Family • Rubiaceae - Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp - COMMON BUR-FLOWER - Huang liang mu Scientific names Anthocephalus chinensis (Lamk.) Rich. ex Walp Anthocephalus cadamba Roxb. Anthocephalus indicus A. Rich. Nauclea cadamba Roxb. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser. Sarcocephalus cadamba (Roxb.) Kurz Common names Kaatoan-bangkal (Tag.) Cadamba (Engl.) Kadam (Engl.) Common bur-flower (Engl.) Huang liang mu (Chin.) Botany Kaatoan-bangkal is a medium-sized to large tree growing 15 to 45 meters high. Bark is gray, smooth in young trees, rough and longitudinally fissured in old trees. Bole is straight and cylindrical, branchless for up to 25 meters, with small buttresses and a broad crown. Leaves are large, 15 to 50 centimeters long and 8 to 25 centimeters wide, glossy green, opposite, ovate to elliptic, with acute to acuminate apex, loosely arranged, petioled with lanceolate stipules. Flowers are occur in terminal, solitary heads, 3 to 5 centimeters wide. Corolla is funnelform with five lobes. Fruits are united and embedded in a receptacle. Distribution - Found in primary forests at low and medium altitudes in the Philippines. - Occasionally planted along roadsides. - Also occurs in India, China, Australia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Two new triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Anthocephalus chinensis. / Xu XY, Yang XH, Li SZ, Song QS. / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2011 Oct;13(11):1008-13. Epub 2011 Oct 10. (2) Antibacterial Properties of Anthocephalus Cadamba Fruits. / Mr. Ram P Mishra / WebmedCentral AYURVEDIC MEDICINE 2011;2(8):WMC002073 (3) Antimicrobial activity of Anthocephalus cadamba Linn / K.S.Chandrashekar, K.S.Prasanna / Journal of Chemical [...]


Family • Apocynaceae - Plumeria acuminata W. T. Ait. - TEMPLE FLOWER, FRANGIPANI - Da ji hua Scientific names Plumeria acuminata Air. Plumeria alba Blanco Plumeria acutifolia Poir. Ji dan hua (Chin.) Common names Kachuchi (C. Bis.) Kalachuche (Tag., Bik.) Kalasusi (Tag.) Kalatsutsi (Tag.) Kalanuche (Ilk.) Kalonoche (Ilk.) Karachucha (Tag.) Karatuche (Tag.) Frangipani (Engl.) Flor de Mayo (Mexico) Temple flower (Engl.) Mian zhi zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Yasmin hindi. BENGALI: Gorur champa, Dalan phul CHINESE: Dan ji hua, Ya jiao mu, Hong ji dan hua. GUJARATI: Rhada champa. HINDI: Golainchi. INDIA: Pandhra chapha, Perungalli (Tamil). MAYALALAM: Velachampakan. MARATHI: Sonachampa. ORIYA: Kat champa. SANSKRIT: Kshira champa. Botany Kalachuche is a small, deciduous tree, 3 to 7 meters high, with a crooked trunk, smooth and shining stems, succulent, with abundant sticky, milky latex. Bark has a smooth, papery outer layer which is grey, shining, and constantly exfoliating in small flakes. Wood is yellowish-white and soft. Branches are thick, fleshy, swollen and leafy at the tips. Leaves are crowded at the terminal end of the branch, commonly oblong in shape, 20 to 40 centimeters long, 7 centimeters wide, spirally arranged at the ends of the branches. Flowers are numerous, fragrant and large, the upper portion whitish, while the inner lower portion yellow, 5 to 6 centimeters long. Fruits are linear-oblong or ellipsoid follicles, with a pointed tip, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameters. Seeds are numerous and winged. There are several species of cultivated Plumiera, very similar to P. rubra [...]


