Family • Amaranthaceae - Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. - RED AMARANTH - Lao ya gu Scientific names Amaranthus paniculatus Linn. Amaranthus cruenthus Linn. Amaranthus sanguineus Linn. Amaranthus caudatus Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Fan xui xian, Tian xue mu, Ye gu, Luo ye gu. INDIA: Rajgira. MALAYSIA: Bayam putih. Common names Halon (Tag.) Kadiapa (Tag.) Kalunai (Ilk.) Koyapa (C. Bis.) Kudiapa (Bis.) Kuliapa (P. Bis.) Urai (Tag.) Red amaranth (Engl.) Lao ya gu (Chin.) Botany Halon is an erect, stout, branched, unarmed, annual herb, growing to a height of 1 to 2 meters. All parts are usually reddish-purple. Lower leaves are oblong-ovate to ovate-lanceolate, up to 25 centimeters long, 8 centimeters wide, with long petioles. Upper leaves are similar in shape but smaller. Panicled inflorescences are terminal and are borne in the upper axils of the leaves. Panicles are 15 to 30 centimeters long, red, green or yellow. Flowers are numerous, about 1.5 centimeters long. Sepals are oblong to oblong-obovate, apiculate and shorter than the bracts. Utricle is 3-toothed at the apex, circumciss, exceeding the calyx. Seeds are brown or black, shining, about 1 mm in diameter. Distribution In open waste places, at low and medium altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao. Certainly introduced; sometimes, cultivated. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice / J Maharwal et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 17 Issue 10, Pages 1150 - 1154 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.1340 (2) Amaranth oil application for coronary heart disease and hypertension / Danik M Martirosyan et al [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC. - Jiu li ming Scientific names Microglossa volubilis (Wall.) DC. Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Ktze. Conyza pyrifolia Lam. Conyza volubilis Wall. Xiao she ju (Chin.) Common names Hugas (Buk.) Maniak (Lan.) Saroka (Bag.) Jiu li ming (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Guo shan long, Li ye xiao she ju. EAST AFRICA: Nyabungu odide MYANMAN: Bizat, Bezat. Botany Hugas is a rambling shrub with longitudinally furrowed branches. Leaves are stalked, ovate-lanceolate, 3.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, and obscurely toothed at the margins. Heads are numerous, less than 1 centimeter across, and clustered on the branches of rounded corymbs. Involucral bracts are lanceolate. Achenes are compressed and 4-angled, with the reddish pappus about 3 millimeters long, or much longer than the minute achenes. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) New dihydrobenzofurans and triterpenoids from roots of Microglossa pyrifolia / Schmidt TJ et al / Planta Med. 2003 Mar;69(3):258-64. (2) INVENTORY OF PLANTS USED IN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE IN TANZANIA. I. PLANTS OF THE FAMILIES ACANTHACEAECUCURBITACEAE/ Inga Hedberg and Olov Hedberg / (3) The Anti-malarial and Biochemical Studies of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Ktze and Trimeria grandifolia (Hochst.) Warb from Lake Victoria Basin, Kenya / Charles Onyango Omollo / JKUAT Abstracts of PostGraduate Thesis, 2011 (4) Composition of the essential oils from the leaves of Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) O. Kuntze and Helichrysum odoratissimum (L.) Less growing in Cameroon / J R Kuiate, P H Amvan Zollo, E H Nguefa, J M Bessiere, G Lamaty and C Menut / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 14, [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Achyranthes aspera L. - PRICKLY CHAFF FLOWER - Tu niu xi Scientific names Achyranthes aspera Linn. Desmochaeta repens Llanos Other vernacular names CHINESE: Dao gou cao, Dao geng cao, He ye tu niu xi. HINDI: Latkana, Latjira, Chirchita. PAKISTANI: Puthkanda. SANSKRIT: Apamarga. TAMIL: Naayuruvi, Naayuruvi vaer. VIETNAMESE: Co xuoc. Common names Angud (Pamp.) Lopo-lopo (Bis.) Deket-deket (Ilk.) Niknikitan (Bon.) Dokot-dokot (Tag.) Ragragadi (Ilk.) Garem (Ilk.) Saramo (Bis.) Guela (Neg.) Aparmarga (India) Hangod (Tag.) Chaff flower (Engl.) Hangor (Tag.) Devil's horsewhip (Engl.) Hangot  (Tag.) Prickly chaff flower (Engl.) Higad-higad (Ilk.) Tu niu xi (Chin.) Libay (Tag.) Botany Hangod is a coarse, rambling or erect, distantly branched annual herb, 0.5 to 2 meters high. Leaves are oblong-ovate to elliptic or obovate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, more or less hairy, though often nearly smooth. Spikes are rigid, elongated and 10 to 15 centimeters long. Flowers are green and about 5 millimeters in length. Sepals 4 or 5, filaments connate at the base, the stamens and staminodes square toothed or fimbricate, pale purplish. Buds point upwards but when the flowers open, they spread out from the sides. Seeds are oblong, brown, 2 to 3 millimeters long. Fruits utricles are oblong or ovoid, indehiscent. Distribution - Weed found throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes, in open, waste places. - Pantropic weed, probably introduced into the Philippines. Parts utilized Entire plant. Collect from May to October. Rinse, macerate, sun-dry. Constituents • Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded triterpenoids, [...]


