I

Indian borage

Family • Boraginaceae - Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br. Scientific names Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br. Trichodesma hirsutum Trichodesma amplexicaule Borago indica Linn. Common names Indian borage (Engl.) Other vernacular names COUNTRY: Name GUJARATI: Undhanphuli. HINDI: Chhota kalpa. KANNADA: Katte tume soppu. SANSKRIT: Adhapuspi. TAMIL: Kavizhthumbai. Botany Trichodesma indicum is an erect, spreading, branched, annual herb, about 50 centimeters in height. Leaves are stalkless, opposite, lanceolate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base; the upper surfaces clothed with stiff hairs arising from circular tubercles, the lower surfaces less densely villous. Flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, hairy, and 1 to 1.3 centimeters long, with pointed lobes. Corolla is pale blue, with the limb about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, and the lobes pointed. Fruit is ellipsoid, and enclosed by the calyx. Nutlets are about 5 millimeters long, and rough on the inner surface. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Adhakpuspi, Indian Medicinal Plant / IndianetZone (2) Anti-inflammatory activity of alkanoids and triterpenoids from Trichodesma amplexicaule Roth / Singh, B.; Sahu, P.M.; Lohiya, R.K.; Sharma, M.K.; Singh, H.L.; Singh, S. / Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology / FreeLibrary by Farlex (3) Indian Borage / Indian common names / Flowers of India (4) Antimicrobial Potential of Tropical Plant Trichodesma indicum and Trichodesma sedgwickianum / S.S. Saboo, G.G. Tapadiya and S.S. Khadabadi / Research Journal of Microbiology, 2013, Vol 8, No 1, pp 63-69 / DOI: 10.3923/jm.2013.63.69 (5) Anti-venom potential of Pakistani medicinal plants: inhibition of [...]

Indian Catmon

Family • Dilleniaceae - Dillenia indica Linn. - ELEPHANT APPLE - Wu ya guo Scientific names Dillenia indica Linn. Common names Indian catmon (Engl.) Dillenia (Engl.) Elephant apple (Engl.) Hondapara tree (Engl.) Chulta (India) Wu ya guo (Chin.) Botany Indian Catmon is a more or less deciduous tree growing up to 10 meters or more in height, with a few wide-spreading branches. Leaves are alternate, mostly terminal, oblong or broadly lanceolate, 20 to 30 centimeters long, 6 to 12 centimeters wide, stiff, curving outward, with toothed margins, and beautifully ribbed, with 30 to 40 pairs of side veins. Flowers are very large, 15 to 20 centimeters across, solitary at the ends of the twigs, are facing downward. Sepals are rounded and yellowish green, while the petals are white, free, obovate, and 5 to 7.5 centimeters wide. Fruit, which is made of ripened carpels and enclosed by greatly enlarged and thickened imbricating sepals, is large, somewhat rounded or broadly ovoid, 12.5 to 15 centimeters in diameter, yellowish green hard, and tough. Seeds are numerous and compressed, with a hairy margin. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Isolation and Identification of Compounds from the Leaf Extract of Dillenia indica Linn / Md. Abdul Munit, Syed Mohammed Tareq et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal. Vol. 13, No 1, January 2010 (2) Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC / D Kumar et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 431-435 (3) Antioxidant activity of the extracts from [...]

Indian rubber fig

Family • Moraceae - Balete - Ficus elastica Roxb. - INDIAN RUBBER TREE - Yin du rong Scientific names Ficus elastica Roxb. Ficus decora Hort. Urostigma elasticum Miq. Common names Balete (Tag.) Indian rubber tree (Engl.) Indian rubber fig (Engl.) Rubber tree Rubber plant Assam rubber (Engl.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Athabor, Attah. KANNADA: Rabra chovad. BENGALI: Bor. KOREAN: In do go mu na mu. BURMESE: Ganoi, Kanoi, Nyaung kyetpaung. SANSKRIT: Vat. CHINESE: Yin du rong. SERBIAN: Gumijevac, Tropska smokva, Fikus, Fikus zmajevac. CROATIAN: Gumijevac, Fikus. SLOVENIAN: Gumovec. DANISH: Gummifigen. SPANISH: Árbol del caucho, Gomero, Higuera cauchera, Higuera de la India (Cuba), Planta del caucho. FRENCH: Arbre á caoutchouc, Caoutchouc. TAMIL: Cimaiyal. GERMAN: Gummibaum. THAI: Yang india. HINDI: Attaabor, Bargad, Bor. VIETNAMESE: Ða búp đỏ. JAPANESE: Indo gomu no ki. Botany Indian rubber tree is a glabrous spreading tree, up to 10 meters high, normally starting as an epiphyte, sending down numerous adventitious roots from the trunk and larger branches. Leaves are very leathery, smooth and shining, elliptic-oblong, 15 to 25 centimeters long, the tip with a tapering point and entire margin. Stipules are deciduous, membranaceous, and usually red, often as long as the leaves. Receptacles are axillary, usually in pairs, stalkless, smooth, greenish-yellow, oblong-ovoid, about 1 centimeter long. Distribution - Introduced, but now pantropic in cultivation. - Popularly planted in parks and as a roadside tree. - Cultivated as a potted plant by florists. Constituents - The latex contains caoutchouc, 10-30%; resin, 1.58%; a bitter substance; albuminoid; and magnesium salts. Wax contains cerotic [...]