Family • Fabaceae - Desmodium triflorum (Linn.) DC. - THREE-FLOWER TICK TREFOIL - San dian jin Scientific names Desmodium triflorum (Linn.) DC. Hedysarum triflorum Linn. Hyppocrepis humilis Blanco Desmodium parviflorum Blanco Meibomia triflora O. Kuntze Common names Kaliskis dalag (Tag..) Pakpak-lanagu (Tag.) Amor Seco (Engl.) Three-flower tick trefoil (Engl.) Creeping Tick Trefoil (Engl.) Tick clover (Engl.) Three-flower beggarweed (Engl.) San dian jin (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Kudaliya. CHINESE: San dian jin cao, Ying chi cao. FRENCH: Plata. HAWAIIAN: Kudaliya, Motha. HINDI: Kudaliya. MALAGASY: Kodiadiamborona, Tsimathatrandrivamanitra. MARATHI: Jungalimethi, Raan methi. PORTUGUESE: Amor-do-campo. SANSKRIT" Hamsapaaadi, Tripaadi. SINHALESE: Heen-undupiyali. SPANISH: Acaba pangola, Hierba cuartill. Botany Kaliskis-daga is a slender, prostrate and branched plant, somewhat hairy herb. Stems are 10 to 30 centimeters long. Leaves are small and 3-foliate. Leaflets are oblong-elliptic to obovate and 7 to 15 millimeters long. The flowers are purplish, about 6 millimeters long, axillary, solitary or 2 to 3 together, with slender pedicels about 1 centimeter long. Pods are 5 to 12 millimeters long, with 2 to 6 joints. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract from Desmodium triflorum DC in mice./ Lai SC, Peng WH, Huang SC, Ho YL, Huang TH, Lai ZR, Chang YS / Am J Chin Med. 2009;37(3):573-88. (2) The Alkaloids / Arnold Brossi (3) Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. / Lai SC et al / Am J Chin Med. 2010;38(2):329-42. (4) Anti-ulcer activity of Desmodium triflorum leaves extract / Singh N, Jain N, Gupta P et al / (5) Preliminary Phytochemical [...]


Family • Lauracea - Cinnamomum mindanense Elm. - MINDANAO CINNAMON - Yin xiang Scientific names Cinnamomum mindanense Elm. Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T.Nees) Blume Laurus burmannii Nees & T.Nees Common names Kaliñgag (Mbo.) Kami (Bag.) Indonesian cassia (Engl.) Mindanao cinnamon (Engl.) Padang cinnamon (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xiang jiao ye, Shan rou gui, Yin xiang. KOREAN: Jyaba gyepi. DANISH: Indonesisk kanel. MALAY: Kayu manis padang. DUTCH: Indonesische kaneel, Korintje-cassia. POLISH: Cynamonowiec burmaÅ„ski. FINNISH: Jaavankaneli. PORTUGUESE: Falsa-canforeira. FRENCH: Cannelle de Padang, Cannelle de Java, Cannelier de Malaisie, Cannelier de Padang. RUSSIAN: Indoneziiskaya koritsa, Korichnik Burmana, Korichnik iavanskaia, Koritsa indonneziiskaia. GERMAN: Birmazimt, Birmazimtbaum, Indonesisches Zimt, Padangzimt, Padang-Zimt, Padangzimtbaum. SPANISH: Canela de Java. HUNGARIAN: Indonéz fahéj, Jávai kasszia. THAI: Op choei chawa, Op choei thai, Suramarit. JAPANESE: Jawa nikkei, Kinamomumu burumanii. VIETNAMESE: Quế rành, Quế trèn. Botany Kami is a medium-sized tree, about 10 meters in height. Leaves are opposite or subopposite, smooth, leathery, oblong with the smaller ones sometimes lanceolate, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 3 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, on petioles less than 1 centimeter long. Inflorescence is about 15 centimeters long, bearing 1 to 2 small, greenish flowers at its end, about 5 millimeters long. Fruit is obovately ellipsoid, about 1.25 centimeters long and 7.5 millimeters wide, lucid green with minute whitist spots when unripe and a shinning steel blue when ripe. Distribution - In the Philippines, only in Surigao, Davao, and Zamboanga Provinces in Mindanao. - In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes. Constituents - Study has [...]

