Family • Polypodiaceae - Acrostichum aureum Linn. - GOLDEN LEATHER FERN Scientific names Acrostichum aureum Linn. Common names Lagolo (Tag.) Mangrove fern (Engl.) Golden leather fern (Engl.) Swamp fern (Engl.) Botany Lagolo is a coarse fern growing to a height of 2 meters. Rootstocks are stout, woody and scaly. Stipes are clustered, stout and glabrous, 30 to 50 cm long. Fronds are leathery, pinnate, 50 to 200 cm long. Leaflets are 20 to 50 cm long, 4 to 6 cm wide. Terminal part of the frond has fertile pinnae covered with brownish sporangia. Fertile upper pinnae are smaller than the lower sterile ones. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts / Shaikh J Uddin et al / eCAM / doi:10.1093/ecam/nep111 Distribution - Abundant in open mud flats, in mangove swamps, and along tidal streams. - Occasionally planted as an ornamental. - Widely distributed in the tropics of both hemispheres. Parts utilized Leaves, roots, rhizomes. Constituents • Phytochemical studies have yielded beta-sitosterol, alkaloid, flavonoids, phenolics, catechins, saponins, tannins. Properties Considered emollient, vulnerary, febrifuge, purgative. Uses Folkloric • Rhizomes are used for the healing of stubborn ulcers. • Leaves used topically as emollient. • In Malaya and Borneo, powdered or grated rhizomes applied as paste to wounds and boils. • Fronds and roots are applied to syphilitic ulcers. • In Fiji, used for sore throat, chest pains and elephantiasis, for constipation and as purgative; also, as febrifuge. • In Bangladesh, leaves used for cloudy urination in women. Study Findings • Cytotoxic: Study of 16 listed Bangladeshi plants, screened [...]


Family • Plantaginaceae - Plantago lanceolata Linn. - RIBWORT PLANTAIN - Ch'e-ch'len Scientific names Plantago lanceolata Linn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ch'e-ch'len. FRENCH: Petit plantain. GERMAN: Spitzwegerich. POLISH: Babka lancetowata. PORTUGUESE: Tanchagem-menor. SPANISH: Llantén menor. Common names Lanting-haba (Tag.) Lance leaf plantain (Engl.) Ribgrass (Engl._ Ribwort (Engl.) Ribwort plantain (Engl.) Ripplegrass (Engl.) Narrow-leaf plantain (Engl.) Botany Lanting-haba is a perennial, scape-bearing, low herb, varying considerably in size. Rootstock is tapering. Leaves, which arise from the roots, are wooly, lanceolate, 15 to 21 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide, with entire or toothed margins. Scape is as long as the leaf, deeply furrowed. Spikes are ovoid, subglobose, or cylindric, 1 to 7.5 centimeters long. Sepals are usually ciliate. Corolla is smooth. Capsule is 2-celled and the cells 1- to 2-seeded. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Plantago lanceolata L. / A Guide to Medicinal Plants in North Africa / Sp. Pl., ed. 1,114 1753). (2) Anti-mitotic and anti-genotoxic effects of Plantago lanceolata aqueous extract on Allium cepa root tip meristem cells / Tulay Askin Celik and Ozlem Sultan Aslanturk / Biologia, Volume 61, Number 6 / December, 2006 / DOI 10.2478/s11756-006-0142-5 (3) Plantago lanceolata L. / Prota 11(1): Medicinal plants/Plantes médicinales (4) Effects of cinnamic acid on polyphenol production in Plantago lanceolata / Francoise Fons et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 49, Issue 3, October 1998, Pages 697-702 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00210-6 | (5) Allergens from plantain (plantago lanceolata). Studies with pollen and plant extracts. / Baldo BA, Chensee QJ, Howden ME, Sharp PJ. / Int Arch Allergy Appl [...]