Indian rubber vine

Family • Family - Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. - PURPLE ALLAMANDA Scientific names Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. Nerium grandiflora Roxb. Common names Indian rubber vine (Engl.) Purple allamanda (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antiviral activity of medicinal plants of Nilgiris / P Vijayan et al / Indian J Med Res 120, July 2004, pp 24-29 (2) Cardiac glycosides from Cryptostegia grandiflora / M S Kamel , M H Assaf et al / Phytochemistry 58 (2001) 537–542 (3) Studies on the antibacterial potential of Cryptostegia grandiflora R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) extract / Pulok K Mukherjee, R Gunasekhran et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 13 Issue 1, Pages 70 - 72 / Published Online: 15 Feb 1999 (4) PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF FLOWERS AND LATEX OF CRYPTOSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA R.BR. CULTIVATED IN EGYPT / S. M. El Zalabani, E. A. Abdel Sattar, F. I. Fathy and N. G. Shehab Botany Cryptostegia grandiflora is a stout, woody vine. Leaves are oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 6 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, rounded at the base. Cymes are short. Sepals are green, about 8 millimeters long. Corolla is pale purple, about 4 centimeters long, and often wider than it is long. Woody follicles are 10 to 12 centimeters long. Distribution - Recent introduction to the Philippines. - Planted for ornamental purposes. - Now, pantropic. - Native of India. Constituents - Phytochemical studies of flowers yielded two cardenolides, oleandrigenin and gitoxigenin, as well as, two flavonoid glycosides, hyperoside and astragalin, and their aglycones, quercetin and kaempferol. - Latex of fresh [...]

Indian tree

Family • Annonaceae - Polyalthia longifolia chinensis Benth. & Hook. f. - TREE OF INDIA Other scientific names Polyalthia longifolia chinensis Benth. & Hook. f. Polyalthia longifolia var. pendula Common names Ashok tree (Engl.) Telegraph pole tree (Engl.) Asoka tree (Engl.) She-kan (Chin.) Mast tree (Engl.) Black berry lily (Engl.) Sorrowless tree (Engl.) Botany Small- to medium-sized evergreeb tree growing up to 15 meters. Young plants have straight trunks and weeping pendeulous branche, longest at the base and shorter at the end of the trunk.. Leaves are long, narrow and oblanceolate, dark green, glossy and wavy margins. Flowers are delicate pale green with wavy petals. Fruits are ovoid, black when ripe. Distribution Native to India and Sri Lanka, recently introduced in the Philippines and widely cultivated in metro Manila, planted in parks, gardens and roadsides. Properties and constituents • Leaf oil composed of sesquiterpene derivatives: allo-aromadendrene, caryophyllene oxide, ß-caryophyllene, ß-selinene, a-humulene and ar-curcumene. • Phytochemical study on the hexane extract of the stem bark led to characterization of clerodane and ent-halimane deiterpenes, two of which have shown antibacterial and antifungal activities. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Detection of Amino Acids from the seeds of Polyalthia longifolia / Kavita S. Mundhe et al / International Journal of ChemTech Research, Vol.1, No.2, pp 298-299 , April-June 2009 (2) A New Clerodane-Type Butenolide Diterpene from the Bark of Polyalthia longifolia / J. Nat. Prod., 1992, 55 (2), pp 256–258 / DOI: 10.1021/np50080a021 (3) Sesquiterpenes-Rich Essential Oils of Polyalthia longifolia Thw. (Annonaceae) from Nigeria / Akinola O. [...]

