Family • Moraceae / Ficeae - Ficus minahassae Tesym. & De Vr. Scientific names Ficus minahassae Tesym. & De Vr. Bosscheria minahassae Tesym. & De Vr. Ficus glomerata Blanco Common names Alomit (Ig.) Lagumit (Buk.) Arinit (Ting.) Logemit (Hagaonon) Ayimit (Tag.) Malatungbog (Mbo.) Ayumit (Tag.) Matanug (Sul.) Businag (Ilk.) Sabfog (Tag.) Gimit (Sub.) Sangai (Bag.) Haganit (Tag.) Taisan (Yak.) Hagimit (Tag., Bis.) Tambis-tambis (C. Bis.) Hagumit (Tag.) Tambuyogan (S. L. Bis.) Hasimit (C. Bis.) Botany Hagimit is a widely spreading tree, with the stem more or less buttressed at the base, and grows to 15 meters or more in height. Branchlets are long, and setosely hairy. Leaves, arising mainly from the ends of the twigs, are papery, flat, covered with long reddish-brown hairs especially beneath, ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with entire or minutely toothed margins, upon 3- to 5-centimeter long, very stout, and long-haired petioles. Midrib has a pair of glands at the base. Fruit is stalkless, small, and angularly obovoid, and occurs in small, nearly spherical heads or long, hanging branches which grow in large numbers from the trunk and larger branches. Distribution - In primary forests, chiefly along streams, at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,350 meters, throughout the Philippines. - Also occurs in Celebes. Properties Antirheumatic, astringent. Parts used Leaves, bark, sap. Uses Edibility Sap employed as beverage. Folkloric - Leaves used topically as antirheumatic. - Reddish color of bark decoction suggest astringent properties. - In Mindanao, the Higaonon tribe of Rogongon, Iligan City, use the roots, [...]


Family • Lecythidaceae - Barringtonia acutangula Linn. - CUT NUT Scientific names Eugenia acutangula Linn. Botryoropis luzonensis Presl Stravadium luzonense Miers Barringtonia luzonensis Rolfe Barringtonia reticulata Miq. Barringtonia spicata Barringtonia acutangula Linn. Other vernacular names ORIYA: Hinjala, Hinjal. SANSKRIT: Dhatriphal. THAI: Chik, Chik Na, Chik Nam. Common names Apaling (Ig.) Himbabalod (P. Bis.) Kalambudya (Ilk.) Latuba (Ibn.) Putad (Tag.) Putat (Tag., Pamp., Bik.) Sako (Mbo.) Saku (Mbo.) Topuk (Mag.) Tuba (Tag., Ibn.) Barringtonia (Engl.) Cut nut (Engl.) Indian oak (Engl.) Wild almond (Engl.) Botany Himbabalod is an evergreen, smooth, medium-sized tree growing to a height of 12 meters. Bark is dark brown, rough, 10 to 13 millimeters thick. Leaves are somewhat crowded at the end of the branches, oblong-obovate, 6 to 14 centimeters long, pointed at the ends, the young leaves finely toothed at the margins. Flowers are dark scarlet, numerous, axillary and pendulous racemes, 10 to 45 centimeters long. Fruit is oblong-ovoid, 3 to 4 centimeters long, about 1.5 centimeters thick, bluntly quadrangular, pointed at the ends, and crowed by persistent calyx lobes. Distribution - In thickets and forests in most islands and provinces, at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan, in most islands and provinces. - Also occurs in India through Malaya through tropical Australia. Constituents - Principal constituents are starch, protein, cellulose, fat, caoutchouc, alkaline sales, and an active principal similar to saponin which forms into a stable froth when shaken on a watery solution. - From the bark, a study yielded nine triterpene saponins, acutangulosides A-F, and [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Wedelia biflora (Linn.) DC. - BEACH SUNFLOWER Scientific names Spilanthes acmella Blanco Spilanthes peregrina Blanco Stemmodontia biflora W.F. Wight Verbesina biflora Linn. Wedelia biflora (Linn.) DC. Wollastonia biflora D.C. Luan hua peng qi ju (Chin.) Other vernacular names MARATHI: :Solanki. SPANISH:Verba de Maluco VIETNAMESE: Son cuc hai hoa, Hai cuc, Rau mui, Sai dat hoa, Cuc bien. Common names Agonoi (Bis., Ilk.) Agunoi (Bik.) Anoinoi (IV.) Hagonoi (Tag., Bik., C. Bis.) Lagoron (Bag.) Lahunai (Sul.) Palunag (Pamp.) Palunai (Pamp.) Salonai (Ilk.) Verba de Maluco (Sp.) Sea ox eye (Engl.) Wedelia (Engl.) Beach sunflower (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cotton boll weevil antifeedant activity and antifungal activity (Rhizoctonia solani and Pythium