Family • Mimosaceae - Santa Elena - Leucaena glauca Linn. - LEAD TREE - Yin he huan Scientific names Mimosa glauca Linn. Acacia glauca Wiild.. Leucaena glauca Linn. Leucaena leucocephala Lam. Common names Agho (P. Bis.) Aghog (P. Bis.) Ipel (Tag.) Ipil-ipil (Tag.) Kabahero (C. Bis.) Kariskis (Ilk.) Komkompitis (Ilk.) Loyloi (S. L. Bis.) Santa Elena (Span.) San Pedro (P. Bis.) Lead tree (Engl.) Leucaena (Engl.) Yin he huan (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS: Reuse Wattel. CHAMORRO: Tangan-Tangan, Tangantangan. CHINESE: Bai he huan. FIJIAN: Balori, Vaivai, Vaivai Ni Vavalangi. FRENCH: Faux mimosa, Faux-acacia, Graines de lin, Tamarin batard. HAWAIIAN: Koa haole. INDONESIAN: Lamtoro. KOSRAEAN: Rohbohtin, Tuhngantuhngan. PALAUAN: Telentund. SAMOAN: Fua Pepe, Lusina. SPANISH: Guaje, Huaxin, Tamarindo Silvestre, Uaxim, Santa Elena. TONGAN: Siale Mohemohe. Botany Ipil-ipil is a small tree growing up 8 meters high. Leaves are compound, 15 to 25 centimeters long, with hairy rachis. Pinnae are 8 to 16, and 5 to 8 centimeters long. Leaflets are 20 to 30, linear oblong, and 7 to 12 millimeters long. Heads are solitary, at the axils of the leaves, long-peduncled, globose, and 2 to 5 centimeters in diameter, with many flowers. Flowers are whitish, in dense globule heads, 2 to 3 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is an oblong or linear pod, strap-shaped, 12 to 18 centimeters long, 1.4 to 2 centimeters wide, papery, green turning to brown and splitting open along two edges when mature, and several fruits developing from each flower head. Each pod contains 15 to 25 elliptic, compressed, shining, brown seeds, each 5 [...]


Family • Moraceae - Upas - Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. - SACKING TREE - Jian xue feng hou Scientific names Ipo toxicaria Pers. Antiaris toxicaria (Pers.) Lesch. Antiaris macrophylla R. Br. Antiaris africana Engl. Common names Dalit (Tag.) Ipo (Tag., Bis.) Dita (Ibn., Ap.) Lata (Neg.) Mananau (S. L. Bis.) Salogon (Tag.) Upas (Tag.) Poison arrow tree (Engl.) Sacking tree (Engl.) Upas tree (Engl.) Other vernacular names AFRICA: Bokonko. BURMA: Aseik, Hymaseik. CHINESE: Jian duo shu, Jia bu, Jian du mu, Jian xue feng hou. INDONESIA: Upas, Ancar, Tatai, Bemoe. JAVA: Upas. LAOS: Cong, Nong. MALAYSIA: Ipoh. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Antiaris. THAILAND: Yang nong, Yuan. VIETNAME: Sui, C[aa]y sui, Thu[oos]c b[aws]n. Mythology of Bohun Upas - The Tree of Poisons The first voyagers to Malay brought back grisly tales of a poisonous tree, called Bohun Upas - the tree of poisons. The tree was shunned, fearful that it produced toxic fumes and narcotic effects, killing plants and animals for miles around, and that one might never awaken if he sleeps under the shade of the tree. The legend was probably based on the Bausor Tree (Antiaris toxicaria), known for its poisonous latex used by natives on arrow tips. Botany The plant is a large, evergreen tree growing to a height of 20 meters or more, with a dome-shaped crown. Trunk is often buttressed; the bark, thick and grey. Leaves are glossy, smooth or hairy beneath, elliptic, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with entire or toothed margins, pointed tip and rounded or heart-shaped base. Flowers [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae - Cicca acida (Linn.) Merr. - OTAHEITE GOOSEBERRY Scientific names Cicca disticha Linn. Cicca acida (Linn.) Merr. Averrhoa acidaLinn. Cicca acidissima Blanco Phyllanthus distichus Muell.-Arg. Phyllanthus acidissimus Muell.