Kanya pistula

Family • Fabaceae - Cassia fistula Linn. - PUDDING PIPE TREE - La chang shu Scientific names Bactyrilobium fistula Willd. Cassia bonplandiana DC. Cassia excelsia Kunth Cassia fistula Linn. Cassia fistuloides Collad. Cassia fistula Linn. Cathartocarpus fistula Pers. Cathartocarpus fistuloides (Collad.) G.Don. Cathartocarpus rhombifolius G. Don. Common names Bistula (C. Bis.) Pistula (C. Bis., Tag.) Ibabau (Bis.) India laburnum (Engl.) Kaña-pestula (Ibn.) Kaña-pistula (Tag.) Kanya pistula (Tag.) Lapad-lapad (Tagb.) Lombayong (Bis.) Golden shower tree (Engl.) Indian laburnum (Engl.) Midas tree (Engl.) Pudding pipe tree (Engl.) Purging cassia (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Khiār shambar. MALAYALAM : Bahava, Bhava, Kanikkonna, Vishu konna. ASSAMESE : Sonaru, Xonaru. MARATHI: Bahava, Bhava. BENGALI : Amaltas, Amultas, Bandarlati, Bandar lathi, Sondal, Sonalu. NEPALESE : Amaltas, Amaltash, Rajbirij, Raj brichhya, Rajbriksya. BURMESE : Mai lum, Ngu., Ngu sat, Ngu.shwé-wa. NORWEGIAN : Kasja. CHINESE: A bo le (Taiwan), La chang shu. ORIYA : Sandari. DANISH : Roerkassia. PERSIAN : Khiyarchanbar. DUTCH : Indishe goude regen, Kassie. PORTUGUESE : Canafista, Cássia, Cássia-brasiliana, Cássia-fístula, Cássia-imperial, Cana-fístula, Chuva-de-ouro. FRENCH : Bâton casse, Canéficier, Casse fistuleuse, Cassier, Douche d'or, Faux caroubier, Kas dous. PUNJABI : Alash. GERMAN : Fistelkassie, Indischer Goldregen, Purgierkassie, Röhrenkassie, Roehrenkassie. SANSKRIT : Arabadha, Aragvadha, Chaturangula, Kritamala, Suvarnaka. GUJARATI : Garmalo. SINHALESE : Aehaela-gaha, Ahalla-gass, Ehala, Ekela. HINDI: Amaltās, Bandarlauri, Bandarlathi, Bendra lathi, Bharva, Dhanbaher (Dhanbohar), Girimalah, Girimaloah, Rajataru, Suvarnaka. SPANISH : Caña fistula, Cañafístola cimarron, Cañafístula, Cañafístula de Castilla, Cañaflote, Cassia purgante, Casia fistula, Guayaba cimarrona, Laburno de la India, Lluvia dorada, Lluvia de oro. ITALIAN : Cassia, Cassia fistola, Fistola della cassia. SUNDANESE : Bobondelan (Java), [...]


Family • Gramineae - Coix lachryma Linn. - JOB'S TEARS - Chuan gu Scientific names Coix lachryma Linn. Coix lachryma-jobi Linn. Coix agrestis Lour. Coix exaltata Jacq. Coix arundinacea Lamk. Chuan gu gen (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Badrang, Dam'Ayub, Amadrayan. CAMBODIA: Skuoy CHINESE: Yemi ren, ye yi ren, ye yi mi, shan yi mi. FRENCH: Larmes de Job, larmilles, GERMAN: Hiobsträne, Hiobstränengras. INDONESIA: Jali, jali betul, jali watu. herbe a chapelets. ITALIAN: Lacrima di Giobbe, lacrime di Gesu, erba da corone. JAPANESE: Juzudama. KHMER: Skuoy. LAOS: Duay MALAYSIA: Jelai batu, jelai pulut, menjelai. SPANISH: Lagrimas de San Pedro, Lagrimas de Job. THAILAND: Duai, maduai. VIETNAM: [ys] d[ix], bo bo, c[uw][owf]m g[aj]o Common names Abukai (Iv.) Katigbi (C. Bis.) Adlai (Bis.) Kibaoung (If.) Agagai (Iv.) Koldasan (Bik.) Agda (Ig.) Kudlasan (Tag.) Aglai (C. Bis.) Lamudias (P. Bis.) Alimudias (P. Bis.) Lias (Sub.) Apagi (Ig.) Paias (P. Bis., Bag.) Atakai (Ilk., Bon.) Pintaka (C. Bis.) Balantakan (Pamp.) Tidbi (S. L. Bis.) Barubaioko (Bik.) Tigbi (Bik., Tag.) Bintikai (Bik.) Tigbikai (Bik.) Bitogan (Bag.) TIguas (Sul,) Daldi (Sub.) Tikaian (Bon.) Damdu (C. Bis.) Coix Seed (Engl.) Glias (Sub.) Job's tears (Engl.) Kalabugau (Buk.) Pearl barley (Engl.) Kambot (Ting.) St. Mary's tears (Engl.) Katayan (Ig.) Chuan gu (Chin.) Botany Katigbi is a plant growing 1 to 2 meters high. Stem is erect, branched and stout. Leaves are 10 to 40 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide, with a broad and cordate base. Spikes are 6 to 10 centimeters long, erect, and peduncled. Male spikelets are about 8 millimeters long. [...]