ultimum) of extracts of the stems of Wedelia biflora / D. Howard Miles et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1990, 38 (7), pp 1591–1594 / DOI: 10.1021/jf00097a034 (2) Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Wound Healing Potentials of Ethanol Extract of Wedelia biflora Linn D.C. Leaves. / Biswas D1, Yoganandam GP, Dey A, Deb L. / Indian J Pharm Sci. 2013 Mar;75(2):156-61. (3) Aktivitas Antiplasmodium Daun Sernai (Wedelia Biflora) Berdasarkan Evaluasi Fungsi Ginjal dan Hati pada Mencit yang Diinfeksi dengan Plasmodium berghei / Isa ., Rinidar ., Sugito / Jurnal Veteriner, Vol 13, No 2 (2012) Botany Hagonoi is a climbing, rough, herbaceous vine. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 6 to 8 centimeters long, with pointed tips and rounded bases, rather coarsely toothed margins. Stalks are 3 to 6 centimeters long. Head are 3 centimeters in diameter, numbering 1 to 3, sometimes more, in the [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Streptocaulon baumii Decne. Scientific names Streptocaulon baumii Decne. Streptocaulon obtusum Turcz. Periploca calumpitensis Llanos Common names Hinggiu-kalabau (Tag.) Hinggiu-na-puti (Tag.) Maraipus (Ilk.) Sibot-sibotan (Tag.) Sulding (Pang.) Hinggiu-na-puti (Tag.) Botany Hinggiu-kalabau is a woody vine with rather slender stems. Leaves are hairy, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 4 to 8 centimeters wide, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, and pointed at the tip. Cymes are axillary, solitary or in pairs, lax, and 4 to 9 centimeters long. Calyx is small and greenish. Corolla is purple, rotate, and 5 millimeters in diameter, with ovate or oblong-ovate lobes. Fruit is a follicle, cylindric, 5 to 9 centimeters long, slender, hairy, and pointed at the tip. Distribution - Found only in the Philippines. - Common in thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes in Nueva Viscaya, La Union, Pangasinan, Tayabas, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, and Albay Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindoro. Properties Considered vulnerary. Parts used Latex. Uses  Folkloric In the Philippines, latex is used for wound healing. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Asteraceae - Wedelia chinensis Osbeck - CHINESE WEDELIA Scientific names Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Wedelia calendulacea Less Wedelia prostata Hemsl. Verbesina calendulacea L. Solidago chinensis Osbeck Peng qi ju (Chin.) Common names Hagonoi-tsina (Tag.) Chinese wedelia (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Bhimra HINDI: Pilabhamgara, Bhringraj KANNADA: Gargari, Kalsarji MALAYALAM: , Mannakkannunni SANSKRIT: Pitabhrnga, Pitabhrngarajah THAILAND: Ka meng tua phuu, horn kieo kham. VIETNAM: S[af]i d[aas]t, ng[oor] n[us]i, hoa m[us]c. Botany Hagonoi-tsina is a slender, spreading, and hairy herb, with the branches usually less than 50 centimeters long. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 4.5 centimeters in length, and narrowed at both ends; the margins entire or obscurely toothed; and both surfaces covered with sharp-pointed, appressed, straight, and stiff hairs. Heads are stalked, about 1 centimeter in diameter, and yellow. Involucral bracts are oblong-ovate. Ray flowers are 8 to 12, spreading, about equal to the bracts, and broad; the disk flowers number about 20, are short, narrow and pointed. Achenes are nearly cylindric, and hairy. Distribution - In open waste places at sea level. - A casual introduction. - Also occurs in India to China. Constituents - Studies yield presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroid, flavonoids. - Plant yields coumestans derivatives: wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone. - Methanol and acetone extracts yielded saponins, pholabatannins, resins, lipids and fats, steroids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, phenols, carbohydrates, anthraquinone, catchol, sterols, and flavonoids. - Study of leaf extracts yield major constituents of 2-Tridecanone (CAS) (4.51%), n-(methoxyphenylmethylene) carbamic acid ethyl ester (1.65%), and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (13.68%). Properties [...]