-Arg. Phyllanthus acidus Skeels Common names Bagbagutut (Ilk.) Bangkiling (Bis., Tag.) Iba (Tag., Pamp.) Kagindi (Bis.) Karamai (Ilk.) Karmai (Ilk., Tag.) Karmay (Ilk.) Layoan (Bik.) Poras (Bis.) Indian gooseberry (Engl.) Malay gooseberry (Engl.) Otaheite gooseberry (Engl.) Star gooseberry (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Hari-phal. BURMESE: Thinbozihpyoo. FRENCH: Groseillier des Antilles (West Indies), Surette (Tahiti). GERMAN : Sternstachelbeerbaum. HINDI: Chalmeri, Chota aonla, Harparauri, Harphanevadi, Harpharevadi. KHMER: Kântouot srôk. LAOTIAN: Mak-nhom, Nhom ban. MADURESE: Careme. MALAY: Balangka, Carameng, Ceremai, ,Ceremoi, Cerme, Chermai, Karsinta, Kemlaka, Malaka. NEPALESE: Harii phala, Kaathe amalaa, Paate amalaa. PORTUGUESE: Groselha. SANSKRIT: Lavali, Laveni, Pandu, Skandhaphara. SPANISH : Cereza amarilla, Cerezo agrio, Cerezo comun, Cerezo de la tierra, Cerezo occidental, Ciruela corteña, Guinda, Grosella, Manzana estrella, Pimienta. SUNDANESE: Careme, Cerme. THAI: Ma yom. Botany Iba is a small, smooth, deciduous tree growing to a height of 4 to 9 meters. Branches are thickened with nodules in the axils of the fallen leaves. Leaves are unequally pinnate, crowded at the ends of the branches, 20 to 40 centimeters long. Leaflets are alternate,entire, oblong-ovate, 2 to 7 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, small, and crowded in many-flowered fascicles along the racemes. Male and female flowers are usually on separate plants. Fruit is fleshy, acidic, edible, greenish white, rounded, 1 to 1.5 centimeters diameter, angled, with a hard, bony, 6- to 8-grooved, 3- or 4-celled stone, each cell [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae - Phyllanthus urinaria - CHAMBER BITTER Common names Ibaiba-an (Sub.) Takum-takum (P. Bis.) Apoy-apoyan (Sub.) Talindaon (Pamp.) Iba-ibaan (Tag.) Turutalikod (Bik.) Layolayon (Bik,) Chamber bitter (Engl.) Minuh-minuh (Sul.) Leafflowwer (Engl.) Payog (Mbo.) Shatterstone (Engl.) Suru-sampalok (Bik.) Stonebreaker (Engl.) Tabi (Mag.) Gen info and etymology The species name – urinaria – refers to the urinary system and to its long history of folkloric use and benefit in the treatment of kidney and gallbladder stones; and hence, its common names of shatterstoneor stonebreaker. Botany · Erect, branched, slender, glabrous or nearly glabrous herb, 10 to 40 cm high, the branches angled. · Leaves: distichous, imbricate, alternate, pale beneath, sessile, elliptic-oblong to oblong, thin, 5 to 10 mm long, obtuse or apiculate, base slightly oblique, stipules lanceolate. · Flowers: unisexual, very small, 5-merous, axillary, about 1 mm in diameter, sessile or very shortly pedicelled. Sepal greenish, stamens 3, filaments united below; anthers erect, the slit vertical. · Fruits: capsules about 2 mm in diameter, muricate or smooth, of 3 dehiscent. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Hippomanin A from Acetone Extract of Phyllanthus urinaria inhibited HSV-2 but not HSV-1 Infection In Vitro / Chien-Min Yang et al / Phytotherapy Research Volume 21 Issue 12, Pages 1182 - 1186 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.2232 (2) Antioxidative and Cardioprotective Effects of Phyllanthus urinaria L. on Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity/ Chularojmontri, Linda et al / Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin 28(7) pp.1165-1171 20050701 (3) Phenolic Antioxidants from the Whole Plant of Phyllanthus urinaria / Min Xu et al / Chemistry & Biodiversity Volume 4 [...]


