Family • Ericacea - Gaultheria cumingiana S. Vidal - WHOLE MOUNTAIN FRAGRANT - Pai-chu Shu Scientific names Gaultheria cumingiana Vidal Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume G, leucocarpa Blume var. crenulata Kurz G, leucocarpa var cumingiana (Vidal) TZ Hsu Gaultheria crenulata Kurz Brossaea leucocarpa (Blume) O. Kuntze Common names Idsa (Ig.) Kaluminga (Ig.) Logauai (Bag.) Taliktuk (Ig.) Uakuakei (Bon.) Cuming's wintergreen (Engl.) Common gaultheria (Engl.) Whole mountain fragrant (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Bai zhu shu. FRENCH: Petit the des pois. INDONESIAN: Gondopuro, Kering, Cantigi bodas. THAILAND: Chamayomdoi. VIETNAMESE: Ch[aa]u th[uj]. Botany Idsa is a small shrub growing to a height of 30 cm to 2 meters, prostrate, erect or climbing in habit. Leaves are ovate or lanceolate, 2 to 7 centimeters long, 1 to 2 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, with toothed margins. Flowers are small, 3 to 5 millimeters across, borne on racemes at the axils of the leaves. Calyx is cup-shaped, the lobes ovate, triangular and ciliate, Corolla is bell-shaped, 3 to 6 millimeters long, with 5 blunt and recurved lobes about 1.5 millimeters long. Fruit is a capsule, rounded, 4 to 7 millimeters in diameter. Edible portion is the dark-blue, fleshy and enlarged calyx. Seeds are numerous. Distribution - In thickets, ravines, and sometimes on open slopes at altitudes from 1,300 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Quezon, Laguna; in Mindoro, Negros and Mindanao. - Also occurs in Taiwan. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Gaultherin, a natural salicylate derivative from Gaultheria yunnanensis: Towards a better [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Sida javensis Cav. - JAVANESE FANPETALS - Zhao wa huang hua ren Scientific names Sida javensis Cav. Sida humilis Cav. Sida veronicaefolia var. javensis (Cav.) Baker f. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhao wa huang hua ren. Common names Hapuang-niknik (Tag.) Igat-igat (Tag.) Marmaraipus (Ik.) Padapadakpusa (Ilk.) Javanese fanpetals (Engl.) Botany Igat-igat is a trailing, herbaceous plant, with stems growing up to 60 centimeters in length. Plant is covered wth scattered, stellate hairs or is nearly smooth. Leaves are orbicular-ovate, and 2 to 7 centimeters long, with pointed tip, prominently heart-shaped base, and margins that are coarsely toothed; and sometimes obscurely lobed. Peduncles are solitary, elongated, and borne at the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, about 5 millimeters long, with triangular, pointed segments. Corolla is yellow, about 7 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is a capsule consisting of 5 carpels, each 2-awned at the apex, the awns being slender and nearly as long as the carpels. Distribution - In dry thickets, along trails, etc., at low altitudes in La Union, Pangasinan, Bataan, Rizal, and Laguna Provinces and Manila, in Luzon. - Also occurs in India to Malaya. Parts used Whole plant. Uses Folkloric Entire plant in decoction used as specific for gonorrhea. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Meliaceae - Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr. - IVORY MAHOGANY Scientific names Dysoxylum decandrum (Blanco) Merr. Dysoxylum amooroides Miq. Dysoxylum blancoi Vidal Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum (A. Juss.) Miq. Dysoxylum salutare F.-Vill. Turraea decandra Blanco Turraea virens Blanco Other vernacular names FRENCH: Dysoxylon de Gaudichaud. Common names Agaru (Pamp.) Makasisi (Bik.) Aguiu (Pamp.) Malaaduas (P. Bis.) Ananangtang (Bik.) Malabaga (Pamp.) Bakugan (Bik.) Malabangau (Tag.) Basiloag (Ilk.) Manangtang (Bik.) Bolong-tambag (Bik.) Palo-hambobokag (Bik.) Bongliu (Bik.) Paluahan (P. Bis.) Bundugon (Bik.) Pamatagin (Ibn.) Buntog (Bik.) Pasiloag (Ilk.) Buntogan (Bik.) Tadiang-kalabau (Tag.) Himamao (Tag.) Tauing-tauing (Mbo.) Igiu (Tag., Pamp.) Taliktan (Tag., Pamp.) Ikuo (Tag.) Ivory mahogany (Engl.) Kugiug (Tag.) Botany Igiu is a tree reaching a height of 10 to 20 meters. Leaves are crowded at the ends of the branches, 20 to 60 centimeters long, pinnate with 10 or more pairs of leaflets. Lower leaflets are usually ovate, less than 10 centimeters long; the median and upper ones are oblong, 20 centimeters or more in length. Flowers are pale yellowish, hairy, about 1 centimeter long, 5-parted, borne in axillary drooping panicles which are about 40 centimeters long. Fruit is yellow, hairy, depressed-globose, about 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, containing red seeds. Distribution - In thickets and forests at low altitudes from Cagayan to Sorsogon in Luzon, and in Mindoro, Palawan, Masbate, Leyte, Negros, Mindanao, and Basilan. - Also occurs in Java to New Guinea. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Dysoxylins A−D, Tetranortriterpenoids with Potent Anti-RSV Activity from Dysoxylum gaudichaudianum / Jian Lu Chen, Michael R Kernan, Shivanand D et [...]