Family • Umbelliferae - Apium graveolens L. - CELERY - Fan qin cai Scientific names Apium graveolens Linn. Apium dulce Mill. Common names Guichae (Tag.) Kinchai  (Tag.) Kintsay  (Tag.) Quichay (Tag.) Celery (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARMENIAN: Lakhod garos. MARATHI: Ajmoda. BENGALI : Chanu, Randhuni. NORWEGIAN: Hageselleri, Selleri. CHINESE: Qin, Fan qin cai, Ch'in-nst'ai POLISH: Seler, Selery zwyczajne. CROATIAN: Celer. PERSIAN: Karafs. CZECH: Celer. RUSSIAN: Sel'derei. DANISH: Strandselleri, Vild selleri. SANSKRIT : Ajmoda, Ajamoda. DUTCH: Bladselderij, Groene selder. SLOVAKIAN: Zelerové semená (seeds). FINNISH: Ruokaselleri, Selleri. SLOVENIAN: Zelena. GUJARATI: Ajamoda, Bodi ajamoda. SPANISH: Apio, Apio borde, Apio de agua, Api (Catalan). HEBREW : Carpas reychani, Kerfes rihani, Karpass rehani, Seleri. SWEDISH: Blekselleri, Selleri. HINDI: Ajmud, Bari ajmud. TAMIL: Ajmod. HUNGARIAN: Zeller. TELUGU: Ajumoda. ITALIAN: Sedano, Sedano comune. THAI: Khuen chai (Khen chaai), Phak khao puen, Phak puem, Phak puen JAPANESE: Oranda mitsuba. TURKISH : Kereviz, Yabanî kerevizi. MALAY: Daun sop. URDU Ajmod (Ajmud). Botany Kintsay is an erect herb, seldom growing over 30 centimeters in height. The Chinese variety has short stems. Leaves are pinnate, with large, deeply-lobed segments, on long petioles. Peduncles are short, less than 1 centimeter in length, and borne opposite the leaves. Flowers are borne in umbels, very small, and greenish white. Fruit is very small, with narrow ridges. Distribution - A biennial of Europe and northern Asia which has been cultivated from fairly remote times. - Introduced in the Philippines. - Two forms are cultivated in the Philippines: In the lowlands, the small Chinese form, known as "kinchai," raised extensively by [...]


Family • Moraceae - Artocarpus nitidus Trec. subsp. nitidus - Guang ye gui mu Scientific names Artocarpus nitidus Trec. Artocarpus nitidus Trec. subsp. nitidus Common names Kubi (Tag.) Hong gui mu (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) New Isoprenylated 2-Arylbenzofurans and Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Constituents from Artocarpus nitidus / Ting Zhao, Gui-Rui Yan, shen-Li Pan, He-Yao Wang, al-Jun Hou / Chemistry & Biodiversity, Volume 6, Issue 12, pages 2209–2216, December 2009 / DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.200900130 (2) Artocarpus nitidus / Chinese Plant Names / eFloras (3) Stilbenes and flavonoids from Artocarpus nitidus subsp. lingnanensis / Huihui Ti, Ping Wu, Lidong Lin, Xiaoyi Wei / Fitoterapia, Volume 82, Issue 4, June 2011, Pages 662–665 (4) CHEMICAL AND PAF ACTIVITY OF SEVERAL MALAYSIAN ARTOCARPUS / Prof. Dr. Hasnah M. Sirat and Dr. Shajarahtunnur Jamil / General info Artocarpus is a genus of about 60 trees of Southeast Asian and Pacific origin, belonging to the family Moraceae Botany Kubi is a medium-sized tree growing to a height of 15 meters. Bark is black to brown, longitudinally fissured. Branchlets are cylindric, wrinkled, 2 to 3 millimeters thick, appressed puberulent, rapidly glabrescent. Leaves are oblong-ovate, acute, up to 12 centimeters long and 5 centimeters wide. with prominent veins. Flowers are small. Fruits are irregularly-shaped, several seeded and covered with yellowish brown or gray tomentum. Distribution - Artocarpus nitidus is found in China, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam and the Philippines. - A. nitidus subsp. nitidus is restricted to the Philippines, and found in thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes in Luzon, Mindanao, [...]