Family • Ericacea - Gaultheria cumingiana S. Vidal - WHOLE MOUNTAIN FRAGRANT - Pai-chu Shu Scientific names Gaultheria cumingiana Vidal Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume G, leucocarpa Blume var. crenulata Kurz G, leucocarpa var cumingiana (Vidal) TZ Hsu Gaultheria crenulata Kurz Brossaea leucocarpa (Blume) O. Kuntze Common names Idsa (Ig.) Kaluminga (Ig.) Logauai (Bag.) Taliktuk (Ig.) Uakuakei (Bon.) Cuming's wintergreen (Engl.) Common gaultheria (Engl.) Whole mountain fragrant (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Bai zhu shu. FRENCH: Petit the des pois. INDONESIAN: Gondopuro, Kering, Cantigi bodas. THAILAND: Chamayomdoi. VIETNAMESE: Ch[aa]u th[uj]. Botany Idsa is a small shrub growing to a height of 30 cm to 2 meters, prostrate, erect or climbing in habit. Leaves are ovate or lanceolate, 2 to 7 centimeters long, 1 to 2 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, with toothed margins. Flowers are small, 3 to 5 millimeters across, borne on racemes at the axils of the leaves. Calyx is cup-shaped, the lobes ovate, triangular and ciliate, Corolla is bell-shaped, 3 to 6 millimeters long, with 5 blunt and recurved lobes about 1.5 millimeters long. Fruit is a capsule, rounded, 4 to 7 millimeters in diameter. Edible portion is the dark-blue, fleshy and enlarged calyx. Seeds are numerous. Distribution - In thickets, ravines, and sometimes on open slopes at altitudes from 1,300 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Quezon, Laguna; in Mindoro, Negros and Mindanao. - Also occurs in Taiwan. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Gaultherin, a natural salicylate derivative from Gaultheria yunnanensis: Towards a better [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Sida javensis Cav. - JAVANESE FANPETALS - Zhao wa huang hua ren Scientific names Sida javensis Cav. Sida humilis Cav. Sida veronicaefolia var. javensis (Cav.) Baker f. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhao wa huang hua ren. Common names Hapuang-niknik (Tag.) Igat-igat (Tag.) Marmaraipus (Ik.) Padapadakpusa (Ilk.) Javanese fanpetals (Engl.) Botany Igat-igat is a trailing, herbaceous plant, with stems growing up to 60 centimeters in length. Plant is covered wth scattered, stellate hairs or is nearly smooth. Leaves are orbicular-ovate, and 2 to 7 centimeters long, with pointed tip, prominently heart-shaped base, and margins that are coarsely toothed; and sometimes obscurely lobed. Peduncles are solitary, elongated, and borne at the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, about 5 millimeters long, with triangular, pointed segments. Corolla is yellow, about 7 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is a capsule consisting of 5 carpels, each 2-awned at the apex, the awns being slender and nearly as long as the carpels. Distribution - In dry thickets, along trails, etc., at low altitudes in La Union, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces and Manila, in Luzon. - Also occurs in India to Malaya. Parts used Whole plant. Uses Folkloric Entire plant in decoction used as specific for gonorrhea. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Meliaceae - Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr. - IVORY MAHOGANY Scientific names Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr. Dysoxylum amooroides Miq. Dysoxylum blancoi Vidal Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum (A. Juss.) Miq. Dysoxylum salutare F.