Family • Cucurbitaceae - Cucurbita maxima - SQUASH - Fan nan gua Scientific names Cucurbita maxima Duchesne Curcubita sulcata Blanco Sun gua (Chin.) Common names Calabaza (Sp.) Kabasi (Sul.) Kabasi (Sul.) Kalabasa (Tag., Ceb.) Kalabasang-bilog (Tag.) Kalabasang-pula (Tag.) Karabasa (Ilk.) Kumbasa (Bon.) Giant pumpkin (Engl.) Squash (Engl.) Sweet-fleshed squash (Engl.) Fan nan gua (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS : Pampoen. ITALIAN : Zucca, Zucca gigante, Giramonte. ARABIC : Qar'islambuli, Qar'malti, Qar'maghrabi, Karr estmboly (Egypt). JAPANESE : Kuri kabocha, Seiyou kabocha, Seiyou kabocha. CHINESE: Bei gua, jiao si gua, yang gua. NEPALESE : Kadu, Kashi phal, Pharsi, Sitaa phal. DANISH : Centnergræskar. NORWEGIAN : Kjempegraskar. DUTCH : Pompoen, Ronde pompoen, Reuzenpompoen, Reuzenkalebas. POLISH : Dynia duza, Dynia olbrzymia. ESTONIAN : Suureviljaline kõrvits. PORTUGUESE : Abóbora-menina, Abóbora-moranga. FINNISH : Jättiläiskurpitsa. RUSSIAN : Tykva gigantskaia. FRENCH : Potiron, Giraumon, Courge-giraumon, Courge d'hiver, Grosse courge, Courge-potiron. SPANISH : Calabaza amarilla, Calabaza de cidra, Calabaza gigante, Calabaza tamalayota, Calabaza tonanera, Calabaza redonda, Quinoa, Quinua, Zapallo (Argentina). GERMAN : Risen-Kürbis, Risenkürbis, Riesenkuerbis. SWEDISH : Jättepumpa, Pumpa. HEBREW : Delaat gedola. URDU : Halva kaddu, Mitha kaddu. HINDI : Kadduu, Sitaphal. YORUBA : Apala. HUNGARIAN : Sütö tök. Botany Kalabasa is a coarse, prostrate or climbing, annual, herbaceous vine, reaching a length of 4 meters or more. Leaves are hispid, rounded, 15 to 30 centimeters in diameter, heart-shaped at the base, shallowly 5-lobed, with finely toothed margins, and often mottled on the upper surface. Flowers are bell-shaped, erect, yellow and about 12 centimeters long, the corolla limb is about as [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Dischidia purpurea Merr. Scientific names Dischidia purpurea Merr. Common names Kalipkip (Tag.) Talokop (S. L. Bis.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Dischidia / Wikipedia Gen info Dischidia is a plant genus in the Milkweed family, Asclepiadaceae, comprising about 80 known species which all grow as epiphytes, native to tropical areas of China, India, and most areas of Indo-China. Botany Kalipkip is an epiphytic, herbaceous, creeping vine found on erect tree trunks, and rooting at every node. Leaves are fleshy and leathery, flattened against the supporting tree trunk, and the hollow spaces occupied by colonies of ants. Leaves are in pairs, opposite, stalkless, rounded, 3.5 to 5 centimeters in diameter, deep purple, and smooth. Inflorescence is axillary, on slender stalks, and 4 centimeters long. Flowers, produced from the tips of the branches, are few, 4 to 4.5 millimeters long, pink to white, and smooth throughout. Sepals are think, ovate, and 1 millimeter long. Corolla is urceolate, membranous, 3 millimeters in diameter and 4 millimeters long; its lobes triangular, pointed and 1 millimeter long. Distribution - Endemic species found on trees in forests at medium altitudes, ascending to 1,200 meters in Cagayan, Apayao, Pangasinan, Bataan, Laguna, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; in Samar, Leyte, and in Mindanao. Parts used Leaves. Uses  Folkloric - In Laguna Province, crushed leaves are applied externally as a poultice. - Also, leaves cooked in coconut oil, made into a pomade for herpes and eczema. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Solanaceae - Lycopersicon esculentum - TOMATO - Fan qie Scientific name Solanum lycopersicum Linn. Solanum pomiferum Cav. Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H. Karst Common names Kamatis (C. Bis., Tag., Bik., Sul., Ig.) Kamatis-bundok (Tag.) Umli (If.) Tomato (Engl.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Peeng pah. CHINESE: Fan qie. FRENCH: Tomate. INDONESIA: Tomat. LAOS: Khua somz. MALAYSIA: Tomato. SPANISH: Tomate. THAILAND: Makhua-thet, Makhua-som. VIETNAM: C[af] chua. General info There are around 7,500 varieties of tomato. In 2009, about 150 million tons of tomatoes were produced worldwide. China, the largest producer, accounted for almost 30 % of the global output. Depending on shape or size, tomatoes are categorized into: Slicing or globe, beefsteak, oxheart, plum, pear, cherry, grape, and campari. Botany Kamatis is a hairy annual herb, typically growing 1 to 3 meters in height, with ascending or spreading hairy and branched stems. Stem is weak, often sprawling over the ground or vines over other plants. Leaves are pinnate and alternate, oblong-ovate, 10 to 40 centimeters long. Leaflets are irregular and toothed or lobed. Inflorescence is racemose or cymose, 5 to 8 centimeters long, and few flowered. Flowers are yellow, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Fruit is variable in shape; in the wild and naturalized forms it is rounded or pear-shaped; 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter; in the commonly cultivated form, the fruit is rounded and compressed, lobed, 4 to 10 centimeters wide, red when ripe, smooth, fleshy, juicy, subacid, containing numerous seeds. Distribution - Found throughout the Philippines in its original form. - Extensively [...]