Family • Verbenaceae - Premna herbacea Roxb. - Qian jie cao Scientific names Premna herbacea Roxb. Premna timoriana H. Lam. Pygmaeopremna humilis Merr. Pygmaeopremna herbaceae (Roxb.) Moldenke. Common names Huniyan (Buk.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Qian jie cao. PAKISTAN: Jambhol, Jambooka. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Preliminary evaluation of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Premna herbacea Roxb. in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma model and Dalton's lymphoma ascites model / Dhamija I, Kumar N, Manjula SN, Parihar V, Setty MM, Pai KS / Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Sep 13. (2) Premna timoriana Decne. is an accepted name / The Plant List (3) EVALUATION OF PHYSIOCHEMICAL , PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF PREMNA HERBACEA / D. THIRUMALAI, M. PARIDHAVI AND M. GOWTHAM* / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 1, 2013 (4) BIOSYNTHESIS OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES USING PREMNA HERBACEA LEAF EXTRACT AND EVALUATION OF ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BACTERIA CAUSING DYSENTERY / SANTOSH KUMAR*, RAISA MAINAO DAIMARY, MWKTHANG SWARGIARY, ANJALI BRAHMA , SUDHESH KUMAR AND MUKESH SINGH / Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2013 Oct; 4(4): (P) 378 - 384 (5) Premna herbacea Roxb. is an accepted name / The Plant List Botany Huniyan is a small, inconspicuous undershrub growing up to 15 centimeters in height, produced from stout, elongated, woody roots, with hardly any stems. Roots are about as thick as a crowquill with numerous, almost-globular, woody knots. Leaves are simple, obovate-oblong or obovate, up to 13 centimeters long, 6.5 centimeters wide, and pointed at both ends, with entire and irregularly [...]


Family • Moraceae - Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. - Zhui tou ma Scientific names Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. Poikilospermum sinense (C. H. Wright) Merr. Conocephalus suaveolens Blume Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Krape roo. CHINESE: Xiang tian zhui tou ma. INDONESIA: Mentawan (Malay), Besto (Javanese), Areuy kakejoan (Sundanese). JAVA: Besto. MALAYSIA: Bunatol. THAI: Airai, Charai, Khaman. VIETNAMESE: Sung d[aa]y, Rum th[ow]m. Common names Anapol (Ig., Bik.) Anapul (Ig.) Anopo (Bon.) Buburubad (Sub.) Hanapul (Tag.) Hanapol (Tag.) Hanupol (Bik.) Kanupul (Tag.) Lagna (Tag.) Napul (Sul.) Pañgau (Tag.) Tagimi (Yak.) Tobayan (Tag.) Zhui tou ma (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal plants of the Mien (Yao) in Northern Thailand and their potential value in the primary healthcare of postpartum women / Panyaphy K, Van On T, Sirisa-Ard P et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17;135(2):226-37. Epub 2011 Mar 3 (2) Poikilospermum suaveolens / Vernacular names / GlobinMed (3) Uras: Medicinal and Ritual Plants of Serampas, Jambi Indonesia / Bambang Hariyadi and Tamara Ticktin / Ethnobotany and Research Applications (4) An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and other useful plants of Muruts in Sabah, Malaysia / Julius Kulip / Telopea 10(1): 2003 Botany Hanopol is a stout and woody climber. Leaves are oblong-ovate or subobovate, 15 to 25 centimeters long, 8 to 15 centimeters wide, tapering to a point at the apex, rounded or heart-shaped at the base, smooth or hairy on both surfaces, dotted and streaked with cystoliths. Stipules are large, rusty-brown, and smooth. Male heads are about 6 millimeters in diameter, in broad, short, peduncled, dichotomous cymes. [...]


