Family • Papaveraceae - Argemone mexicana Linn. - PRICKLY POPPY - Lao chou Scientific names Argemone mexicana Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Lao chou ?, Ji ying su. INDIA: Ghamoya. Common names Baruas (Iv.) Goatweed (Engl.) Diluariu (Tag.) Golden thistle of Peru (Engl.) Kachumba (Ilk.) Mexican poppy (Engl.) Kagang-kagang (C. Bis.) Prickly poppy (Engl.) Kasubang-aso (Ilk.) Queen thistle (Engl.) Bird-in-the-bush (Engl.) Ci ying su (Chin.) Gen info A plant used as "nourishment for the dead" by the Aztecs. The plant latex is collected into a pliable mass and fashioned into an image of an Aztec god. In a sacrifice ritual, the "god" image is killed and its "flesh" distributed among the worshippers. Its became cemented into the culture of poppy when Chinese residents in Mexico extracted from the latex a product with opium-effects. Botany Kachumba is an erect, rather stout, branched annual herb, about 1 meter high. Leaves are 5 to 11 centimeters long, more or less blotched with green and white, glaucous, broad at the base, half-clasping the stem, prominently sinuate-lobed, and spiny. Flowers are terminal, yellow, scentless, 4 to 5 centimeters in diameter. Capsule is spiny, obovate or elliptic-oblong, about 3 centimeters in length. Seeds are spherical, shining, black and pitted. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Argemone mexicana - Prickly Poppy / - K. Edley (2) Antibacterial potentiality of Argemone mexicana solvent extracts against some pathogenic bacteria / Indranil Bhattacharjee et al / Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz vol.101 no.6 Rio de Janeiro Sept. 2006 / doi: 10.1590/S0074-02762006000600011 (3) TOXICITY OF ARGEMONE MEXICANA [...]


Family • Sapindaceae - Dodonaea viscosa (Linn.) Jacq. - HOP BUSH - Che sang zi Scientific names Dodonaea viscosa (Linn.) Jacq. Dodonaea angustifolia Linn. Dodonaea burmanniana DC. Ptelea repanda Schumach. & Thonn. Ptelea viscosa Linn. Other vernacular names BRAZIL: Vassoura vermelha. CHINA: Po liu, Ming you zi HAWAII: A'ali'i, A ali'i' ku makani. HINDI: Walaytinahndi. INDIA: Banda, Aliar, Vilayati mehandi., INDONESIA: Cantigi, Kayu mesen, Sikil. MALAYSIA: Kayu berteh, Serengan laut, Gelam paya. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Lokai, Kelne, Ioia. SANSKRIT: Sanatta. SPAIN: Vrali. THAILAND: Chumhet le, Mai pek. VIETNAM: Ch[af]nh r[af]ng, R[uf] r[if]. Common names Dumanai (Ig.) Haguiui (Tag.) Kalapinai (Tag.) Kasirag (Sbl.) Lugad (Kuy.) Tabau (Tag.) Takud (C. Bis.) Tubu-tubu (C. Bis.) Sagasa (P. Bis., C. Bis.) Hopbush (Engl.) Hopseed (Engl.) Hopseed bush (Engl.) Sticky hopbush (Engl.) Switch-sorrel (Engl.) Che sang zi (Chin.) Botany Kalapinai is a shrub or small tree. Leaves are alternate, oblanceolate, 4.0 to 12 centimeters long, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide. Flowers are yellowish, very small, borne on terminal short racemes. Sepals are oblong. Petals are absent. Fruit is flattened, membranous, somewhat two-lobed, about 18 millimeters across, including the two wings. Wings are very thin, rounded, about 12 millimeters long. Seeds are dark brown or black. Distribution - Throughout the Philippines, along the seashore and in regions subject to a pronounced dry season, extending inland and ascending to 2,000 meters. - Also reported in China, Taiwan. - Now Pantropic. Constituents - The active principle is an acid resin. - Leaves contain two acid resins, gum, albumen, tannin, and ash. - Study [...]


