorsaka, Zunrzak. PORTUGUESE : Araticum, Araticum-do-grande, Cabeça-de-negro, Guanabano, Coração-da-rainha RUSSIAN : Annona murikata. SAMOAN: Sanalapa, Sasalapa, Sasalpa. SPANISH : Anona de broquel, Catuche, Guanaba, Guanábana, Guanábano, Zapote agrio, Zapote de viejas THAI : Thurian khaek, Thurian thet. VIETNAMESE : Mang cân xiem, Mang câù xiê. Botany Guayabano is a small tree, usually less than 7 meters high. Leaves are smooth, glossy, shiny, oblong-obovate to oblong, 7 to 20 centimeters in length, pointed on both ends, with petioles about 5 millimeters long. Flower is solitary, large, solitary, yellow or greenish-yellow. Three outer petals are broadly ovate with a heart-shaped base, up to 5 centimeters long, and 3 centimeters wide; and the inner three are also large, elliptic to obovate, and rounded. Fruit is ovoid and [...]


Family • Araliaceae - Schefflera elliptifoliola Merr. - Ch'i-yeh Lien Scientific names Schefflera elliptifoliola Merr Schefflera auranticarpa Elmer ex Merr. Common names Galamai (Tag.) Ch'i-yeh lien (Chin.) Gen info Schefflera are shrubs or trees, sometimes climbers or epiphytes, usually with palmately compound leaves. Several recent phylogenetic studies have shown Schefflera is clearly polyphyletic, and that the Asian species belong to sa single, well supported, morphologically coherent clade, which might have to be transferred to some other genera. There are nearly 1100 species widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics of both hemispheres; about 5 or 6 species endemic in the Philippines. Botany Galamai is an epiphytic shrub or woody vine, smooth except for more or less hairy inflorescences. Leaves are compound, each with 9 to 11 leaflets. Petioles are 13 to 18 centimeters long, inflated and clasping at the base. Leaflets are elliptic to obovate-elliptic, usually 7 to 13 centimeters in length, occasionally as long as 25 centimeters, 4.5 to 7 centimeters wide, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base, and borne on stalks 3 to 5.5 centimeters long. Panicles are terminal, up to 20 centimeters, with stalks 4 to 10 centimeters long, and with few to many bracts resembling inflated petiolar bases. Flowers are small, 5-parted, 8 to 12 millimeters in length, and borne in rounded clusters (umbels). Fruit is subellipsoid, and 3 to 4 millimeters long, with five cells. Distribution  - Found only in the Philippines. - In primary forests at low and medium altitudes, in Rizal, Laguna, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes, Mindoro, and Mindanao. Parts [...]