Family • Pedaliaceae - Sesamum indicum - SESAME - Hei Chih-ma Scientific names Sesamum orientale Linn. Sesamum indicum Linn. Sesamum triboliatum Mill. Common names Ajonjoli (Span.) Gingely-oil plant (Engl.) Lañga (Bik., Tag., Ibn., Bis.) Lañgis (Pamp.) Leñga (Ilk.) Liñga (Tag.) Linga (Sbl.) Liñgo (Tag.) Loñgis (If.) Luñga (Bis., Sul.) Hei Chih-ma (Chin.) Benne seeds (Engl.) Gingelly (Engl.) Sesame (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Sim sim. LAOTIAN: Man nga, Nga. ARMENIAN: Shooshma. MALAY: Bijan, Wijen. BENGALI: Til. MARATHI: Tila. BULGARIAN: Susam. PERSIAN: Konjed. BURMESE: Hnan zi. POLISH: Sezam indyjski. CHINESE: Hu ma, Zhi ma (Taiwan). PORTUGUESE: Gergelim, Sésamo. CROATIAN: Sezam. PUNJABI: Til. CZECH: Sezam. RUSSIAN: Kunzhut indiiskii, Sezam. DANISH: Sesamfrø. SANSKRIT: Tila. DUTCH: Sesamzaad. SINHALESE: Thel. ESTONIAN: Harilik seesam. SLOVAKIAN: Sezam. FINNISH: Seesami. SLOVENIAN: Sezama. FRENCH: Graines de sésame, Graines de sésame blanc, Graines de sésame blanches, Sésame. SPANISH: Ajonjolí, Semilla de ajonjolí, Sésamo. GERMAN: Sesam. SWAHILI: Ufuta. GREEK: Sesami. SWEDISH Sesam. HEBREW: Shomshom, Shumshum, Sumsum. TAMIL: Cirrel, El, Ellu, Illu, Tilam. HINDI: Gingli, Safed til, Til. TELUGU: Tillu. HUNGARIAN: Szézámfi, Szézámmag. THAI: Nga, Nga dam, Nga khao. ICELANDIC: Sesam, Sesamfræ. TURKISH: Susam. ITALIAN: Sesamo. UKRAINIAN: Sezam. JAPANESE: Goma, Shiro goma. URDU: Til. KANNADA: Yallu. VIETNAMESE: Mè, Vùng. KOREAN: Cham kkae. Botany Liñga is an erect, annual, hairy herb, 50 to 80 centimeters in height. Leaves are oblong or ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, the lower ones lobed, the middle ones toothed, and the uppermost subentire. Leaf stalks are from 1 to 5 centimeters long. Sepals are lanceolate, 6 to 7 millimeters long [...]


Family • Zingiberaceae - Zingiber zerumbet Linn. - SHAMPOO GINGER - Hong qiu jiang Scientific names Amomum zerumbet Linn. Zingiber cassumunar Naves Zingiber zerumbet Sm. var. magnum Elm. Zingiber zerumbet Linn. Common names Balauag (Bik.) Barik (Tag.) Lampayang (Buk.) Langkauas (Tag.) Layag sasulug (Bik.) Luiang-usiu (Tag.) Tamohilang (Buk.) Tumbong-aso (Tag.) Lempoyang (Malay) Broad-leaved ginger (Engl.) Pinecone ginger (Engl.) Shampoo ginger (Engl.) Wild ginger (Engl.) Zerumbet ginger (Engl.) Hong qiu jiang (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Zurunbah, Zurunbâd. BENGALI: Maha baribach, Ekangi. FRENCH: Amome sauvage, Gingembre blanc, Gingembre fou, Zérumbet. GERMAN: Wilder Ingwer, Zerumbet. ITALIAN: Zenzero bianco, Zenzero salvatico. JAPANESE: Niga shouga. MADURESE: Lampojang. MALAY: Lempuyang (Java), Kathu inshi kua. PORTUGUESE: Gengibre amargo. SPANISH: Jengibre, Jengibre amargo. SUNDANESE: Lampuyang. COUNTRY: Haeo dam, Hiao dam, Hiao kha, Hiao daeng, Kaen, Ka thue, Kra thue, Ple phon, Wanfai. TURKISH: Yabani zencefil, Zurunbad, Zerunebat, Zernebat. VIETNAMESE: Gừng đại, Gừng gió, Ngải xanh, Rieng daï. Botany Luiang-usiu is a smooth, erect, herbaceous plant. Rootstocks are large and tuberous, pale yellow within. Leafy stem is 0.6 to 2 meters high. Leaves are numerous, distichous, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 15 to 30 centimeters long, 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Flowering stem from the rootstock is 10 to 30 centimeters long, clothed with long, appressed, obtuse sheaths, bearing at the apex an ovoid, oblong, or cylindric spike, red or green in color, 5 to 20 centimeters long. Bracts are numerous, imbricate, orbicular, 2 to 3 centimeters long, greenish, merging into red, and holding water. Flowers are 5 centimeters long, white or cream colored, the tube as [...]