Ipil

Family • Fabaceae - Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze - IRONWOOD Scientific names Intsia bijuga (Colebr.) O. Kuntze Intsia amboilensis DC. Intsia retusa (Kurz.) O. Kuntze Intsia palembanica (Kurz.) O. Kuntze Afzelia bijuga A. Gray Afzelia retusa Kurz Eperua decandra Blanco Macrolobium bijugum Colebr. Tamarindus intsia Spreng Common names Ipil (Ibn., Tag., Bik., Mag., Bis.) Ipil-lalao (Tag.) Ipil-laut (Tag.) Itil (Mag.) Labnig (Tag.) Mulato (C. Bis.) Nala (Sbl.) Taal (Tag.) Tigal (Tagb.) Borneo teak (Engl.) False teak (Engl.) Moluccan ironwood (Engl.) Other vernacular names FIJIAN: Vesi, Vesi dina. FRENCH: Cohu, Faux teck. INDONESIAN: Merbaoe, Merbau, Merbo, Taritish. PALAUAN: Dort, Wantal. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Kwila, Iban, Mboan, Bon, Menau. SAMOAN: Ifilele. THAI: Lumpho-thale, Praduu thale. VIETNAMESE: G[ox] . Botany Ipil is a medium-sized tree reaching a height of 20 to 45 meters and a diameter of 150 to 180 meters. Mature trees have steep rounded buttresses. Bark is 5 to 8 mm thick, gray in color with an orange tinge. The inner bark is light brown and mottled with brown specks. Leaves are alternate and simply compound with usually two pairs of leaflets, 8 to 12 centimeters long and 5 to 8.5 centimeters wide. Flowers are fragrant, white or reddish, borne in panicles 6 to 10 centimeters long. Pods are 10 to 25 centimeters long and 4 to 6.5 centimeters wide, with 3 to 6 orbicular seeds. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Intsia bijuga (vesi) / Species Profiles for Pacific Island Agroforestry / Randolph R. Thaman, Lex A. J. Thomson, Robin DeMeo, Francis Areki, and Craig R. Elevitch (2) Fijian [...]

Ipil-ipil

Family • Mimosaceae - Santa Elena - Leucaena glauca Linn. - LEAD TREE - Yin he huan Scientific names Mimosa glauca Linn. Acacia glauca Wiild.. Leucaena glauca Linn. Leucaena leucocephala Lam. Common names Agho (P. Bis.) Aghog (P. Bis.) Ipel (Tag.) Ipil-ipil (Tag.) Kabahero (C. Bis.) Kariskis (Ilk.) Komkompitis (Ilk.) Loyloi (S. L. Bis.) Santa Elena (Span.) San Pedro (P. Bis.) Lead tree (Engl.) Leucaena (Engl.) Yin he huan (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS: Reuse Wattel. CHAMORRO: Tangan-Tangan, Tangantangan. CHINESE: Bai he huan. FIJIAN: Balori, Vaivai, Vaivai Ni Vavalangi. FRENCH: Faux mimosa, Faux-acacia, Graines de lin, Tamarin batard. HAWAIIAN: Koa haole. INDONESIAN: Lamtoro. KOSRAEAN: Rohbohtin, Tuhngantuhngan. PALAUAN: Telentund. SAMOAN: Fua Pepe, Lusina. SPANISH: Guaje, Huaxin, Tamarindo Silvestre, Uaxim, Santa Elena. TONGAN: Siale Mohemohe. Botany Ipil-ipil is a small tree growing up 8 meters high. Leaves are compound, 15 to 25 centimeters long, with hairy rachis. Pinnae are 8 to 16, and 5 to 8 centimeters long. Leaflets are 20 to 30, linear oblong, and 7 to 12 millimeters long. Heads are solitary, at the axils of the leaves, long-peduncled, globose, and 2 to 5 centimeters in diameter, with many flowers. Flowers are whitish, in dense globule heads, 2 to 3 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is an oblong or linear pod, strap-shaped, 12 to 18 centimeters long, 1.4 to 2 centimeters wide, papery, green turning to brown and splitting open along two edges when mature, and several fruits developing from each flower head. Each pod contains 15 to 25 elliptic, compressed, shining, brown seeds, each 5 [...]

Ipo

Family • Moraceae - Upas - Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. - SACKING TREE - Jian xue feng hou Scientific names Ipo toxicaria Pers. Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. Antiaris macrophylla R. Br. Antiaris africana Engl. Common names Dalit (Tag.) Ipo (Tag., Bis.) Dita (Ibn., Ap.) Lata (Neg.) Mananau (S. L. Bis.) Salogon (Tag.) Upas (Tag.) Poison arrow tree (Engl.) Sacking tree (Engl.) Upas tree (Engl.) Other vernacular names AFRICA: Bokonko. BURMA: Aseik, Hymaseik. CHINESE: Jian duo shu, Jia bu, Jian du mu, Jian xue feng hou. INDONESIA: Upas, Ancar, Tatai, Bemoe. JAVA: Upas. LAOS: Cong, Nong. MALAYSIA: Ipoh. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Antiaris. THAILAND: Yang nong, Yuan. VIETNAME: Sui, C[aa]y sui, Thu[oos]c b[aws]n. Mythology of Bohun Upas - The Tree of Poisons The first voyagers to Malay brought back grisly tales of a poisonous tree, called Bohun Upas - the tree of poisons. The tree was shunned, fearful that it produced toxic fumes and narcotic effects, killing plants and animals for miles around, and that one might never awaken if he sleeps under the shade of the tree. The legend was probably based on the Bausor Tree (Antiaris toxicaria), known for its poisonous latex used by natives on arrow tips. Botany The plant is a large, evergreen tree growing to a height of 20 meters or more, with a dome-shaped crown. Trunk is often buttressed; the bark, thick and grey. Leaves are glossy, smooth or hairy beneath, elliptic, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with entire or toothed margins, pointed tip and rounded or heart-shaped base. Flowers [...]