Family • Verbenaceae - Lantana - Lantana camara - STINK GRASS - Ma-ying Tan Common names Lantana camara Linn. Lantana aculeata Linn. Lantana viburnoides Blanco Common names Bahug-bahug (P. Bis.) Lantana (Tag., Engl.) Baho-baho (P. Bis.) Cinco negritos (Span.) Bangbangsit (Ilk.) Coronitas (Span.) Diris (Tag.) Ma-ying Tan (Chin.) Koronitas (Tag.) Stink grass (Engl.) Kantutay (Tag.) Wild sage (Engl.) Gen info  • There are 40 species of the genus Lantana. • Some are extremely unpleasant and toxic to livestock, as is L. camara. • In some countries, considered an invasive weed, earning the name, "Jekyll and Hyde of plants." It releases chemicals in its surroundings, preventing germination of the native flora. It is wont to form dense thickets, spreads very quickly, with one plant producing as many as 12,000 seeds a year. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Evaluation of antimotility effect of Lantana camara L. var. acuelata constituents on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice / Lenika Sagar, Rajesh Sehgal, and Sudarshan Ojha / BMC Complement Altern Med / 2005; 5: 18./ doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-5-18. (2) Weed Alert: Lantana / John Patrick  (3) Evaluation of wound healing activity of Lantana camara L. - a Preclinical study / B. Shivananda Nayak, S. Sivachandra Raju et al / Phytotherapy Research / Vol 23 Issue 2, Pages 241 - 245 (4) In vitro cytotoxic activity of Lantana camara Linn / C Raghu, G Ashok, SA Dhanaraj, B Suresh, P Vijayan / Indian Journal of Pharmacology / RESEARCH LETTER / Year : 2004 | Volume : 36 | Issue : 2 | Page [...]


Family • Asteracea - Blumea pubigera (Linn.) Merr. - Fu xue kang Scientific names Blumea pubigera (Linn.) Merr. Blumea chinensis var, villosa Warb. Blumea riparia DC. Conyza chinensis L. Conyza pubigera Linn. Conyza riparia Blume Jia dong feng cao (Chin.) Common names Katarai (Sul.) Kuli-amu (Sub.) Lankat (Mbo.) Pagang-pagang (C. Bis.) Fu xue kang (Chin.) Other vernacular names INDONESIA: Tombak-tombak (Malay), jonge areuy, lalangkapan PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Mulmul, mungla LAOS: Phang nhot pang THAILAND: Mu masang, kamu maeng VIETNAM: Day bau rung, cuc leo Botany Katarai is a smooth vine with stems up to 3 meters long. Leaves are elliptic-lanceolate, 3.5 to 9 centimeters long, pointed-tipped, blunt-based, and distantly toothed at the margins. Flowering heads are 1.2 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter, clustered on the short, distant branches of a long, terminal hairy panicle. Corolla-lobes are hairy. Fruits are achenes, strongly 10-ribbed, and hairy. Pappus is white. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Common names / Blumea riparia / GLOBinMED (2) Studies on flavonoids from Blumea riparia / Cao JQ, Sun SW, Chen H, Wang YN, Pei YH. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2008 Apr;33(7):782-4. (3) STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM A HEMOSTATIC MEDICINAL PLANT BLUMEA RIPARIA (BL.) DC. IN GUANGXI / Cui-Wu Lin, Ting Lei, Hai-Yan Chen / Fourth International Symposium on Recent Advances in Environmental Health Research POSTER SESSION B (4) Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Blumea Riparia DC. / Tumor Research Center (5) Preliminary Study on Chemical Components of Blumea riparia(Bl.) DC / JIANG Jian-ping,CHEN Chen,LIU Xi-hua, MA Wen-fang, DU Xiu / Journal of Guangxi Traditional Chinese [...]