Family • Menispermaceae - Anamirta cocculus (Linn.) W. and A. - FISH BERRY - Yin du mu fang ji Scientific names Anamirta cocculus (Linn.) W. and A. Anamirta paniculata Colebr. Cocculus indicus Royle Menispermum cocculus Linn. Other vernacular names HINDI: Kakamari. MALAYALAM: Polla, Pollakkaya, Kollakkaya, Pettumarunnu. SANSKRIT: Garalaphala, Kakamari. Common names Arai (Bag.) Lanta (Tag., Bis.) Bañasin (Tag., Bis.) Ligtang (Tag.) Bayati (Tag.) Liktang (Tag, Bis.) Bayating (Ilk.) Suma (Tag.) Labtang (Ilk., Ig.) Coca de Levante (Span.) Lagtal (Bis.) Fish berry (Engl.) Lagtang (Bis., Tag., Mbo., Sul.) Levant nut (Engl.) Lakdang (Bis.) Indian cockle (Engl.) Laktang (Tag., Bis., Pamp.) Yin du mu fang ji (Chin Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Evaluation of the acute toxicity of the seeds of Anamirta cocculus (Linn.) and its piscicidal effect on three species of freshwater fish / N Jothivel et al / The Internet Journal of Toxicology, Vol 5, Issue 1, July 2008 (2) Two picrotoxin derivatives from Anamirta cocculus / Santosh K Agarwal et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 50, Issue 8, 1 April 1999, Pages 1365-1368 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00692-X (3) Inhibition of Heinz body induction in an in vitro model and total antioxidant activity of medicinal Thai plants / Palasuwan A et al / Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2005 Oct-Dec;6(4):458-63. (4) Medical botany: plants affecting human health / Walter Hepworth Lewis, Memory P. F. Elvin-Lewis (5) The effect of cinnarizine and cocculus indicus on simulator sickness / Lucertini M, Mirante N, Casagrande M, Trivelloni P, Lugli V. / Physiol Behav. 2007 May 16;91(1):180-90. Epub 2007 Mar 2. (6) PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND [...]


Family • Apocynaceae - Telosma procumbens (Blanco) Merr. - Wo jing ye lai xiang Scientific names Telosma procumbens (Blanco) Merr. Telosma cathayensis Merr. Pergularia procumbens Blanco Pergularia glabra Blanco Pergularia filipes Blanco Other vernacular names CHINESE: Wo jing ye lai xiang. Common names Dugep (Ilk.) Dukep (Ilk.) Kapuk-kapuk (Sul.) Laknit (Bag.) Latok (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sweet Pregnane Glycosides from Telosma procumbens / Vo Duy HUAN, Kazuhiro OHTANI, Ryoji KASAI, Kazuo YAMASAKI,*and Nguyen Viet TUU / Chem. Pharm. Bull. 49(4) 453—460 (2001) 453 (2) Hypoglycemic property of Telosma procumbens (Blanco) Merr. (Apocynaceae) in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic juvenile mice (Mus musculus) / Lilibeth A. Cajuday*, Edna A. Amparado / The Journal of Phytopharmacology 2014; 3(2): 113-117 (3) Telosma procumbens / The Plant List Botany Latok is a woody vine with slender, smooth or slightly hairy branchlets. Leaves are thin, ovate to oblong-ovate, 8 to 13 centimeters long, 3 to 8 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip and slightly heart-shaped at the base. Cymes are axillary and umbelliform. Flowers are numerous, greenish-yellow, odorless, about 1.5 centimeters long, and hairy at the throat. Fruit is lanceolate, about 15 centimeters long. Seeds are flattened and crowned with silky hairs. Distribution - In thickets and secondary forests at low altitudes in Ilocos Norte to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Cuyo, Biliran, Leyte, Negros, Mindanao and Basilan. - Also occurs in China and Vietnam. Constituents - Study yielded an intensely sweet polyoxypregnance glycoside, telosmoside A, together with 17 other new glycosides. Constituents - Considered anti-tussive, expectorant, hypoglycemic. Parts [...]