-Vill. Turraea decandra Blanco Turraea virens Blanco Other vernacular names FRENCH: Dysoxylon de Gaudichaud. Common names Agaru (Pamp.) Makasisi (Bik.) Aguiu (Pamp.) Malaaduas (P. Bis.) Ananangtang (Bik.) Malabaga (Pamp.) Bakugan (Bik.) Malabangau (Tag.) Basiloag (Ilk.) Manangtang (Bik.) Bolong-tambag (Bik.) Palo-hambobokag (Bik.) Bongliu (Bik.) Paluahan (P. Bis.) Bundugon (Bik.) Pamatagin (Ibn.) Buntog (Bik.) Pasiloag (Ilk.) Buntogan (Bik.) Tadiang-kalabau (Tag.) Himamao (Tag.) Tauing-tauing (Mbo.) Igiu (Tag., Pamp.) Taliktan (Tag., Pamp.) Ikuo (Tag.) Ivory mahogany (Engl.) Kugiug (Tag.) Botany Igiu is a tree reaching a height of 10 to 20 meters. Leaves are crowded at the ends of the branches, 20 to 60 centimeters long, pinnate with 10 or more pairs of leaflets. Lower leaflets are usually ovate, less than 10 centimeters long; the median and upper ones are oblong, 20 centimeters or more in length. Flowers are pale yellowish, hairy, about 1 centimeter long, 5-parted, borne in axillary drooping panicles which are about 40 centimeters long. Fruit is yellow, hairy, depressed-globose, about 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, containing red seeds. Distribution - In thickets and forests at low altitudes from Cagayan to Sorsogon in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Palawan, Masbate, Leyte, Negros, Mindanao, and Basilan. - Also occurs in Java to New Guinea. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Dysoxylins A−D, Tetranortriterpenoids with Potent Anti-RSV Activity from Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum / Jian Lu Chen, Michael R Kernan, Shivanand D et [...]


Family • Piperaceae - Piper betle - BETEL PEPPER - Ch'ing Chu Scientific names Piper anisodorum Blanco Piper anisumolens Blanco Piper bathycarpum C. DC. Piper betle Linn. Piper blancoi Merr. P. philippinense C. DC. P. puberulinodum C. DC. Chavica betle Miq. Chavica siriboa Miq. Common names Buyo (Bik.) Buyo-anis (Tag.) Buyo-buyo (Bik.) Buyog (Mbo.) Buyok (C.Bis.) Buyu (Sul.) Gawed (Pang., It.) Gaued (Ilk.) Gok (Ibn.) Ikmo (Tag.) ikmong Iloko (Tag.) Itmo  (Tag.) Kanisi (Bis.) Mamin (Bis., Tag.) Mamon (Bis.) Samat (Pamp.) Betel leaf pepper (Engl.) Betel pepper (Engl.) Betel vine (Engl.) Ch'ing Chu (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Tâmûl, Tanbul. ASSAMESE: Paan, Paana. BENGALI: Paan, Paana, Tambulaballi (plant), Parnakari (leaf). BURMESE: Kun ya. CHINESE: Ju jiang, Tu bi ba, Tu wei teng, Wei zi, Wei ye, Da geng teng. FRENCH: Bétel, Poivrier betel. GERMAN: Betelpfeffer, Betel-Pfeffer. GUJARTI: Paan, Tanbolaa. HINDI: Paan, Pan (leaf). INDONESIA: Bakik serasa, Daun sirih, Sirih, Serasa, Séwéh, Seureuh. KANNADA: Eleballi, Panu, Vileyadele. KHMER: Maluu. MALAYALAM: Vettila. MARATHI: Naagavalli, Naagvel, Paanvel, Pan, Vidyache pan. NEPALESE: Naagavallii (plant), Paan (leaf). PORTUGUESE: Alfavaca de cobra, Cobrinha. SANSKRIT: Naagavall, Parna, Tambula. SINHALESE: Bulath. TAMIL: Ilaikkoti, Taampulavalli, Vetrilai, Vettila, Veyyilai, Veyyilaikkoti. TELUGU: Akutiga, Nagavalli, Nakabali, Tamala, Tambuli. THAI: Phulu., Plu. URDU: Pan. VIETNAMESE: Trầu, Trâu cay, Trâu không, Trâu luong. Gen info There is an estimated total of 1200 species of Piper in the pantropical and neotropical regions. Works on Philippine wild Piperaceae have been extensive. Candole (1910) reported 133 species of Piper and 26 of Peperomia; Merill (1923), 115 Piper, 25 Peperomia, and Quisumbing (1930), documented 87 Piper and 21 Peperomia. Botany [...]


