Family • Asteraceae - Wedelia chinensis Osbeck - CHINESE WEDELIA Scientific names Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Wedelia calendulacea Less Wedelia prostata Hemsl. Verbesina calendulacea L. Solidago chinensis Osbeck Peng qi ju (Chin.) Common names Hagonoi-tsina (Tag.) Chinese wedelia (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Bhimra HINDI: Pilabhamgara, Bhringraj KANNADA: Gargari, Kalsarji MALAYALAM: , Mannakkannunni SANSKRIT: Pitabhrnga, Pitabhrngarajah THAILAND: Ka meng tua phuu, horn kieo kham. VIETNAM: S[af]i d[aas]t, ng[oor] n[us]i, hoa m[us]c. Botany Hagonoi-tsina is a slender, spreading, and hairy herb, with the branches usually less than 50 centimeters long. Leaves are oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 4.5 centimeters in length, and narrowed at both ends; the margins entire or obscurely toothed; and both surfaces covered with sharp-pointed, appressed, straight, and stiff hairs. Heads are stalked, about 1 centimeter in diameter, and yellow. Involucral bracts are oblong-ovate. Ray flowers are 8 to 12, spreading, about equal to the bracts, and broad; the disk flowers number about 20, are short, narrow and pointed. Achenes are nearly cylindric, and hairy. Distribution - In open waste places at sea level. - A casual introduction. - Also occurs in India to China. Constituents - Studies yield presence of saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroid, flavonoids. - Plant yields coumestans derivatives: wedelolactone and demethylwedelolactone. - Methanol and acetone extracts yielded saponins, pholabatannins, resins, lipids and fats, steroids, tannins, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, phenols, carbohydrates, anthraquinone, catchol, sterols, and flavonoids. - Study of leaf extracts yield major constituents of 2-Tridecanone (CAS) (4.51%), n-(methoxyphenylmethylene) carbamic acid ethyl ester (1.65%), and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z) (13.68%). Properties [...]


Family • Caprifoliaceae - Lonicera japonica Thunb. - JAPANESE HONEYSUCKLE - Jin yin hua Scientific names Lonicera japonica Thunb. Nintooa japonica (Thunb.) Sweet. Ren dong (Chin.) Common names Honeysuckle (Engl.) Halls honeysuckle (Engl.) Japanese honeysuckle (Engl.) Madre silve (Span.) Jin yin hua (Chin.) Woodbine (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jin yin teng FRENCH: Chèvrefeuille du Japon JAPANESE : Suikazura, Suikazura, Suikazura, Suikazura. KOREAN : In dong deong gul. RUSSIAN : Zhimolost' iaponskaia. Botany The ornamental plant, Japanese honeysuckle, is a hardy, low-climbing or trailing shrub, up to 5 meters or more in length. Leaves are oblong, oblong-ovate, or ovate, 3 to 6 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters wide, pointed or blunt at the tip, blunt at the base and borne on short petioles. Flowers are tubular, 3 to 4 centimeters long, white, but turning yellow with age, borne in pairs in axils of the leaves on young shoots. Corolla is smooth, the tube slender and widening gradually, the limb has two lips, the upper lip broad, erect and divided into four-strap segments, and the lower lip having one linear-strap-shaped recurved segment. The berries are black. Distribution - Ornamentally cultivated for its fragrant, attractive and profuse flowers. - A recent introduction. - Native of Japan. Parts utilized Vine, leaves and flowers. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Lonicera japonica - Thunb. / Japanese Honeysuckle / Plants For A Future (2) Acute and subacute toxicity study of the ethanol extract from Lonicera japonica Thunb / Thanabhorn S et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2006, vol. 107, [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Chromolaena odorata Linn. - DEVIL WEED - Chinese Scientific names Chromolaena odorata (L.) King & H. Rob Other vernacular names COUNTRY: Name HINDI: Bagh dhoka, Tivra gandha. MALAYALAM: Communist pacha, Venappacha, Assam pacha. SANSKRIT: Ropani, Seekhrasarpi. VIETNAMESE: Co hoi. Common names Hagonoy (Tag.) Christmas bush (Engl.) Common floss flower (Engl.) Devil weed (Engl.) Jack in the bush (Engl.) Siam weed (Engl.) Botany Hagonoy is a bushy herb or subshrub with long rambling branches, spreading into tangled dense thickets up to 2 meters high. Base of the plant is hard and woody while the branch tips are soft and green. Leaves are arrohead-shaped, 5 to 12 centimeters long and 3 to 7 centimeters wide, with three characteristic veins in a pitchfork pattern, growing in opposite pairs along stems and branches. Flowers are in clusters of 10 to 15, tubular, pale pink-mauve or white, 10 millimeters long, at the end of the branches. Seeds are dark, 4 to 5 millimeters, narrow and oblong, with a parachute of white hairs which turn brown as the seeds dry. Distribution - Introduced. - Native to North America. - Introduced to tropical Asia, west Africa, and Australia. Constituents - Aqueous and methanolic extracts of leaves yieldedcarbohydrates (1.10%), protein (24.08%), lipid (14%), fiber (50%), ash (10.98%), with an enery content of 220.20 kcal. Leaves were also a rich source of mineral elements such as Ca, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, P, and Mg. Leaves also yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, cyanogenic glycosides, tannins, and phytic [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Hoya carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. - WAX PLANT Scientific names Asclepias carnosa (L. f.) R. Br. Hoya carnosa L. f. Hoya chinensis (Lour.) Hoya intermedia A.C. Sm. Scholia carnosa (L.f.) Schrank ex Steud. Scholia chinensis (Lour.) J. Jacq. Other vernacular names SPANISH: Flor de porcelana, Flor de cera, Planta de cera, Cerilla. Common names Hoya (Engl.) Honey plant (Engl.) Hindu rope (Engl.) Porcelain flower (Engl.) Wax plant (Engl.) Wax vine (Engl.) Botany Hoya is a semi-woody, succulent perennial climibing vine. Leaves are glossy, waxy, succulent and grayish green, elliptic to broad-oval, up to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are in umbels, 3 to 5 inches in diameter, pinkish-white with a red star-shaped crown. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Study identifies best air-purifying plants / Sharon Dowdy / University of Georgia / College of Agricultre and Environmental Sciences (2) ADPglucose Pyrophosphorylase from the CAM Plants Hoya carnosa and Xerosicyos danguyi. / Singh BK, Greenberg E, Preiss J. / Plant Physiol. 1984 Mar;74(3):711-6. (3) Malate metabolism in Hoya carnosa mitochondria and its role in photosynthesis during CAM phase III / Hoang Thi Kim Hong, Akihiro Nose*, Sakae Agarie and Takayuki Yoshida / Journal of Experimental Botany Volume 59 Issue 7Pp. 1819-1827 (4) Haemolytic crises caused by Hoya carnosa in a patient with G6PD deficiency. / Kuliszkiewicz-Janus M, Tyran W, Szajerka G / Acta Haematologica Polonica [1992, 23(1):63-67] (5) Hoya carnosa (L.f.) R.Br / Synonyms / The Plant List (6) Hoya carnosa extracts and methods of use US 8865231 B2 / Patents Distribution - Indigenous to Australia, China and the [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. - RED AMARANTH - Lao ya gu Scientific names Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. Amaranthus cruenthus Linn. Amaranthus sanguineus Linn. Amaranthus caudatus Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Fan xui xian, Tian xue mu, Ye gu, Luo ye gu. INDIA: Rajgira. MALAYSIA: Bayam putih. Common names Halon (Tag.) Kadiapa (Tag.) Kalunai (Ilk.) Koyapa (C. Bis.) Kudiapa (Bis.) Kuliapa (P. Bis.) Urai (Tag.) Red amaranth (Engl.) Lao ya gu (Chin.) Botany Halon is an erect, stout, branched, unarmed, annual herb, growing to a height of 1 to 2 meters. All parts are usually reddish-purple. Lower leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, up to 25 centimeters long, 8 centimeters wide, with long petioles. Upper leaves are similar in shape but smaller. Panicled inflorescences are terminal and are borne in the upper axils of the leaves. Panicles are 15 to 30 centimeters long, red, green or yellow. Flowers are numerous, about 1.5 centimeters long. Sepals are oblong to oblong-obovate, apiculate and shorter than the bracts. Utricle is 3-toothed at the apex, circumciss, exceeding the calyx. Seeds are brown or black, shining, about 1 mm in diameter. Distribution In open waste places, at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao. Certainly introduced; sometimes, cultivated. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice / J Maharwal et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 17 Issue 10, Pages 1150 - 1154 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1340 (2) Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension / Danik M Martirosyan et al [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC. - Jiu li ming Scientific names Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Ktze. Conyza pyrifolia Lam. Conyza volubilis Wall. Xiao she ju (Chin.) Common names Hugas (Buk.) Maniak (Lan.) Saroka (Bag.) Jiu li ming (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Guo shan long, Li ye xiao she ju. EAST AFRICA: Nyabungu odide MYANMAN: Bizat, Bezat. Botany Hugas is a rambling shrub with longitudinally furrowed branches. Leaves are stalked, ovate-lanceolate, 3.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and obscurely toothed at the margins. Heads are numerous, less than 1 centimeter across, and clustered on the branches of rounded corymbs. Involucral bracts are lanceolate. Achenes are compressed and 4-angled, with the reddish pappus about 3 millimeters long, or much longer than the minute achenes. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) New dihydrobenzofurans and triterpenoids from roots of Microglossa pyrifolia / Schmidt TJ et al / Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):258-64. (2) INVENTORY OF PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TANZANIA. I. PLANTS OF THE FAMILIES ACANTHACEAECUCURBITACEAE/ Inga Hedberg and Olov Hedberg / (3) The Anti-malarial and Biochemical Studies of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Ktze and Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb from Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya / Charles Onyango Omollo / JKUAT Abstracts of PostGraduate Thesis, 2011 (4) Composition of the essential oils from the leaves of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Kuntze and Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less growing in Cameroon / J R Kuiate, P H Amvan Zollo, E H Nguefa, J M Bessiere, G Lamaty and C Menut / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 14, [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Achyranthes aspera L. - PRICKLY CHAFF FLOWER - Tu niu xi Scientific names Achyranthes aspera Linn. Desmochaeta repens Llanos Other vernacular names CHINESE: Dao gou cao, Dao geng cao, He ye tu niu xi. HINDI: Latkana, Latjira, Chirchita. PAKISTANI: Puthkanda. SANSKRIT: Apamarga. TAMIL: Naayuruvi, Naayuruvi vaer. VIETNAMESE: Co xuoc. Common names Angud (Pamp.) Lopo-lopo (Bis.) Deket-deket (Ilk.) Niknikitan (Bon.) Dokot-dokot (Tag.) Ragragadi (Ilk.) Garem (Ilk.) Saramo (Bis.) Guela (Neg.) Aparmarga (India) Hangod (Tag.) Chaff flower (Engl.) Hangor (Tag.) Devil's horsewhip (Engl.) Hangot  (Tag.) Prickly chaff flower (Engl.) Higad-higad (Ilk.) Tu niu xi (Chin.) Libay (Tag.) Botany Hangod is a coarse, rambling or erect, distantly branched annual herb, 0.5 to 2 meters high. Leaves are oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, more or less hairy, though often nearly smooth. Spikes are rigid, elongated and 10 to 15 centimeters long. Flowers are green and about 5 millimeters in length. Sepals 4 or 5, filaments connate at the base, the stamens and staminodes square toothed or fimbricate, pale purplish. Buds point upwards but when the flowers open, they spread out from the sides. Seeds are oblong, brown, 2 to 3 millimeters long. Fruits utricles are oblong or ovoid, indehiscent. Distribution - Weed found throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in open, waste places. - Pantropic weed, probably introduced into the Philippines. Parts utilized Entire plant. Collect from May to October. Rinse, macerate, sun-dry. Constituents • Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded triterpenoids, [...]