Family • Saxifragaceae - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. - MOPHEADS Scientific names Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Ser. Hydrangea maritima Haw-Booth. Common names Big leaf hydrangea (Engl.) Hydrangea (Engl.) Lacecap hydrangea (Engl.) Mopheads (Engl.) Penny mac(Engl.) Other vernacular names JAPAN: Amacha. KOREA: Su-guk. MALAYSIA: Bunga tiga bulan. SPANISH: Mil-flores. Botany Hydrangea is a deciduous shrub growing to a height of 1.5 to 2 meters. Leaves are opposite, petioled, oblong-ovate, acuminate, light green with serrate margins. Flowers are in large, terminal cymes; clusters up to 12 centimeters across, blue, pink, or white, with broadly oval sepals. Distribution - Garden cultivation. - Thrives well in Baguio and other high altitude areas. - A popular hedge plant. - Native to Japan and China. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Hydrangea macrophylla - (Thunb.)Ser. / Plants For A Future (2) Comparison of antimalarial activity of the alkaloidal fraction of Hydrangea macrophylla var. Otaksa leaves with the hot-water extract in ICR mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii 17 XL / Akira Ishih et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 17 Issue 6, Pages 633 - 639 / /Published Online: 16 Jun 2003 (3) Secoiridoid glycosides from the leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla subsp. serrata / Hitomi Sakai et al / Journal of Natural Medicines, Volume 61, Number 2 / April, 2007 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-006-0123-6 (4) Drug derived from the hydrangea root shows promise for autoimmune disorders / Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine and the Immune Disease Institute / Children's Hospital Boston (PCMM/IDI), along with the Harvard School of Dental Medicine. (5) Two New Cyanogenic Glucosides from the [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Centipeda minima (Linn.) A. Br. & Asch. - SNEEZE WEED, SNEEZE WORT - Qiu zi cao Scientific names Artemisia minima L. Centipeda minima (Linn.) A. Br. & Asch. Centipeda minuta C.B. Clarke. Centipeda orbicularis Lour. Cotula minima (L.) Willd. Cotula orbicularis (Lour.) Shi hu sui (Chin.) Common names Harangan (Tag., Bis.) Pisik (Bis.) Sneeze weed (Engl.) Sneeze wort (Engl.) Qiu zi cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names INDONESIA: Mbakoan. JAPANESE: To-kin sou. SANSKRIT: Chikkika, tikshna, ghrandukhahda, chhikkani, kashvakrit, mecheta. THAILAND: Krataai chan, yaa krachaam, mueat lot. VIETNAM: C[us]c m[awr]n, c[os]c m[awr]n, c[or] the. Botany Harañgan is a prostrate or ascending, slender, leafy herb, somewhat wooly or nearly smooth, with numerous branches spreading from the root, and 8 to 20 centimeters long. Leaves are oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, 1 centimeter long or less, and with few coarse teeth on the margins. Heads are stalkless, rounded, 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, many flowered, and borne singly in the axils of the leaves. Achenes are about 1 millimeter long, tipped with the persistent style, and bristly on the angles. Distribution - In open waste places, rice paddies, etc. at low and medium altitudes. - In Cagayan, Nueva Viscaya, Pampanga, Rizal and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Lanao, Mindanao. - Also reported from eastern Asia to China through Malaya to tropical Australia. Constituents • Yields an amorphous volatile oil and a bitter principle, myriogynin. • Contains an alkaloid, a glucoside and traces of saponin. • Study yielded three antibacterial sesquiterpene lactones. • Study yielded two monoterpedoids together with five known thymol [...]


Family • Labiatae / Lamiaceae - Hyssopus officinalis - HYSSOP - Ngau sat chou Scientific names Hyssopus officinalis Linn. Hyssopus alopecuroides Fisch. ex Benth Hyssopus altissimus Mill. Hyssopus angustifolius M. Bieb. Hyssopus beugesiacus Jord. & Fourr. Hyssopus caucasicus Spreng. ex Steud. Hyssopus decumbens Jord. & Fourr. Hyssopus judaeorum Sennen Hyssopus myrtifolius Desf. Common names Hyssop (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ngau sat chou, Shen xiang cao. DUTCH: Hyssop. FRENCH: Hysope. GERMAN: Eisop. GREEK: Issopos. HINDI: Zufah-yabis. ITALIAN: Issopo. SANSKRIT: Jufa. SPANISH: Hisopo. URDU: Zufah. Gen info  Hyssops is a plant used since classical antiquity. Earliest reference to the plant goes back to the seventh century. Its camphorlike odor found utility as a cleansing herb; as an odor-eater it was strewn in sickrooms and kitchen floors. Botany Hyssops is a strongly aromatic perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the mint family, growing 30 to 60 centimeters or higher, upright and with many branched square stems. Leaves are opposite, linear to lanceolate, hairless, long and sessile, 1 - 1 1/2 inches long. Flowers are in whorls with a tubular corolla, two-lipped, blue or violet in color, with bell-shaped calyxes. Distribution - Cultivated as ornamental and herbal plant. - Occasionally grown as ground cover. - Native to Southern Europe and temperate zones of Asia. In India, found in the Himalayas. Constituents  - Plant yields several polyphenolic compounds, primarily the flavonoids apigenin, quercetin, diosmin, luteolin and their glucosides. Other phenolic compounds are chlorogenic, protocatechuic, ferulic, syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and caffeic acids. - The aromatic volatile oil is found in its leaves, stems, and flowers. - [...]