Family • Gleicheniaceae - Gleichenia linearis (Burm.) Clark - TANGLE FERN - Mang qi Scientific names Polypodium lineare Burm. Gleichenia dichotoma Hook. Gleichenia hermanni R. Br. Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.) Underw. Gleichenia linearis Burm. Tie mang qi (Chin.) Other vernacular names INDIA: Raj hans JAPANESE: Ko-shida MALAYSIA: Resam WEST AFRICAN: Kissi yendon, Mende koye Common names Gapingoi (Bon.) Kilob (Tag.) Tilub (Tag.) Tangle fern (Engl.) Umbrella fern (Engl.) Linear forked fern (Engl.) Old world forkedfern (Engl.) False staghorn (Engl.) Resam (Malay) Mang qi (Chin.) Botany Kilob is a vigorously creeping ground fern with long branching stems and slender rhizomes, growing up to several meters long, with very large fronds that repeatedly forks, with budlike structures in the forks. Segments are linear or broader. Sori are few and brown on the underside, with no indusium. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties of an aqueous extract of Dicranopteris linearis leaves in experimental animal models / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria et al / Journal of Natural Medicines • Volume 62, Number 2 / April, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s11418-007-0224-x (2) Importance of Ferns in Human Medicine / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 231-234. 2007. (3) Pulasan / Nephelium mutabile Blume / Morton, J. 1987. Pulasan. p. 265–266. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. (4) Ethnobotanical Studies of Some Important Ferns / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 164-172. 2007. (5) Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Plants Available in Malaysia / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria / Iranian Journ of Pharma & Thera / Jan 2007 / Vol 6, No [...]


Family • Simaroubaceae - Quassia amara Linn. - QUASSIA WOOD Scientific names Quassia amara Linn. Quassia alatifolia Stokes Quassia crocea Vahl Quassia officinalis Rich. Simarouba surinamense Pulle Common names Corales (Span., Tag.) Kuasia (Tag.) Bitter ash (Engl.) Bitter bush (Engl.) Bitter quassia (Engl.) Bitterwood (Engl.) Quassia wood (Engl.) Other vernacular names CZECH: Kvasie hořká. DANISH: Kvassia. DUTCH: Biterhout, Bitterhout, Kwassie, Kwasi bita bluem knoppen. FRENCH: Bois amer, Bois de quassia, Quassia de Cayenne, Quassia de Surinam, Quinine de Cayenne, Quinine du pays, Quinquina de Cayenne. GERMAN: Bitteresche, Bitterholzbaum, Bitterquassia, Fliegenholz, Fliegenholzbaum, Quassiaholz, Quassiaholzbaum, Quassie, Simarubabaum. HUNGARIAN : Keserűfa, Keserű kvasszia, Légyölőfa. ITALIAN : Abre camino, Legno della quassia, Quassia amaranome comune, Quassio. POLISH : Gorzkla. PORTUGUESE : Amargo, Leno de quássia, Marauba, Marupá, Murupa, Pau-amarelo, Pau-quássia, Quássia-de-Caiena, Quina, Quina de Caiena, Quinarana. SPANISH : Crucete, Cuasia amarga, Cuasia surinamense, Guabo, Guavito, Guavito amargo, Guavo, Hombre grande, Hombrón, Leño amargo, Leño de cuasia, Palo amargo, Palo de cuasia, Palo muñeco, Quassia amara, Quina de Cayena, Suña de Cayeno. SWEDISH : Kvassia amara Surinam, Surinamkvassia. TURKISH : Kassia ağaçı. Botany Kuasia is a smooth shrub growing 2 to 3.5 meters high. Leaves are alternate, about 20 centimeters long. Petiole and rachis are broadly winged. Leaflets are five, stalkless, elliptic-oblong, although the terminal one could be oblong-obovate, and 7 to 12 centimeters long. Flowers are borne on racemes, 8 to 20 centimeters long, bright red, with the corolla about 2.5 centimeters long. Distribution - Ornamental cultivation. - Certainly introduced; native of tropical America. Constituents - Bark contains quassin, [...]