Iba

Family • Euphorbiaceae - Cicca acida (Linn.) Merr. - OTAHEITE GOOSEBERRY Scientific names Cicca disticha Linn. Cicca acida (Linn.) Merr. Averrhoa acidaLinn. Cicca acidissima Blanco Phyllanthus distichus Muell.-Arg. Phyllanthus acidissimus Muell.-Arg. Phyllanthus acidus Skeels Common names Bagbagutut (Ilk.) Bangkiling (Bis., Tag.) Iba (Tag., Pamp.) Kagindi (Bis.) Karamai (Ilk.) Karmai (Ilk., Tag.) Karmay (Ilk.) Layoan (Bik.) Poras (Bis.) Indian gooseberry (Engl.) Malay gooseberry (Engl.) Otaheite gooseberry (Engl.) Star gooseberry (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Hari-phal. BURMESE: Thinbozihpyoo. FRENCH: Groseillier des Antilles (West Indies), Surette (Tahiti). GERMAN : Sternstachelbeerbaum. HINDI: Chalmeri, Chota aonla, Harparauri, Harphanevadi, Harpharevadi. KHMER: Kântouot srôk. LAOTIAN: Mak-nhom, Nhom ban. MADURESE: Careme. MALAY: Balangka, Carameng, Ceremai, ,Ceremoi, Cerme, Chermai, Karsinta, Kemlaka, Malaka. NEPALESE: Harii phala, Kaathe amalaa, Paate amalaa. PORTUGUESE: Groselha. SANSKRIT: Lavali, Laveni, Pandu, Skandhaphara. SPANISH : Cereza amarilla, Cerezo agrio, Cerezo comun, Cerezo de la tierra, Cerezo occidental, Ciruela corteña, Guinda, Grosella, Manzana estrella, Pimienta. SUNDANESE: Careme, Cerme. THAI: Ma yom. Botany Iba is a small, smooth, deciduous tree growing to a height of 4 to 9 meters. Branches are thickened with nodules in the axils of the fallen leaves. Leaves are unequally pinnate, crowded at the ends of the branches, 20 to 40 centimeters long. Leaflets are alternate,entire, oblong-ovate, 2 to 7 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, small, and crowded in many-flowered fascicles along the racemes. Male and female flowers are usually on separate plants. Fruit is fleshy, acidic, edible, greenish white, rounded, 1 to 1.5 centimeters diameter, angled, with a hard, bony, 6- to 8-grooved, 3- or 4-celled stone, each cell [...]

Ibaiba-an

Family • Euphorbiaceae - Phyllanthus urinaria - CHAMBER BITTER Common names Ibaiba-an (Sub.) Takum-takum (P. Bis.) Apoy-apoyan (Sub.) Talindaon (Pamp.) Iba-ibaan (Tag.) Turutalikod (Bik.) Layolayon (Bik,) Chamber bitter (Engl.) Minuh-minuh (Sul.) Leafflowwer (Engl.) Payog (Mbo.) Shatterstone (Engl.) Suru-sampalok (Bik.) Stonebreaker (Engl.) Tabi (Mag.) Gen info and etymology The species name – urinaria – refers to the urinary system and to its long history of folkloric use and benefit in the treatment of kidney and gallbladder stones; and hence, its common names of shatterstoneor stonebreaker. Botany · Erect, branched, slender, glabrous or nearly glabrous herb, 10 to 40 cm high, the branches angled. · Leaves: distichous, imbricate, alternate, pale beneath, sessile, elliptic-oblong to oblong, thin, 5 to 10 mm long, obtuse or apiculate, base slightly oblique, stipules lanceolate. · Flowers: unisexual, very small, 5-merous, axillary, about 1 mm in diameter, sessile or very shortly pedicelled. Sepal greenish, stamens 3, filaments united below; anthers erect, the slit vertical. · Fruits: capsules about 2 mm in diameter, muricate or smooth, of 3 dehiscent. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Hippomanin A from Acetone Extract of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibited HSV-2 but not HSV-1 Infection In Vitro / Chien-Min Yang et al / Phytotherapy Research Volume 21 Issue 12, Pages 1182 - 1186 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2232 (2) Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Effects of Phyllanthus urinaria L. on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity/ Chularojmontri, Linda et al / Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 28(7) pp.1165-1171 20050701 (3) Phenolic Antioxidants from the Whole Plant of Phyllanthus urinaria / Min Xu et al / Chemistry & Biodiversity Volume 4 [...]