Family • Loganiaceae / Gentianaceae - Fagraea racemosa Jack - FALSE COFFEE TREE Scientific names Fagraea racemosa Jack Fagraea morindaefolia Blume Fagraea volubilis Jack Fagraea scholaris Blume Fagraea congestiflora Elm. Kuhlia morindaefolia Blume Other vernacular names INDONESIAN: Taji ayam, Melingu. JAVANESE: Engkudug blang. MALAY: Setabal. THAI: Phawa nam. Common names Baagu (Bag.) Bagontapai (Mbo.) Bakau (Tag.) Bogosala (S. L. Bis.) Bulobuaya (P. Bis.) Himbubuya (P. Bis.) Kabal (Tag.) Kukodmon (Bik.) Lambuaya (P. Bis.) Libakan (Tag.) Magusayak (Sul.) Makatiguga (Sub.) Malabuaya (P. Bis.) Poñgabu (Mbo.) Sinalas (Sub.) Talob-anak (Tag.) False coffee tree (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phytochemical Study of Fagraea spp. Uncovers a New Terpene Alkaloid with Anti-Inflammatory Properties/ Suciati, Lynette K. Lambert, Benjamin P. Ross, Myrna A. Deseo, Mary J. Garson / Australian Journal of Chemistry, Vol 64, No 4, 2011/ DOI 10.1071/CH10421 (2) Pharmacologically active components of todopon puok (Fagraea racemosa), a medicinal plant from Borneo / Okuyama,E., Suzumura,K.,Yamazaki,M./ Chem Pharm Bull 43:2200-2204,1995. (3) Fagraea racemosa / Common names / World Agroforestry (4) Fagraea racemosa leaf extract inhibits oxidative stress-induced liver damage in Wistar rats / Eva Rachmi, Yudanti Riastiti / Health Science Journal of Indonesia, Vol 2, No 1 Apr (2011) > Rachmi (5) New chemistry from South East Asian medicinal plants / Rudiyansyah , Suciati, LK Lambert, BP Ross, MJ Garson / Planta Med 2009; 75 - L2 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0029-1234236 Botany Kabal is a tree growing about 6 meters or more in height. Leaves are opposite, very leathery, oblong ovate or ovate, 15 to 33 centimeters in length, 8 to 18 centimeters in [...]


Family • Anonaceae - Alphonsea arborea (Blanco) Merr. Scientific names Alphonsea arborea Blanco Alphonsea philippinensis Merr. Platymitra arborea (Blanco) P. J. A. Kessler Common names Bolon (Bik.) Lanutan (Tag., Bik.) Kalai (Tag.) Malatambon (Bik.) Kalay (Tag.) Palokalai (Tag.) Lanotan (S. L. Bis.) Sapiro (C. Bis.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal Plants Research in Asia - Volume I / Batugal PA, Kanniah J, Sy L, Oliver JT (2) Investigation of some Philippine plants for antimicrobial substances. / Edna V. Ramos, Roseanna M. De La Cruz, Victoria A. Masilungan, Flora B. Beloy / Philippine Journal of Science, Dec 1978, Vol 105, Issue 4, pp 205-214 (3) Alphonsea arborea (Blanco) Merr. / The Plant List Botany Kalai is a tall forest tree growing to a height of 40 meters with a diameter of 70 centimeters. Leaves are ovate-oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide, with a pointed base and tip. Inflorescence is lateral on short hairy stalks. Flowers are small, yellow and odorless. Sepals are short, with petals about 6 millimeters long. Fruit is brown, usually single, large, hard and woody, ellipsoid or subglobose, 6 to 9 centimeters long. Distribution In forests at low and medium altitudes. Properties Considered febrifuge, emmenagogue and anti-dysenteric. Parts utilized Fruit, leaves and bark. Uses Nutrition Ripe fruit is edible; eaten raw. Folkloric - Boiled fruit used for fevers. - Decoction of fruit used for amenorrhea. - Decoction of bark with dried leaves of garlic used for urticaria. - Decoction of fruit used as antidysenteric. - Decoction of [...]