Family • Sterculiaceae - Sterculia foetida - WILD ALMOND - Xiang ping po Scientific names Sterculia foetida Linn. Clompanus foetida Kuntze Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xiang ping po. FRENCH: Arbre puant. HINDI: Jangli badam. MALAY: Kepoh (Indonesia). NEPALESE: Kaju. SPANISH: Anacagüita. THAI: Samrong. Common names Bañgad (Ibn.) Bañgag (Ibn.) Bañgar (Ilk., Neg.) Bobo (P. Bis.) Bobog (P. Bis.) Bobor (Ilk.) Boñgog (Ibn.) Bubog (Tagb., sul., P. Bis.) Bubur (Ilk.) Kurumpang (Mag.) Kumpang (Sul.) Poor tree (Engl.) Wild almond (Engl.) Hazel sterculia (Engl.) Skunk tree (Engl.) Sterculia nut (Engl.) Botany Kalumpang is a spreading tree reaching a height of 20 meters or more. Leaves are crowded at the ends of the branches, and digitately compound, with 7 to 9 leaflets. Leaves are smooth, leathery, entire, elliptic-lanceolate, 12 to 18 centimeters long, with pointed tip. Flowers are malodorous, dull, yellowish to purplish, 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, and borne on panicles at the axils of the leaves, appearing with new leaves. Fruit is large, smooth, ovoid, red, nearly smooth, obovoid, about 10 centimeters long, containing 10 to 15 seeds, which are black and about 2 centimeters long. Distribution - From northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces along the seashore and in semi-open forests at low and medium altitudes. - Also reported from India to tropical East Africa through Malaya to northeastern Australia. Constituents - Kernels: Fixed oil, 51.78%; protein, 21.61 %; starch 12.1 %; sugar, 5%; cellulose, 5.51%; ash 3%. - From the leaves, study yielded two new flavonoid [...]


Family • Rutaceae - Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack - ORANGE JASMINE - Jiu li xiang Scientific names Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack Murraya exotica  Linn. Murraya odorata  Blanco Murraya banati  Elm. Chalcas paniculata Linn. Chalcas camuneng Burm. f. Connarus foetens  Blanco Connarus santaloides  Blanco Common names Banasik (Ilk.) Banaasi (Ilk.) Banaasi (Ilk.) Banaot (Sbl.) Banasi (Bik., Ibn.) Banati (C. Bis., Buk., Mag., Mbo.) Kamuning (Tag., Bik., Dis., Pamp.); Vanaii (Iv.) Chinese box (Engl.) Common jasmine-orange Cosmetic bark tree (Engl.) Mock orange (Engl.) Orange jasmine (Engl.) Jiu li xiang (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Shi gui shu, Qian li xiang, Yue ju, Kau lei heung. FRENCH: Orange-jessamine, Buis de Chine. HINDI: Gacharisha,Madhukamini. INDIA: Kamini marchula, Pandari, Nagagolunga, Konji, Angarakana gida, Bian malika. INDONESIAN: Kemoening, Djenar. JAPANESE: Gekkitsu, Inutsuge, Kuribana, Gigicha, Gigichi. KANNADA: Angara kina. MALAYALAM: Kattukariveppu, Maramulla. MALAYSIA: Kemuning putih, Kemuning. NEPAL: Bajardante. SINHALESE: Aetteriya, Etteriya. SPANISH: Naranjo jazmín. TAMIL: Cimaikkonci, Kattu karuveppilai, Konci. Botany Kamuning is a small, smooth tree, growing from 3 to 8 meters in height, and having a very hard wood. Leaves are 8 to 15 centimeters long, with usually 7 to 9 leaflets on each side, oblong to ovate, elliptic or subrhomboid, and 2 to 7 centimeters. Stems are hairy. Flowers are few, white, very fragrant, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, and borne on short, terminal or axillary cymes. Fruits is fleshy, red when ripe, pointed or oval-shaped, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Distribution - Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Often cultivated. - Also occurs in [...]