Family • Piperaceae - Piper betle - BETEL PEPPER - Ch'ing Chu Scientific names Piper anisodorum Blanco Piper anisumolens Blanco Piper bathycarpum C. DC. Piper betle Linn. Piper blancoi Merr. P. philippinense C. DC. P. puberulinodum C. DC. Chavica betle Miq. Chavica siriboa Miq. Common names Buyo (Bik.) Buyo-anis (Tag.) Buyo-buyo (Bik.) Buyog (Mbo.) Buyok (C.Bis.) Buyu (Sul.) Gawed (Pang., It.) Gaued (Ilk.) Gok (Ibn.) Ikmo (Tag.) ikmong Iloko (Tag.) Itmo  (Tag.) Kanisi (Bis.) Mamin (Bis., Tag.) Mamon (Bis.) Samat (Pamp.) Betel leaf pepper (Engl.) Betel pepper (Engl.) Betel vine (Engl.) Ch'ing Chu (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Tâmûl, Tanbul. ASSAMESE: Paan, Paana. BENGALI: Paan, Paana, Tambulaballi (plant), Parnakari (leaf). BURMESE: Kun ya. CHINESE: Ju jiang, Tu bi ba, Tu wei teng, Wei zi, Wei ye, Da geng teng. FRENCH: Bétel, Poivrier betel. GERMAN: Betelpfeffer, Betel-Pfeffer. GUJARTI: Paan, Tanbolaa. HINDI: Paan, Pan (leaf). INDONESIA: Bakik serasa, Daun sirih, Sirih, Serasa, Séwéh, Seureuh. KANNADA: Eleballi, Panu, Vileyadele. KHMER: Maluu. MALAYALAM: Vettila. MARATHI: Naagavalli, Naagvel, Paanvel, Pan, Vidyache pan. NEPALESE: Naagavallii (plant), Paan (leaf). PORTUGUESE: Alfavaca de cobra, Cobrinha. SANSKRIT: Naagavall, Parna, Tambula. SINHALESE: Bulath. TAMIL: Ilaikkoti, Taampulavalli, Vetrilai, Vettila, Veyyilai, Veyyilaikkoti. TELUGU: Akutiga, Nagavalli, Nakabali, Tamala, Tambuli. THAI: Phulu., Plu. URDU: Pan. VIETNAMESE: Trầu, Trâu cay, Trâu không, Trâu luong. Gen info There is an estimated total of 1200 species of Piper in the pantropical and neotropical regions. Works on Philippine wild Piperaceae have been extensive. Candole (1910) reported 133 species of Piper and 26 of Peperomia; Merill (1923), 115 Piper, 25 Peperomia, and Quisumbing (1930), documented 87 Piper and 21 Peperomia. Botany [...]


Family • Anonaceae - Ylang-ylang - Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thomson - PERFUME TREE - Yi lan Scientific names Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook f. & Thomson Cangangium odoratum (Lam.) Baill. ex King Unona odorata  (Lam.) Baill. Common names Ilang-ilang (Tag.) Ylang-ylang (Tag.) Perfume tree (Engl.) Fragrant cananga (Engl.) Macassar oil plant (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Sagasein. CHINESE: Guo luo shi, Xiang shui shi, Jia na kai, Yi lan xiang. FRENCH: Canang odorant, Ilang-ilang en arbre. GERMAN: Ilang-Ilang, Ilang-Ilangbaum. GUAM: Alang-ilang. HAWAIIAN: Lanalana. INDIA: Apurvachampaka, Chettu sampangi, Karumugai. INDONESIA: Kernanga. JAPANESE: Iraniran noki, Ban reishi. LAOTIAN: Ka dan nga thay. MALAY: Kananga, Kenanga utan, Bungan sandat. PORTUGUESE: Cananga, Ilanga. RUSSIAN: Ilang-ilang, Zheltyi ilang-lang, Kananga duchistaia. SPANISH: Alangilán, Cadmia, Cananga, Ilang-ilang. THAI: Fereng, Kradang nga thai. General info Ylang ylang means "flowers of flowers." A variety, Cangana odorata macrophylla (Cannagium odoratum macrophylla) yields Cananga oil, also used in the manufacture of cosmetics and soap, flavoring of foods as gelatins and puddings. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cytotoxic Constituents of the Fruits of Cananga odorata / J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (5), pp 616–619 / DOI: 10.1021/np0005208 (2) Relaxing effect of ylang ylang oil on humans after transdermal absorption / Tapanee Hongratanaworakit and Gerhard Buchbauer / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 20 Issue 9, Pages 758 - 763 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.1950 (3) Composition of the essential oil of Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata Hook Fil. et Thomson forma genuina) from Madagascar / Emile M. Gaydou et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1986, 34 (3), pp 481–487 [...]

