Family • Cruciferae - Raphanus sativus - RADI8H - Lai-fu-tzu Ts-ao Scientific names Raphanus sativus Linn. Common names Labanos (Tag.) Rabanos (C. Bis., Span.) Lai-fu-tzu Ts-ao (Chin.) Radish (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Fijil, Fujl. GERMAN: Rettich, Garten-Rettich, Radieschen. LAOTIAN: Kaad khaaw. z BENGALI: Mulō. GREEK: Rapani. MALAY: Lobak. SERBIAN: Rotkvica. BURMESE: Monla HEBREW: Tznonit. MARATHI: Mūlaka. SLOVANIAN: Retkvica. CHINESE: Luo bo, Lai fu, Ou zhou luo bo. HINDI: Mulla, Mooli, Muli, Mūlī. NEPALESE: Mulo. SPANISH: Rábano, Rabanito. CROATIAN: Rotkva, Rotkvica. HUNGARIAN: Retek. NORWEGIAN: Reddik. SWEDISH: Rädisa. CZECH: Øedkvièka. ICELANDIC: Raefla. PERSIAN: Torobcheh. TAMIL: Muulam, Mullangki. DANISH: Raeddike. ITALIAN: Rafano, Ravanello. POLISH: Rzodkiew, Rzodkiewka. THAI: Hua phak kat khao, Hua chai táo, DUTCH: Radijs. JAPANESE: (Yas) Hatsuka daikon, Radeisshu. PORTUGUESE: Rabanete. URDU: Mūlī. FINNISH: Retiisi, Retikka, Ruokaretikka. KHMER: Chhaay thaaw. PUNJABI: Mūlī. VIETNAMESE: Củ cải , Củ dền , Radi. FRENCH: Radis. KOREAN: Mu. RUSSIAN: ed'ka ogorodnaia, Red'ka posevnaia. Botany Labanos is a coarse, annual crop plant. Roots are fleshy, pungent and variable in size and form. Leaves are roughly hairy, the lower ones lyrate. Flowers are variable, about 1.5 centimeters long, usually white or lilac, with purple veins, sepals erect, lateral ones saccate at the base. Pod is indehiscent, lanceolate, cylindrical, and 2 to 2.6 centimeters in length, and terminates in a long beak. Seeds are separated by pith. Distribution - Widely cultivated in the Philippines at all altitudes. Properties · Considered anthelmintic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiscorbutic, diuretic, laxative, tonic, carminative, corrective, stomachic, cholagogue, lithotriptic, emmenagogue. · The juice of the [...]

Langkawas na pula

Family • Zingiberaceae - Languas speciosa (J.C. Wendl.) Merr. - SHELL GINGER - Da cao kou Scientific names Alpinia zerumbet Pers. Alpinia speciosa (J.C., Wendl.) K. Schum. Languas speciosa (J. C. Wendl.) Sm. Zerumbet speciosum Wendl. Common names Langkauas na pula (Tag.) Langkawas na pula (Tag.) Common shell ginger (Engl.) Light galangal (Engl.) Pink porcelain lily (Engl.) Shell flower (Engl.) Shell ginger (Engl.) Da cao kou (Chin.) Other vernacular names BRAZIL: Colonia. CHINESE: Yan shan jiang, Chui hu shian jiang FRENCH: Atoumau (Martiniuqe). INDONESIA: Galoba merah, Goloba koi, Langkuas laki-laki. RUSSIAN: Al'piniia prekrasnaia. THAI: Kha khom. VIETNAMESE: Gừng ấm, Riềng ấm, Riềng đẹp, Sẹ nước. Botany Langkauas na pula is a tall, leafy, perennial herb, growing to 2 to 3 meters tall. Stems are reed-like, 0.4 to 1 meters high. Leaves are lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, 60 to 70 centimeters long, 8 to 10 centimeters wide, smooth on both sides with hairy margins. Inflorescence is nodding and about 30 centimeters long. White calyx is subcampanulate, about 1.8 centimeters long. Corolla tube is white and about 3 centimeters long; the red lobes are broadly elliptic, and about 3 centimeters long. Lip is broad, ovate and about 4 centimeters long, yellow with red striations and dots. Capsule is somewhat spherical, about 2 centimeters in diameter, and reddish. Distribution - Cultivated for ornamental purposes in gardens. - Not a native of the Philippines. - Also occurs in China, Japan. - Cultivated in other warm countries. Constituents - The main constituents of the volatile oil from the leaves are d-camphor [...]