Family • Lamiaceae / Verbenaceae - Clerodendrum intermedium Cham. - BLEEDING HEART - Bao da lung chuan hua Scientific names Clerodendrum intermedium Cham. Clerodendrom blumeanum Hallier f. Clerodendron paniculatum  Linn. Clerodendron squamatum H. Lam. Volkameria casopanguil Blanco Volkameria inermis Blanco Other vernacular names CHINESE: Bao da lung chuan hua, Ken ding ku lin pan. Common names Aloksok (Bis.) Laroan-anito (Tag.) Asuangai (Bis.) Libintano (P. Bis.) Balantana (Bis.) Pakapis (Bis.) Bantana (Bis.) Salinguak (P. Bis.) Dagtung (C. Bis.) Tapag-asuwang (Tag.) Humang (If.) Glorybower (Engl.) Iginga (Tag.) Bagflower (Engl.) Kalalauan (Tag.) Bleeding heart (Engl.) Kasopangil (Tag.) Dragon boat flower (Engl.) Katungatum (Mag.) Pagoda flower (Engl.) Kolokolog (Bis.) Taxon info Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the Lamiaceae family. It is a member of the subfamily Ajugoideae, one of four subfamilies transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae based on morphological and molecular phylogenetics. Clerodendrum L. is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with more the 500 species identified, with ethnomedical use in many indigenous systems (Indian, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Chinese) for a variety of disease: syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice and hypertension. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants / Surya Hadi and John Bremmer / Molecules 2001, 6, 117-129 (2) Preliminary Phytochemical, antimicrobial and toxicity studies on Clerodendrum paniculatum Linn leaves / Praveen.M, Radha K, Hari Kumar R, Padmaja V, Anne Mathew, and Ajith Kumar P / Hygeia.J.D.Med.vol.4 (1), April2012 –September2012 (3) Clerodendrum intermedium Cham. is an accepted name / The Plant List Botany Kasopangil is an erect, branched, [...]


Family • Gramineae - Cynodon dactylon Linn. - BERMUDA GRASS Scientific names Cynodon dactylon Linn. Cynodon linearis Willd. Cynodon rufescens LLanos. Capriola dactylon O. Kuntz Digitaria glumaepatula Miq. Panycum dactylon Linn. Panicum glumaepatulum Steud. Common names Balbalut (Bon.) Barutbarut (Ilk.) Galud-galud (Ilk.) Grama (Span.) Kawad-kawaran (Tag.) Kawit-kawitan (Tag.) Kolatai (Tag.) Palot-galot (Tag.) Florida grass (Engl.) Bahama grass (Engl.) Creeping-cynodon (Engl.) Creeping finger grass (Engl.) Bermuda grass (Engl.) Couch grass (Engl.) Dog's tooth grass (Engl.) Dub grass (Engl.) Green couch (Engl.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS: Kweekgras. BENGALI: Durba. CAMBODIA: Smao anchien. FIJI: Kabuta. FRENCH: Chiendent dactyle, Chiendent pied-de-poule, Grand chiendent. GERMAN: Hundezahngras. HAWAII: Manienie. HINDI: Doorva, Doob. INDIA: Doob, Durva. INDONESIA: Jukut kakawatan, Gigirinling, Rumput bermuda, Rumput grinting, Sukit grinting. ISRAEL: Yablith.. KANNADA: Ambate-hullu, Graikae. LAOS: Hnha:z phe:d. MALAYALAM: Karuka-oulli. MALAYSIA: Rumput minyak. MARATHI: Doorva, Haryali. MYANMAR: Mye-sa-myet.. NEPAL: Motie molulu, Dubo. PORTUGUESE: Capim-bermuda. PUNJABI: Dub, Kabbar, Talla. SANSKRIT: Bhargavi, Doorwa, Granthi, Sveta. SPANISH: Chepica brave, Came de niño, Pate de perdiz, Gramilla blanca.. TAMIL: Arugu, Aruvam-pillu, Mooyar-oul, Arugampull. TELUGU: Garika, Gerike, Haryali THAILAND: Ya-phraek. URDU: Ghass. VIETNAM: Cochi, Coong. Botany Kawad-kawaran is a tropical and subtropical creeping grass with slender, branched, prostrate, usually widely creeping stems, rooting at the nodes and forming matted tufts, sending up erect, slender, flowering branches, 8 to 20 centimeters high. Leaves are 1.5 to 3 centimeters long. Spikes, numbering 3 to 4, are 2 to 5 centimeters long, narrowly linear, spreading, green to purplish. Spikelets are imbricated, about 1.5 millimeters long. Distribution - Commonly found throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands, rice [...]