Ilang-ilang gubat

Family • Annonaceae - Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. - DWARF YLANG YLANG SHRUB - Chia ying chao Scientific names Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. Unona cochinchinensis Lour. Desmos chinensis Lour. Unona chinensis Lour. Desmos hancei Merr. Unona desmos Dunal Desmos velutinus Hance Unona velutina Hance Unona cabog Blanco Common names Dwarf ylang-ylang shrub (Engl.) Ilang-ilang gubat (Tag.) Ylang-Ylang gubat (Tag.) Chia ying chao (Chin.) Botany Ilang-ilang gubat is a rather small erect or climbing shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters height. Leaves are oblong to oblong-ovate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base, and nearly smooth. Flowers are yellowish white, solitary on a 2- to 5-centimeter long peduncle, borne opposite or nearly opposite to leaflets. Calyx are 3, ovate, 3 to 5 millimeters long. Corolla are 6, fixed, arranged in 2 whorls, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 4 centimeters long, the outer whorl bigger than the inner one; stamens numerous. Peduncle extra-axillary, about 5 centimeters long, with one flower. Sepals are ovate-lanceolate, about 1.5 centimeters long. Petals are somewhat hairy, yellow, fragrant, 4 to 5 centimeters long. Fruits are dehiscent, peduncled, arranged in dense clusters, 2 to 5 centimeters long, 1 to 7 seeded. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Studies on the chemical constituents of the root of Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. / Liao SX, Han GY, Zhang YR, Zheng QT, He CH. / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1989;24(2):110-3. / (2) New Cytotoxic Fatty Acid from Desmos cochinchinensis (Annonaceae) / Nan-Jun Sun, David K. Ho et al / 10.1080/10575639508043184 / Natural Product Research, Volume 7, Issue 1 August [...]

Indian borage

Family • Boraginaceae - Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br. Scientific names Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br. Trichodesma hirsutum Trichodesma amplexicaule Borago indica Linn. Common names Indian borage (Engl.) Other vernacular names COUNTRY: Name GUJARATI: Undhanphuli. HINDI: Chhota kalpa. KANNADA: Katte tume soppu. SANSKRIT: Adhapuspi. TAMIL: Kavizhthumbai. Botany Trichodesma indicum is an erect, spreading, branched, annual herb, about 50 centimeters in height. Leaves are stalkless, opposite, lanceolate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base; the upper surfaces clothed with stiff hairs arising from circular tubercles, the lower surfaces less densely villous. Flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, hairy, and 1 to 1.3 centimeters long, with pointed lobes. Corolla is pale blue, with the limb about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, and the lobes pointed. Fruit is ellipsoid, and enclosed by the calyx. Nutlets are about 5 millimeters long, and rough on the inner surface. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Adhakpuspi, Indian Medicinal Plant / IndianetZone (2) Anti-inflammatory activity of alkanoids and triterpenoids from Trichodesma amplexicaule Roth / Singh, B.; Sahu, P.M.; Lohiya, R.K.; Sharma, M.K.; Singh, H.L.; Singh, S. / Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology / FreeLibrary by Farlex (3) Indian Borage / Indian common names / Flowers of India (4) Antimicrobial Potential of Tropical Plant Trichodesma indicum and Trichodesma sedgwickianum / S.S. Saboo, G.G. Tapadiya and S.S. Khadabadi / Research Journal of Microbiology, 2013, Vol 8, No 1, pp 63-69 / DOI: 10.3923/jm.2013.63.69 (5) Anti-venom potential of Pakistani medicinal plants: inhibition of [...]