Family • Verbenaceae - Premna herbacea Roxb. - Qian jie cao Scientific names Premna herbacea Roxb. Premna timoriana H. Lam. Pygmaeopremna humilis Merr. Pygmaeopremna herbaceae (Roxb.) Moldenke. Common names Huniyan (Buk.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Qian jie cao. PAKISTAN: Jambhol, Jambooka. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model / Dhamija I, Kumar N, Manjula SN, Parihar V, Setty MM, Pai KS / Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Sep 13. (2) Premna timoriana Decne. is an accepted name / The Plant List (3) EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL , PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PREMNA HERBACEA / D. THIRUMALAI, M. PARIDHAVI AND M. GOWTHAM* / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 1, 2013 (4) BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING PREMNA HERBACEA LEAF EXTRACT AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA CAUSING DYSENTERY / SANTOSH KUMAR*, RAISA MAINAO DAIMARY, MWKTHANG SWARGIARY, ANJALI BRAHMA , SUDHESH KUMAR AND MUKESH SINGH / Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013 Oct; 4(4): (P) 378 - 384 (5) Premna herbacea Roxb. is an accepted name / The Plant List Botany Huniyan is a small, inconspicuous undershrub growing up to 15 centimeters in height, produced from stout, elongated, woody roots, with hardly any stems. Roots are about as thick as a crowquill with numerous, almost-globular, woody knots. Leaves are simple, obovate-oblong or obovate, up to 13 centimeters long, 6.5 centimeters wide, and pointed at both ends, with entire and irregularly [...]


Family • Moraceae - Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. - Zhui tou ma Scientific names Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. Poikilospermum sinense (C. H. Wright) Merr. Conocephalus suaveolens Blume Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Krape roo. CHINESE: Xiang tian zhui tou ma. INDONESIA: Mentawan (Malay), Besto (Javanese), Areuy kakejoan (Sundanese). JAVA: Besto. MALAYSIA: Bunatol. THAI: Airai, Charai, Khaman. VIETNAMESE: Sung d[aa]y, Rum th[ow]m. Common names Anapol (Ig., Bik.) Anapul (Ig.) Anopo (Bon.) Buburubad (Sub.) Hanapul (Tag.) Hanapol (Tag.) Hanupol (Bik.) Kanupul (Tag.) Lagna (Tag.) Napul (Sul.) Pañgau (Tag.) Tagimi (Yak.) Tobayan (Tag.) Zhui tou ma (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal plants of the Mien (Yao) in Northern Thailand and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women / Panyaphy K, Van On T, Sirisa-Ard P et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17;135(2):226-37. Epub 2011 Mar 3 (2) Poikilospermum suaveolens / Vernacular names / GlobinMed (3) Uras: Medicinal and Ritual Plants of Serampas, Jambi Indonesia / Bambang Hariyadi and Tamara Ticktin / Ethnobotany and Research Applications (4) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia / Julius Kulip / Telopea 10(1): 2003 Botany Hanopol is a stout and woody climber. Leaves are oblong-ovate or subobovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, 8 to 15 centimeters wide, tapering to a point at the apex, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, smooth or hairy on both surfaces, dotted and streaked with cystoliths. Stipules are large, rusty-brown, and smooth. Male heads are about 6 millimeters in diameter, in broad, short, peduncled, dichotomous cymes. [...]


Family • Saxifragaceae - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. - MOPHEADS Scientific names Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. Hydrangea maritima Haw-Booth. Common names Big leaf hydrangea (Engl.) Hydrangea (Engl.) Lacecap hydrangea (Engl.) Mopheads (Engl.) Penny mac(Engl.) Other vernacular names JAPAN: Amacha. KOREA: Su-guk. MALAYSIA: Bunga tiga bulan. SPANISH: Mil-flores. Botany Hydrangea is a deciduous shrub growing to a height of 1.5 to 2 meters. Leaves are opposite, petioled, oblong-ovate, acuminate, light green with serrate margins. Flowers are in large, terminal cymes; clusters up to 12 centimeters across, blue, pink, or white, with broadly oval sepals. Distribution - Garden cultivation. - Thrives well in Baguio and other high altitude areas. - A popular hedge plant. - Native to Japan and China. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Hydrangea macrophylla - (Thunb.)Ser. / Plants For A Future (2) Comparison of antimalarial activity of the alkaloidal fraction of Hydrangea macrophylla var. Otaksa leaves with the hot-water extract in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL / Akira Ishih et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 17 Issue 6, Pages 633 - 639 / /Published Online: 16 Jun 2003 (3) Secoiridoid glycosides from the leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. serrata / Hitomi Sakai et al / Journal of Natural Medicines, Volume 61, Number 2 / April, 2007 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-006-0123-6 (4) Drug derived from the hydrangea root shows promise for autoimmune disorders / Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine and the Immune Disease Institute / Children's Hospital Boston (PCMM/IDI), along with the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. (5) Two New Cyanogenic Glucosides from the [...]