Family • Sterculiaceae - Pentapetes phoenicea Linn. - NOON FLOWER - Wu shi hua Scientific names Pentapetes phoenicea Linn. Pentapetes coccinea Blanco Pentapetes cebuana Blanco Common names Yamyampaka (Sub.) Flor de a las doce (Span.) Limang-dahon (Tag.) Copper cups (Engl.) Noon flower (Engl.) Midday flower (Engl.) Scarlet mallow (Engl.) Scarlet pentapetes (Engl.) Wu shi hua (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Kat-lata bandhuli, Bandhuka. CHINESE: Ye luo jin qian. GUJARATI: Saubhagyasundari. HINDI: Bandhuka, Behsaram, Dopahariya, Tambridupari. MALAYALAM: Uchchamalari. SANSKRIT: Madhyadina, Bandhuka. TAMIL: Nagappu. TELUGU: Makinaccettu. Botany Limang-dahon is an erect, half-woody plant, 0.5 to 1 meter high. Branches are long and spreading. Leaves are alternate, linear, 6 to 10 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, usually having a broad, pointed base, tapering to a pointed tip. Flowers are borne in axils of the leaves, with 5 large, deep rose, and showy petals. Fruit is five-valved, rounded, with a hairy capsule 1 centimeter in diameter. Seeds, which are not winged, occur 8 to 12 in two series in each cell. Distribution - In Cagayan, La Union, Quezon, Bataan, Pampanga and Laguna Provinces in Luzon, and in Samar, Negros, and Mindanao. - In open and damp grasslands. - Sometimes, cultivated. - Probably introduced, now thoroughly naturalized. - Also reported from India to Indo-China and Malaya. Constituents - Phytochemical analysis of stem, leaf, and root extracts yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, phenolics, coumarins, and triterpenoids. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Plants used by the ethnic people of Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh / K N Reddy, G Trimurthulu [...]


Family • Araceae - Acorus gramineus - SWEET FLAG - Chou pu Scientific name Acorus calamus Linn. Acorus asiaticus Nakai Chang pu (Chin.) Common names Acoro (Span.) Canna odorifera (Italy) Dalaw (Ilk.) Daraw (Ilk.) Dengaw (Bon.) Junco-de-cobra (Portugal) Kalmus (Germany) Lubigan (Tag.) Acorus roseau (Engl.) Calamus (Engl.) Sweet calamus (Engl.) Sweet flag (Engl.) Sweet root (Engl.) Chou pu (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ni chang pu, Xiang pu, Ye chang pu. FRENCH: Acore aromatique, Acore calame, Acore odorant, Belle angelique, Roseau odorant. GERMAN: Kalmus. ITALIAN: Acoro vero, Calamo. JAPANESE: Shoubu. MALAYALAM: Vashampa. NEPALESE: Bojho, Shyuedaa. SANSKRIT: Bhuta nashini (Goa) (ANHC), Vacha, Vaca. SPANISH: Cálamo aromático, Calamís. TAMIL: Vasambu. THAI: Hang khao pha (Chiang Mai), Som chuen, Wan nam, Wan nam lek. Botany Lubigan is a perennial aromatic herb, with creeping, branching and rhizomatous rootstock. Rhizome are prostrate, firm and stout with compactly arranged annular rings with numerous rootlets. Leaves arising from rhizome are linear, distichous, 25 to 50 centimeters long, 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide, with waved margins and stout midribs, base of leaf sheathed, clasping to each other. Peduncle is compressed. Spathe is green, much elongated, similar in shape to the leaves. Spadix is 3 to 5 centimeters long, and 1 centimeter or less in diameter, and bears many flowers. Flowers are very small, compacted into a concave-shaped spadix inflorescence. Sepals are 6, stamens 6, rarely flowering in the Philippines. Fruits are berries, turbinate, prismatic, with pyramidal tops, about 0.2 centimeter diameter. Distribution - Along streams in mountains, creeks other moist places with [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Sapinit - Hibiscus surattensis Linn. - WILD SOUR - Ci fu rong Scientifric names HIbiscus suratensis Linn. Hibiscus aculeatus G. Don Hibiscus appendiculatus Stokes Hibiscus involucratus Salisb. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ci mu jin, Wu zhao teng. FRENCH: liane oseille. KANNADA: Mullu gogu. MALAYALAM: Assam susor. TAMIL: Kashikirai. VIETNAMESE: Bụp Xước, Xương chua. Common names Ahimit (Gad.) Andahalit (Sul.) Barbarinit (Ilk.) Inabu (Ilk.) Kalitoitoi (Tagb.) Labneg (P. Bis.) Labog (Bis.) Ahimit (Gad.) Labuag (Ak., Bis.) Sabnit (Tag.) Sagmit (Tag.) Sampinit (Sul.) Sapinit (Tag.) Bush sorrel (Engl.) Wild sour (Engl.) Ci fu rong (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings   (1) A study on ethnomedicinal usage of plants among the folklore herbalists and Tripuri medical practitioners: Part-II / Koushik Majumdar and B K Datta / Natural Product Radiance, Vol. 6(1), 2007, pp.66-73 (2) Fatty acid compositions of seed oils of seven hibiscus species of malvaceae / K. Sundar Rao and G. Lakshminarayana / JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS' SOCIETY, Vol 62, No 4, 714-715 / DOI: 10.1007/BF03028736 (3) Wild edible plants traditionally used by the tribves in the Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India / K Yesodharan and K A Sujana / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 6 (1), 2007, Pp74-80 (4) PRODUCTION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF BIODIESEL FROM HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA AND HIBISCUS SURATTENSIS / BIRIOK, GEORGE STEPHEN / Thesis and Dissertation / http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/3692 Botany Labuag is a weak-stemmed trailing plant covered with soft hairs and scattered prickles. Leaves are rounded, toothed, and deeply and palmately 3- or 5-lobed. Flowers are yellow with a dark red [...]