Family • Amaranthaceae - Amaranthus viridis Linn. - AMARANTH - Zhou guo xian Scientific names Amaranthus viridis Linn, Euxolus caudatus Naves Euxolus viridis Moq. Amaranthus gracilis Desf. Amaranthus polystachys Willd. Common names Bauan (Bon.) Halom (Tag., Bis.) Halunapa (Sul.) Kadiapa (Mag.) Kalunai (Ilk.) Kilitis (Bik.) Kolitis (Tag.) Kulitis (Tag.) Nasi (It.) Siitan (Ilk.) Sitan (Ib.) Amaranth (Engl.) Green amaranth (Engl.) Slender amaranth (Engl.) Wild amaranth (Engl.) Zhou guo xian (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Ban note, Bon note. CHINESE: Lu xian, Ye xian, Niao xian, Kang xian, Ye xian cai, Shan xing cai. FRENCH: Amarante verte. GERMAN: Grüner Amarant. GREEK: Depto vlito. GUJARATI: Dhinmado. HINDI: Chauraiya, Jangali chaulai, Jungali chaulayi. JAPANESE: Aobiyu, Honaga inu biyu. KANNADA: Cheakeerae soppu, Chilikiraesoppu, Dagglisoppu, , Dagglarive soppu, Eere soppu. KOREAN: Cheong bi reum. MALAY: Bayan hedjo. MALAYALAM: Cerhiraa, Kuppacheera, Kuppacheera, Mullanchira, Serucira. MARATHI: Lhanamat, Ran bhaji. ORIYA: Levitiakoda. PORTUGUESE: Cararu, Carurú-comum, Carurú-de-mancha, Carurú-de-porco, Carurú-de-soldado (Brazil). RUSSIAN: Shiritsa zelenaia. SANSKRIT: Gandira, Thanduliya, Vishaghna. SPANISH: Bledo, Quelite verd (Mexico). TAMIL: Iruvati, Iruvatikkirai, Kollaikkirai, Kuppai keerai, Kuppaikkirai, Sinna keerai, Vakucakkirai. TELUGU: Chailaka thot kura, Chilaka thotakoora. THAI: Phak hom, Phak khom, Phak khom hat. VIETNAMESE: Dền xanh. Botany Kolitis is an erect, smooth, branched unarmed herb, 30 to 60 centimeters high. Leaves are alternate, ovate, long-petioled, 4 to 10 centimeters long, obtuse tip, usually notched, base truncate or decurrent. Flowers are very small, densely disposed, green, 1 millimeter long. Sepals are 5, or 1 to 3, ovate to linear, often aristate. Inflorescences are terminal, axillary, simple or panicled, interrupted spikes. Fruits are [...]


Family • Tiliaceae - Triumfetta bartramia Linn. - CHINESE BURR - Chi shuo ma Scientific names Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Triumfetta bartramia Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ci shuo ma. INDONESIAN: Sukupan, Pungpurutan, Galopang. MALAYSIAN: Pulut-pulut, Champadang. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Gavana, Siponi. THAI: Poyumyuu, Seng. VIETNAMESE: Day k[es], Gai d[aaf]u. Common names Balanggot (Bik.) Bulagun (Sul.) Daupang (Sul.) Kollokolot (Sub., Ilk.) Kolotang-bilog (Tag.) Kullukullot (Ilk.) Kulutan (Tag.) Kulutkulutan (Tag., Pang.) Kupot (Ig.) Moropoto (S. L. Bis.) Pallopallot (Neg., Ilk.) Burweed (Engl.) Chinese burr (Engl.) Diamond burbark (Engl.) Botany Kulutkulutan erect, more or less hairy, branched annual, often half-woody shrub, growing to a height of 0.5 to 1.5 meters. Leaves are variable, usually orbicular to rhomboid-ovate, 2 to 6 centimeters in length, entire or 3-lobed, the upper ones oblong to ovate-lanceolate, smaller and not lobed. Flowers are yellow, numerous, about 6 millimeters long, borne on dense axillary fascicles. Fruit is small, rounded, hairy, covered with hooked, smooth spines. Distribution - Very common in open waste places in all islands and provinces, at low and medium altitudes. - Certainly introduced. - Now pantropic. Constituents - Plant yields carbohydrate glycosides, phytosterols, steroids, flavonoids, tannin, phenolic compounds and triterpenoids. - Study yielded yielded ß-sitosterol, friedelin, friedelinol quercetin, 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone and rosmarinic acid. - Study isolated four flavonoids from the leaves of Triumfetta procumbens viz. apigenin 7-O-glucuronide, luteolin 7-O-glucuro- nide, schaftoside and kaempferol 3-O-(p-coumaroylglucoside). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Composition and antimicrobial activities of the essential oil of Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq / J P Mevy, J M Bessiere et al / Flavour [...]