Family • Caprifoliaceae - Lonicera japonica Thunb. - JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE - Jin yin hua Scientific names Lonicera japonica Thunb. Nintooa japonica (Thunb.) Sweet. Ren dong (Chin.) Common names Honeysuckle (Engl.) Halls honeysuckle (Engl.) Japanese honeysuckle (Engl.) Madre silve (Span.) Jin yin hua (Chin.) Woodbine (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jin yin teng FRENCH: Chèvrefeuille du Japon JAPANESE : Suikazura, Suikazura, Suikazura, Suikazura. KOREAN : In dong deong gul. RUSSIAN : Zhimolost' iaponskaia. Botany The ornamental plant, Japanese honeysuckle, is a hardy, low-climbing or trailing shrub, up to 5 meters or more in length. Leaves are oblong, oblong-ovate, or ovate, 3 to 6 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide, pointed or blunt at the tip, blunt at the base and borne on short petioles. Flowers are tubular, 3 to 4 centimeters long, white, but turning yellow with age, borne in pairs in axils of the leaves on young shoots. Corolla is smooth, the tube slender and widening gradually, the limb has two lips, the upper lip broad, erect and divided into four-strap segments, and the lower lip having one linear-strap-shaped recurved segment. The berries are black. Distribution - Ornamentally cultivated for its fragrant, attractive and profuse flowers. - A recent introduction. - Native of Japan. Parts utilized Vine, leaves and flowers. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Lonicera japonica - Thunb. / Japanese Honeysuckle / Plants For A Future (2) Acute and subacute toxicity study of the ethanol extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb / Thanabhorn S et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2006, vol. 107, [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Chromolaena odorata Linn. - DEVIL WEED - Chinese Scientific names Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & H. Rob Other vernacular names COUNTRY: Name HINDI: Bagh dhoka, Tivra gandha. MALAYALAM: Communist pacha, Venappacha, Assam pacha. SANSKRIT: Ropani, Seekhrasarpi. VIETNAMESE: Co hoi. Common names Hagonoy (Tag.) Christmas bush (Engl.) Common floss flower (Engl.) Devil weed (Engl.) Jack in the bush (Engl.) Siam weed (Engl.) Botany Hagonoy is a bushy herb or subshrub with long rambling branches, spreading into tangled dense thickets up to 2 meters high. Base of the plant is hard and woody while the branch tips are soft and green. Leaves are arrohead-shaped, 5 to 12 centimeters long and 3 to 7 centimeters wide, with three characteristic veins in a pitchfork pattern, growing in opposite pairs along stems and branches. Flowers are in clusters of 10 to 15, tubular, pale pink-mauve or white, 10 millimeters long, at the end of the branches. Seeds are dark, 4 to 5 millimeters, narrow and oblong, with a parachute of white hairs which turn brown as the seeds dry. Distribution - Introduced. - Native to North America. - Introduced to tropical Asia, west Africa, and Australia. Constituents - Aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves yieldedcarbohydrates (1.10%), protein (24.08%), lipid (14%), fiber (50%), ash (10.98%), with an enery content of 220.20 kcal. Leaves were also a rich source of mineral elements such as Ca, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, P, and Mg. Leaves also yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, and phytic [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Hoya carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. - WAX PLANT Scientific names Asclepias carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. Hoya carnosa L. f. Hoya chinensis (Lour.) Hoya intermedia A.C. Sm. Scholia carnosa (L.f.) Schrank ex Steud. Scholia chinensis (Lour.) J. Jacq. Other vernacular names SPANISH: Flor de porcelana, Flor de cera, Planta de cera, Cerilla. Common names Hoya (Engl.) Honey plant (Engl.) Hindu rope (Engl.) Porcelain flower (Engl.) Wax plant (Engl.) Wax vine (Engl.) Botany Hoya is a semi-woody, succulent perennial climibing vine. Leaves are glossy, waxy, succulent and grayish green, elliptic to broad-oval, up to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are in umbels, 3 to 5 inches in diameter, pinkish-white with a red star-shaped crown. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Study identifies best air-purifying plants / Sharon Dowdy / University of Georgia / College of Agricultre and Environmental Sciences (2) ADPglucose Pyrophosphorylase from the CAM Plants Hoya carnosa and Xerosicyos danguyi. / Singh BK, Greenberg E, Preiss J. / Plant Physiol. 1984 Mar;74(3):711-6. (3) Malate metabolism in Hoya carnosa mitochondria and its role in photosynthesis during CAM phase III / Hoang Thi Kim Hong, Akihiro Nose*, Sakae Agarie and Takayuki Yoshida / Journal of Experimental Botany Volume 59 Issue 7Pp. 1819-1827 (4) Haemolytic crises caused by Hoya carnosa in a patient with G6PD deficiency. / Kuliszkiewicz-Janus M, Tyran W, Szajerka G / Acta Haematologica Polonica [1992, 23(1):63-67] (5) Hoya carnosa (L.f.) R.Br / Synonyms / The Plant List (6) Hoya carnosa extracts and methods of use US 8865231 B2 / Patents Distribution - Indigenous to Australia, China and the [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. - RED AMARANTH - Lao ya gu Scientific names Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. Amaranthus cruenthus Linn. Amaranthus sanguineus Linn. Amaranthus caudatus Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Fan xui xian, Tian xue mu, Ye gu, Luo ye gu. INDIA: Rajgira. MALAYSIA: Bayam putih. Common names Halon (Tag.) Kadiapa (Tag.) Kalunai (Ilk.) Koyapa (C. Bis.) Kudiapa (Bis.) Kuliapa (P. Bis.) Urai (Tag.) Red amaranth (Engl.) Lao ya gu (Chin.) Botany Halon is an erect, stout, branched, unarmed, annual herb, growing to a height of 1 to 2 meters. All parts are usually reddish-purple. Lower leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, up to 25 centimeters long, 8 centimeters wide, with long petioles. Upper leaves are similar in shape but smaller. Panicled inflorescences are terminal and are borne in the upper axils of the leaves. Panicles are 15 to 30 centimeters long, red, green or yellow. Flowers are numerous, about 1.5 centimeters long. Sepals are oblong to oblong-obovate, apiculate and shorter than the bracts. Utricle is 3-toothed at the apex, circumciss, exceeding the calyx. Seeds are brown or black, shining, about 1 mm in diameter. Distribution In open waste places, at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao. Certainly introduced; sometimes, cultivated. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice / J Maharwal et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 17 Issue 10, Pages 1150 - 1154 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1340 (2) Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension / Danik M Martirosyan et al [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC. - Jiu li ming Scientific names Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Ktze. Conyza pyrifolia Lam. Conyza volubilis Wall. Xiao she ju (Chin.) Common names Hugas (Buk.) Maniak (Lan.) Saroka (Bag.) Jiu li ming (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Guo shan long, Li ye xiao she ju. EAST AFRICA: Nyabungu odide MYANMAN: Bizat, Bezat. Botany Hugas is a rambling shrub with longitudinally furrowed branches. Leaves are stalked, ovate-lanceolate, 3.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and obscurely toothed at the margins. Heads are numerous, less than 1 centimeter across, and clustered on the branches of rounded corymbs. Involucral bracts are lanceolate. Achenes are compressed and 4-angled, with the reddish pappus about 3 millimeters long, or much longer than the minute achenes. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) New dihydrobenzofurans and triterpenoids from roots of Microglossa pyrifolia / Schmidt TJ et al / Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):258-64. (2) INVENTORY OF PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TANZANIA. I. PLANTS OF THE FAMILIES ACANTHACEAECUCURBITACEAE/ Inga Hedberg and Olov Hedberg / (3) The Anti-malarial and Biochemical Studies of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Ktze and Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb from Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya / Charles Onyango Omollo / JKUAT Abstracts of PostGraduate Thesis, 2011 (4) Composition of the essential oils from the leaves of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Kuntze and Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less growing in Cameroon / J R Kuiate, P H Amvan Zollo, E H Nguefa, J M Bessiere, G Lamaty and C Menut / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 14, [...]