Family • Hydrocharitaceae - Ottelia alismoides (Linn.) Pers. - DUCK LETTUCE - Shui che qian Scientific names Ottelia alismoides (Linn.) Pers. Ottelia dioecia Yan Ottelia ensiformis Blanco Ottelia philippinensis Ostenfeld. Ottelia japonica Miq. Stratiotes alismoides Linn. Damasonium lancifolium Presl Long she cao (Chin.) Common names Damong-ilalim (Tag.) Espada (Sp.) Kalabua (Tag.) Lanting (Bik.) Lanten-sapa (Tag.) Lanting-sapa (Tag.) Maraduyug (It.) Tarabang (Ilk.) Duck lettuce (Engl.) Water plantain (Engl.) Shui che qian (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Shui bai cai, lung she ts'ao. DUTCH: Duikerbloem. INDIA: Pokok kelur. JAPANESE: Mizu-ôba-Ko KOREAN: Mul jil gyeong. MALAY: Keladi ayer, Kreboboth. SPANISH: Espada, Tangila. Botany Kalabua is an aquatic plant. Roots are fibrous. Leaves are extremely variable, with short or long petioles, according to the depth of the water. Blades of the submerged leaves are often narrow; the floating ones, ovate or somewhat rounded, with a rounded or often heart-shaped base, 5 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are white, about 2 centimeters in length. Fruit is oblong, 2.5 to 4 centimeters long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Preliminary study on the anti-tubercular effect of Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers. / Li H, Qu X, Zhao D et al /Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1995 Feb;20(2):115-6, 128. (2) Otteliones A and B: Potently Cytotoxic 4-Methylene-2-cyclohexenones from Ottelia alismoides / Seif-eldin N Ayyad, Andrew S Judd et al / J. Org. Chem., 1998, 63 (23), pp 8102–8106 / DOI: 10.1021/jo971870a (3) Cytological Studies in Ottelia alismoides Pers.1 / M. P. Misra / Cytologia 39: 419-427, 1974 (4) Medicinal plants of North-Kamrup district of Assam used in primary healthcare [...]


Family • Polypodiaceae - Oleandra colubrina (Blanco) Copel. - SNAKE SKIN FERN Scientific names Oleandra colubrina (Blanco) Copel. Oleandra neriiformis Cav. Blechnum colubrinum Blanco Common names Kaliskis-ahas (Tag.) Lunas (Tag.) Snake skin fern (Engl.) Botany Kaliskis-ahas is a terrestial and epiphytic fern, scandent and brushy in habit. Rhizomes are woody, clothed with dense adpressed bases of scales which sometimes grow to several meters long and are branched. Scales are arranged in a way resembling somethose those of snakes; hence the common name, kaliskis-ahas. Stipes are clustered. Fronds are single and entire, 10 to 35 cm long and 1.5 to 4 cm wide, with acuminate or caudate apex, and not very hairy. Sori are arranged in a row on each side of the costa; the insidium is reniform and persistent. Distribution On tree tops and terrestially, in the sun, at middle and higher altitudes, throughout the Philippines. Also found in Malaya. Properties Emmenagogue. Parts used Stipes, rhizomes. Uses Folkloric Decoction of stipes considered an effective emmenagogue. In the Philippines, rhizome used for treatment of venomous snake bites. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Leguminosae - Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. - SWEET TAMARIND - Niu ti dou Scientific names Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth. Feuilleea dulcis  Roxb. Inga camatchili  Perr. Inga dulcis Willd. Inga lanceolata Blanco Mimosa dulcis  Roxb. Mimosa unguis-cuti Blanco Acacia dulcis Roxb. Other vernacular names FRENCH : Campèche (New Caledonia), Cassie de Manille, Épine de Madras, Pois sucré, Tamarin de l'Inde, Tamarin de Manille. GERMAN : Camambilarinde. HINDI: Vilayati babul. SPANISH : Guamúchil, Guayamochil, Huamúchil, Madre de flecha. TAMIL: Kodukkapuli. THAI : Ma kham khong, Ma kham thet. VIETNAMESE : Me Keo, Keo Tây, Me nước, Găng Tây. Common names Camachile (Pamp.) Kamunsil (P. Bis.) Chamultis (Ig.) Karamansili (Ibn.) Damortis (Ilk.) Komonsili (P. Bis.) Damulkis (Bon.) Komontos (Ting.) Kamachili (Tag., Bik.) Komontres (Ting.) Kamachilis (Tag.) Black bead (Engl.) Kamanchilis (P. Bis., Mag.) Camachile tree (Engl.) Kamansile (Tag.) Madras thorn (Engl.) Kamantilis (Pang.) Manila tamarind (Engl.) Kamarsiles (Tag.) Monkeypod (Engl.) Kamatsile (Tag.) Sweet inga (Engl.) Kamatsele (Tag.) Sweet tamarind (Engl.) Kamonsiles (Tag.) Niu ti dou (Chin.) Gen info / Etymology Referred to as Manila tamarind because of the sweet-sour tamarind-like taste. GenusPithecellobium derives from from the Greek words 'pithekos' (ape) and 'lobos' (pod), and the species name 'dulce' from the Latin 'dulcis' meaning sweet. Botany Kamatsile is a tree 5 to 18 meters high, with pendulous branches, with short, sharp stipular spines. The leaves are evenly 2-pinnate, 4 to 8 centimeters long. The flowers are white, in dense heads, 1 centimeter in diameter. Pods are turgid, twisted, and spiral, 10 to 18 centimeters long, 1 centimeter wide, and dehiscent along [...]