Family • Fabaceae - Cajanus cajan (Linn.) Millsp. - PIGEON PEA - Mu dou Scientific names Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp. Cystisus cajan Linn Cystisus pseudo-cajan Jacq. Cajan inodorum Medic. Cajanus bicolor DC. Cajanus indicus Spreng. Cajanus cajan (L.) Huth Common names Gablos (Tag.) Kadios (Mang., Tag., P. Bis.) Kagyos (Tag.) Kagyas (Tag.) Kaldis (Ig., Ilk.) Kalios (Tag.) Kardis (Ibn., Ilk., Ig.) Kidis (Ilk., Bon.) Kusia (Ig., If.) Tabios (Bik., C. Bis.) Congo pea (Engl.) Pigeon pea (Engl.) Red gram (Engl.) Mu dou (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Bisillah hindîyah, Lûbyâ sûdânî, Shakul. BENGALI: Tur. CHINESE: San ye dou, Niu dou, Dou rong, Shu tuo. DANISH : Ærtebønne, Ærteboenne. DUTCH : Struikerwt, Katjang goedé, ESTONIAN : Harilik tuvihernes. FINNISH : Kyyhkynherne. FRENCH : Ambrevade, Pois d'Angola, Pois du Congo, Pois cajan. GERMAN: Straucherbse, Strauchbohne, Taubenerbse. HINDI: Arhar, Toor, Tuur, Tur, Tuvar, Tuver. ITALIAN : Pisello d'Angola, Pisello del tropico, Caiano. JAPANESE: Pijonpii, Ki-mame. KHMER : Sândaèk dai, Sândaèk kroëb sâ, Sândaèk klöng. LAOTIAN : Thwàx h'ê. MALAY : Kacang kacang dal, Kacang hiris, Kacang kayu, Kacang gude. NEPALESE: Rahar. PORTUGUESE : Feijão-guandu, Guandu (Brazil). SANSKRIT: Adhaki. SPANISH : Cachito, Fríjol de árbol, Frijol de la India, Frijol guandul, Frijol quinchancho, Gandul. SWEDISH : Duwärt. THAI: Thua rae, Thua maetaai, Ma hae. VIETNAMESE: Cay dau chieu, Dau thong. Botany Kadios is an erect, branched, hairy shrub, 2 to 4 meters high. Stems are angled and covered with fine hairs. Leaves are oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, trifoliate with two lateral leaflets and a central/terminal leaflet on a longer petiole. Flowers are yellow, [...]


Family • Asteraceaew - Pluchea indica (Linn.) Less. - MARSH FLEABANE - Luan xi Scientific names Baccharis indica Linn. Conyza corymbosa Roxb. Conyza foliolosa Wall. ex DC. Conyza indica var. indica Pluchea indica (Linn.) Less. Kuo bao ju (Chin.) Common names Banig-banig (Sul.) Bauing-bauing (Sul.) Kalapini (Tag.) Lagunding-late (Sbl., Tag.) Tulo-lalaki (P. Bis.) Indian camphorweed (Engl.) Indian pulchea (Engl.) Marsh fleabane (Engl.) Luan yi (Chin.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Pros anlok. CHINA: Ge za shu INDONESIA: Beluntas (Indonesian), luntas (Javanese), baruntas (Sundanese). LAOS: Nat luat. MALAYSIA: Beluntas, Beluntas paya. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: A'apu. THAILAND: Khlu, Nuat ngua, naat wua. VIETNAM: C[us]c t[aaf]n, l[as] l[uws]c. Botany Kalapini is an erect, much-branched shrub, 1 to 2 meters in height. Leaves are oblong-ovate to oblong-elliptic and 1.5 to 4 centimeters long, with pointed or blunt tip, wedge-shaped base, and slightly and irregularly toothed margins. Inflorescence is a compound, terminal, slightly hairy corymb 5 to 11 centimeters long. Numerous heads are about 5 millimeters long. Involucral bracts are ovate, with the inner ones gradually longer. Flowers are numerous, and pink-purple or lilac. Achenes are minute and ribbed; the pappus is white, scanty, and spreading. Distribution - From northern Luzon to Mindanao, along the seashore and tidal streams within the influence of salt or brackish water. - Also occurs in India to China and Malaysia. Constituents - Yields an essential oil. Properties - Astringent, antipyretic. - Studies suggest anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, gastroprotective, antivenom, antioxidant properties. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) In vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Pluchea indica Aqueous Extract: The Potential [...]