Family • Umbelliferae - Anis - Foeniculum vulgare Mill. - FENNEL - Hsiao-hui Other scientific names Anethum foeniculum L. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Foeniculum commune Bubani Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) H. Kurst. Common names Anis (Span., tag.) Haras (Tag.) Fennel (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Bisbas, Raziana. NORWEGIAN: Fennikel. CHINESE: Hsiao-hui, Hui xiang, Xiao hui xiang. PERSIAN: Razianeh. CZECH: Fenykl. POLISH: Fenkuł, Koper włoski. DANISH: Almindelig fennikel, Fennikel. PORTUGUESE: Funcho. DUTCH: Venkel. RUSSIAN: Fenchel' obyknovennyj. FRENCH: Fenouil. SANSKRIT: Madhurika, Shatapushpa. GERMAN: Fenchel. SLOVENIAN: Sladki komarček. HINDI Badi, Badishep, Bari saunf, Bari sanuf, Sanuf, Saunf, Sonp, Sont. SPANISH: Hinojo. ITALIAN: Finocchio commune, Finocchio selvatico. SWEDISH: Fänkål. JAPANESE: Fenneru, Uikyou. TAMIL: Perun siragum, Shombu, Sohikire. KANNADA: Badi sopu, Badisepu, Sabbasige. TELUGU: Peddajilakurra, Sopu. LAOTIAN: Phak si. THAI: Phak chi, Phak chi duen ha, Phak chi lom, Thian klaep, Yira. NEPALESE: Madesi sauf. General info Raw fennel has a pronounced and distinct taste, close to anise or licorice. In olden times, fennel has been used both as an appetite suppressant and digestive aid, to counter witchcraft, as a culinary garnish, and varied medicinal uses. Botany Haras is a biennial plant with a thick rootstock, erect, much-branched, smooth, often 1 meter or more in height. Leaves are 2-, 3-, or 4-pinnate and about 20 centimeters long; the segments are filiform and 2 to 4 centimeters long. Umbels are 5 to 10 centimeters in diameter; the rays number 8 to 15, about 2 to 3 centimeters long, but longer in fruit, each with 20 to 30, pedicelled, yellow flowers. Fruit is ridged, very [...]


Family • Moraceae - Ficus hauili Blanco - HAUILI FIG TREE - Leng guo rong Scientific names Ficus hauili Blanco Ficus septica Burm. f. Ficus laccifera Blanco Ficus leucopleura F. Vill. Ficus radiata F. Vill. Ficus leucantatoma Merr. Ficus philippinensis Bonard Ficus altimeraloo F. Vill. Ficus didymophylla Warb. Ficus rapiformis Rolfe Common names Abnug (C. Bis.,P. Bis.) Liu-liu (Ting., If., Bon., Ilk,) Auili (Tag.) Raya-raya (Ilk.) Diudiu (Ig.) Reya-reya (Ilk.) Hauili (Tag.) Ria-ria (Ilk.) Kauili (Tag.) Sio (Bik.) Labnog (P. Bis.) Tabung (Sul.) Labnong (Tag.) Tuliao (Ibn.) Lagmut (P. Bis.) Yabnoi (Iv.) Lapting (Ilk.) Leng guo rong (Chin.) Latayi (Bon.) Septic fig (Engl.) Liliau (Ibn.) Hauli fig tree (Engl.) Lio-lio (Pamp.) Botany Hauili is an erect, small tree, growing 3 to 8 meters high, smooth, with more or less hairy young shoots. Leaves are smooth and shining, not all roughened, oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with tip tapering to a rather sharp point, and the base pointed. Receptacles are axillary, solitary, depressed-globose or turbinate, obscurely ridged or angled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, and shortly peduncled. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Stems of Ficus septica / Amooru G. Damu, Ping-Chung Kuo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (7), pp 1071–1075 DOI: 10.1021/np050095o (2) Muscarinic Receptor Activity of Some Malaysian Plant Species / L.Y. Chung, K.F. Yap, M.R. Mustafa, S.H. Goh and Z. Imiyabir / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 2005, Vol. 43, No. 8, Pages 672-682 (3) Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Cheng-Wei Yang, Wei-Liang Chen, Pei-Lin Wu, Huan-Yi Tseng, and Shiow-Ju [...]