Family • Anonaceae - Ylang-ylang - Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thomson - PERFUME TREE - Yi lan Scientific names Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thomson Cangangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King Unona odorata  (Lam.) Baill. Common names Ilang-ilang (Tag.) Ylang-ylang (Tag.) Perfume tree (Engl.) Fragrant cananga (Engl.) Macassar oil plant (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Sagasein. CHINESE: Guo luo shi, Xiang shui shi, Jia na kai, Yi lan xiang. FRENCH: Canang odorant, Ilang-ilang en arbre. GERMAN: Ilang-Ilang, Ilang-Ilangbaum. GUAM: Alang-ilang. HAWAIIAN: Lanalana. INDIA: Apurvachampaka, Chettu sampangi, Karumugai. INDONESIA: Kernanga. JAPANESE: Iraniran noki, Ban reishi. LAOTIAN: Ka dan nga thay. MALAY: Kananga, Kenanga utan, Bungan sandat. PORTUGUESE: Cananga, Ilanga. RUSSIAN: Ilang-ilang, Zheltyi ilang-lang, Kananga duchistaia. SPANISH: Alangilán, Cadmia, Cananga, Ilang-ilang. THAI: Fereng, Kradang nga thai. General info Ylang ylang means "flowers of flowers." A variety, Cangana odorata macrophylla (Cannagium odoratum macrophylla) yields Cananga oil, also used in the manufacture of cosmetics and soap, flavoring of foods as gelatins and puddings. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cytotoxic Constituents of the Fruits of Cananga odorata / J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (5), pp 616–619 / DOI: 10.1021/np0005208 (2) Relaxing effect of ylang ylang oil on humans after transdermal absorption / Tapanee Hongratanaworakit and Gerhard Buchbauer / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 20 Issue 9, Pages 758 - 763 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1950 (3) Composition of the essential oil of Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata Hook Fil. et Thomson forma genuina) from Madagascar / Emile M. Gaydou et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1986, 34 (3), pp 481–487 [...]

Ilang-ilang gubat

Family • Annonaceae - Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. - DWARF YLANG YLANG SHRUB - Chia ying chao Scientific names Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. Unona cochinchinensis Lour. Desmos chinensis Lour. Unona chinensis Lour. Desmos hancei Merr. Unona desmos Dunal Desmos velutinus Hance Unona velutina Hance Unona cabog Blanco Common names Dwarf ylang-ylang shrub (Engl.) Ilang-ilang gubat (Tag.) Ylang-Ylang gubat (Tag.) Chia ying chao (Chin.) Botany Ilang-ilang gubat is a rather small erect or climbing shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters height. Leaves are oblong to oblong-ovate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base, and nearly smooth. Flowers are yellowish white, solitary on a 2- to 5-centimeter long peduncle, borne opposite or nearly opposite to leaflets. Calyx are 3, ovate, 3 to 5 millimeters long. Corolla are 6, fixed, arranged in 2 whorls, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 4 centimeters long, the outer whorl bigger than the inner one; stamens numerous. Peduncle extra-axillary, about 5 centimeters long, with one flower. Sepals are ovate-lanceolate, about 1.5 centimeters long. Petals are somewhat hairy, yellow, fragrant, 4 to 5 centimeters long. Fruits are dehiscent, peduncled, arranged in dense clusters, 2 to 5 centimeters long, 1 to 7 seeded. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Studies on the chemical constituents of the root of Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. / Liao SX, Han GY, Zhang YR, Zheng QT, He CH. / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1989;24(2):110-3. / (2) New Cytotoxic Fatty Acid from Desmos cochinchinensis (Annonaceae) / Nan-Jun Sun, David K. Ho et al / 10.1080/10575639508043184 / Natural Product Research, Volume 7, Issue 1 August [...]