Indian Catmon

Family • Dilleniaceae - Dillenia indica Linn. - ELEPHANT APPLE - Wu ya guo Scientific names Dillenia indica Linn. Common names Indian catmon (Engl.) Dillenia (Engl.) Elephant apple (Engl.) Hondapara tree (Engl.) Chulta (India) Wu ya guo (Chin.) Botany Indian Catmon is a more or less deciduous tree growing up to 10 meters or more in height, with a few wide-spreading branches. Leaves are alternate, mostly terminal, oblong or broadly lanceolate, 20 to 30 centimeters long, 6 to 12 centimeters wide, stiff, curving outward, with toothed margins, and beautifully ribbed, with 30 to 40 pairs of side veins. Flowers are very large, 15 to 20 centimeters across, solitary at the ends of the twigs, are facing downward. Sepals are rounded and yellowish green, while the petals are white, free, obovate, and 5 to 7.5 centimeters wide. Fruit, which is made of ripened carpels and enclosed by greatly enlarged and thickened imbricating sepals, is large, somewhat rounded or broadly ovoid, 12.5 to 15 centimeters in diameter, yellowish green hard, and tough. Seeds are numerous and compressed, with a hairy margin. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Isolation and Identification of Compounds from the Leaf Extract of Dillenia indica Linn / Md. Abdul Munit, Syed Mohammed Tareq et al / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal. Vol. 13, No 1, January 2010 (2) Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC / D Kumar et al / Phytomedicine, Volume 17, Issue 6, Pages 431-435 (3) Antioxidant activity of the extracts from [...]

Indian rubber fig

Family • Moraceae - Balete - Ficus elastica Roxb. - INDIAN RUBBER TREE - Yin du rong Scientific names Ficus elastica Roxb. Ficus decora Hort. Urostigma elasticum Miq. Common names Balete (Tag.) Indian rubber tree (Engl.) Indian rubber fig (Engl.) Rubber tree Rubber plant Assam rubber (Engl.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Athabor, Attah. KANNADA: Rabra chovad. BENGALI: Bor. KOREAN: In do go mu na mu. BURMESE: Ganoi, Kanoi, Nyaung kyetpaung. SANSKRIT: Vat. CHINESE: Yin du rong. SERBIAN: Gumijevac, Tropska smokva, Fikus, Fikus zmajevac. CROATIAN: Gumijevac, Fikus. SLOVENIAN: Gumovec. DANISH: Gummifigen. SPANISH: Árbol del caucho, Gomero, Higuera cauchera, Higuera de la India (Cuba), Planta del caucho. FRENCH: Arbre á caoutchouc, Caoutchouc. TAMIL: Cimaiyal. GERMAN: Gummibaum. THAI: Yang india. HINDI: Attaabor, Bargad, Bor. VIETNAMESE: Ða búp đỏ. JAPANESE: Indo gomu no ki. Botany Indian rubber tree is a glabrous spreading tree, up to 10 meters high, normally starting as an epiphyte, sending down numerous adventitious roots from the trunk and larger branches. Leaves are very leathery, smooth and shining, elliptic-oblong, 15 to 25 centimeters long, the tip with a tapering point and entire margin. Stipules are deciduous, membranaceous, and usually red, often as long as the leaves. Receptacles are axillary, usually in pairs, stalkless, smooth, greenish-yellow, oblong-ovoid, about 1 centimeter long. Distribution - Introduced, but now pantropic in cultivation. - Popularly planted in parks and as a roadside tree. - Cultivated as a potted plant by florists. Constituents - The latex contains caoutchouc, 10-30%; resin, 1.58%; a bitter substance; albuminoid; and magnesium salts. Wax contains cerotic [...]

Indian rubber vine

Family • Family - Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. - PURPLE ALLAMANDA Scientific names Cryptostegia grandiflora (Roxb.) R. Br. Nerium grandiflora Roxb. Common names Indian rubber vine (Engl.) Purple allamanda (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antiviral activity of medicinal plants of Nilgiris / P Vijayan et al / Indian J Med Res 120, July 2004, pp 24-29 (2) Cardiac glycosides from Cryptostegia grandiflora / M S Kamel , M H Assaf et al / Phytochemistry 58 (2001) 537–542 (3) Studies on the antibacterial potential of Cryptostegia grandiflora R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) extract / Pulok K Mukherjee, R Gunasekhran et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 13 Issue 1, Pages 70 - 72 / Published Online: 15 Feb 1999 (4) PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF FLOWERS AND LATEX OF CRYPTOSTEGIA GRANDIFLORA R.BR. CULTIVATED IN EGYPT / S. M. El Zalabani, E. A. Abdel Sattar, F. I. Fathy and N. G. Shehab Botany Cryptostegia grandiflora is a stout, woody vine. Leaves are oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 6 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, rounded at the base. Cymes are short. Sepals are green, about 8 millimeters long. Corolla is pale purple, about 4 centimeters long, and often wider than it is long. Woody follicles are 10 to 12 centimeters long. Distribution - Recent introduction to the Philippines. - Planted for ornamental purposes. - Now, pantropic. - Native of India. Constituents - Phytochemical studies of flowers yielded two cardenolides, oleandrigenin and gitoxigenin, as well as, two flavonoid glycosides, hyperoside and astragalin, and their aglycones, quercetin and kaempferol. - Latex of fresh [...]