Family • Elaeagnaceae - Elaeagnus philippensis Perr. Scientific names Elaeagnus philippensis Perr. Elaeagnus angustifolia Blanco Elaeagnus cumingii Schlecht. Elaeagnus alingaro Schlecht. Elaeagnus latifolia Miq. Common names Alingaro (Tag.) Alunut (Iv.) Bantap (Sul.) Banaken (Bon.) Kopapei (Ig.) Lagot (Buk.) Lingaro (Tag.) Malaimus (P. Bis.) Padias (Ig.) Botany Lingaro is a straggling or climbing shrub with long branches which are covered with minute, brown scales. Leaves are entire, subelliptic to ovately oblong, 4 to 9 centimeters long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends or blunt at the base, shining and dark green above, and coppery or sometimes grayish-white beneath. Flowers are yellow, occurring singly in the axils of the leaves. Fruit is oval, about 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, pale red or pinkish, sweet and juicy when ripe. Distribution - In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,500 meters throughout the Philippines. - Sometimes cultivated as an ornamental or for its edible fruit. Properties Flowers are astringent and cardiac. Parts used Flowers, fruit. Uses Edibility / Culinary - Fruit can be eaten raw. Also, makes a fine jam, jelly, and preserve. Folkloric - Ripe fruit given to children suffering with amoebic dysentery. - Flowers are astringent and cardiac. Study Findings • No studies reported. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Euphorbiacea - Homonoia riparia Lour. - WILLOW-LEAVED WATER CROTON - Shui liu Scientific names Homonoia riparia Lour. Lumanaja fluviatilis Blanco Adelia nerifolia Heyne ex Roth Spathiostemon salicinus Ricinus salicinus Hassk. Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Rei tuk. INDIA: Pashanbhed, Kshudra pashanbhed. INDONESIA: Sobah, Jurai, Sangkir. LAOS: Kh'aiz fa:d. MALAYSIA: Kelereh, Mempenai, Kayu suarah. MYANMAR: Momakha. THAILAND: Khrai-nam, Khrai-hin, Khrai. VIETNAM: Ru ri, Ri ri, Cay ru ri nuoc. Common names Agibaba (Ibn.) Kagoyoi (Tag.) Agui (Tag.) Lomonai (Tag.) Agukuk (Tag.) Lumonai (Tag.) Agoyoi (Tag.) Mayoyos (P. Bis.) Aguyoi (Tag.) Malabugos (P. Bis.) Alosai (Tag.) Managos (Tag.) Amagos (Tagb.) Mangapos (Tag.) Atañgatañgan (Ibn.) Miagui (P. Bis.) Bilibig (Bik.) Miagouk (P. Bis.) Chomanai (Ig.) Water willow (Engl.) Dumanai (Ibn., Tag.) Willow-leaved water croton (Engl.) Dumani (Ig.) Shui liu (Chin.) Hañgaraui (S. L. Bis.) Botany Lumanai is a shrub attaining a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, 12 to 20 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters wide; the upper surface is green and shining; the lower surface, brown and hairy. Capsules are about 8 millimeters in diameter, hairy and borne on axillary, solitary, hairy spikes, 5 to 12centimeters long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) In vitro anthelmintic activity of root of Homonoia riparia against Pheretima posthuma / Satish Kumar B N, Sanjay Prahlad Umachigi et al / Pharmacologyonline 2: 1253-1257, 2011 (2) Homonoia riparia / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED (3) Antifungal activity study of the extracts of Homonoia riparia, Pedilanthus tithymaloides and Phyllanthus fraternus / Ujwala C Bapat, Deepali Mhapsekar / ORAL PRESENTATION, 2012, Volume 32, [...]


Family • Leguminosae / Fabaceae - Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch.) Benn. - Fu mao shan dou gen Scientific names Euchresta horsfieldii (Lesch.) Benn. Andira horsfieldii Lesch. Euchresta strigillosa C. Y. Wu Euchresta formosana (Hayata) Nakai Geoffroea horsfieldii (Lesch.) Oken Common names Katanda (Buk.) Laguan (Tag.) Makahilab (Buk.) Fu mao shan dou gen (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Euchresta horsfieldii Benn. activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and regulates expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism in human HepG2 cells / Kim J H, Kim D, Kim J, Hwang JK / J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 7;133(1):244-7. Epub 2010 Oct 20. (2) Two flavanones from Euchresta horsfieldii / Mizuo Mizuno, Toshiyuki Tanaka, Nobuyasu Matsiuura et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 29, No 8, 1990, Pp 2738-2740 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(90)85236-9 (3) Study on phenology and chemical compound of Pronojiwo (Euchresta horsfieldii [Lesch] Benn.) / Tirta, I G., Ardaka, I M., Darma, I Dw. Pt. / The Spice and Medicinal Crops Bulletin;Vol. 21 No. 1 Botany Laguan is an erect, tough, unarmed shrub about 0.5 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are alternate, smooth, long-petioled, and odd-pinnate, with 3 to 5 leaflets which are oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters in length, often rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are borne in considerable numbers in simple, peduncled, axillary racemes. Corolla is white, about 1.25 centimeters long or twice the length of the calyx. Pods are oblong, 1 to 2 centimeters long, and very turgid, purplish black when mature, and contain a single, large seed. Distribution - Of local occurrence on the [...]


Family • Poaceae / Gramineae - Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius - CARABAO GRASS - Liang er cao Scientific names Paspalum conjugatum P. J. Bergius Paspalum africanum Poir. Paspalum bicrurum Salz. ex Doll. Paspalum ciliatum Lam. Paspalum dolichopus Trin. ex Steud. Paspalum longissimum Hochst. ex Steud. Paspalum renggeri Steud. Paspalum sieberianum Steud. Paspalum tenue Gaertn. Panicum conjugatum (P. J. Berg.) Roxb. Digitaria conjugata (P. J. Berg.) Schult. Liang er cao (Chin.) Common names Bantotan (Mbo.) Kauad-kauaran (Tag.) Kauat-kauat (Tag.) Laua-laua (Tag.) Sakate (Bis.) Buffalo grass (Engl.) Carabao grass (Engl.) Hilograss (Engl.) Sour grass (Engl.) Sour paspalum (Engl.) Cha zi cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Shuang sui que bai. DANISH: Hirse. FRENCH: Herbe sure, Herbe créole. GERMAN : Dallisgras. ITALIAN : Paspalo dilatato. JAPANESE: Shima suzume no hie. SPANISH : Grama de agua, Hierba dallis, Grama de agua, Pasto dallis, Zacate dallis (Mexico). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antivenomous Plants used in the Zairean Pharmacopoeia / African Study Monographs, 7:21-35, March 1987 (2) Fatty acid synthase inhibitors from plants: Isolation, structure elucidation, and SAR studies / Journal of natural products / 2002, vol. 65, no12, pp. 1909-1914 (3) Sorting Paspalum names / Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE (4) Phytoextraction of Lead-Contaminated Soil Using Vetivergrass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.), Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica L.) and Carabaograss (Paspalum conjugatum L.) / Annie Melinda Paz-Alberto, Gilbert C. Sigua, Bellrose G. Baui and Jacqueline A. Prudente / Env Sci Pollut Res 14 (7) 498 – 504 (2007) Botany Laua-laua is a gregarious stoloniferous grass. Stems are spreading and branching below withe the flowering branches 20 to 70 [...]