Family • Apocynacea - Kickxia blancoi Rolfe Scientific names Kitabalia blancoi (Rolfe) Merr . Kickxia arborea F.-Vill. Kickxia merrittii Merr. Kickxia macgregori Elm. Common names Ayete (Mang.) Kagpaayan (Ilk.) Laneti (P. Bis.) Laniting-gubat (Tag.) Pasnit (Ilk.) Botany Laniting-gubat is a tree growing to a height of 18 to 20 meters. Leaves are opposite, rather leathery, shiny, smooth, ovate, 7 to 12 centimeters long, 2 to 3.5 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends. Flowers are white or light green, showy and occur in the axils of the leaves, singly or in pairs. Corolla is about 2.5 centimeters long, narrow below, wide above, with 5 lobes, each about 5 centimeters long and 1.3 centimeters wide. Fruit is a cylindrical follicle. Distribution - Found in primary and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Ilocos Sur, Batangas, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes, Mindoro, Sibuyan, Guimaras, Negros, and Leyte. Constituents Bark contains alkaloids. Properties Bark and leaves may have progesterone like effects. Parts used Bark, roots, leaves. Uses Folkloric Decoction of roots and bark used as abortifacient. Leaves applied as head covering for headaches. Others Bark and leaves used as fish-poison. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wildcrafted.


Family • Acanthaceae - Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Shrank) Radik. - SHOOTING STAR Scientific names Pseuderanthemum bicolor (Schrank) Radik. Eranthemum bicolor Schrank Eranthemum haenkeanum Nees Eranthemum pulchellum Hort. Justicia bicolor Sims Justicia fasciculata Nees Justicia gendarussa Blanco Pseuderanthemum bicolor Radik. Pseuderanthemum aspersum Radik. Pseuderanthemum puchellum (Hort.) Merr. Common names Aliopiop (Bis.) Mopia (Bis.) Atai-atai (Bis.) Panatun (Tag.) Boian (Tagb.) Pasioki (Tag.) Cinco llagas (Span.) Podol (Mbo.) Kinatuluan (Tag.) Pulpulto (Illk.) Kublit (Bik.) Tihol-tihol (Bis.) Limang-sugat (Tag.) Tulang-manok (P. Bis.) Maladosdos (Bis.) Tamban-tamban (Sul.) Mañgauhai (Mbo.) Bicolor false eranthemum (Engl.) Mandalusa (C. Bis.) Shooting star (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antimicrobial Triterpenes and Sterols from Pseuderanthemum bicolor / Ragasa C Y, G Ganzon and J A Rideout / Kimika, 17(2),1-4 Botany Limang-sugat is an erect, branched, rather slender undershrub or half-woody plant usually about 1 meter in height. Leaves are thin, elliptic-ovate to oblong-ovate or oblong-lanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, the upper ones often reduced, pointed at the tip and narrowed to the petiole at the base. Peduncles are axillary and longer than the petioles, bearing near their apices 1 to 3 or more racemose or cymose flowers. Calyx is green, 5 to 7 millimeters long, with elongated, linear teeth. Corolla is white, the middle lobe of the lower lip has a purple spot at the base; the tube is slender and 2.5 to 3 centimeters long; lobes are spreading, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, and about 1.2 centimeters long. Fruit is a hairy, stalked capsule, about 2 centimeters long. Distribution Common in thickets at low altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao and in most islands and provinces. [...]


Family • Solanaceae - Solanum nigrum Linn. - DEADLY NIGHTSHADE - Lung Kuei Scientific names Solanum nodiflorum Jacq. var macrophyllum Dunal Solanum rubrum Nees Solanum nigrum L. var. vulgare L. Other vernacular names ARABIC: 'Enab edh dhi'b, 'Enab eth tha'lab, Ribriq. CHINESE: Lung Kuei, Long kui. DUTCH: Zwarte nachtschade. FINNISH: Mustakoiso. FRENCH: Morelle commune, Morelle des jardins, Morelle à fruits noirs, Morelle noire. GERMAN: Schwarzer Nachtschatten, Nachtkraut, Wolfstraube. HINDI: Mokoi. ITALIAN: Morella, Solano nero, Solatro del frutto nero, Solatro ortense. JAPANESE: Inu hôzuki. MALAY: Ranti. MALAYALAM: Mulaku thakkali. MARATHI: Laghukavali. PORTUGUESE: Erva-moira. SLOVAKIAN: Ľuľok čierny. SUNDANESE: Leunca ayam (Indonesia - West Java), Leunca manuk (Indonesia - West Java). TAMIL: Manatakkali. TELUGU: Kasaka. TURKISH: Köpek memesi, Köpek üzümü, Tilki üzümü. Common names Amti (Bon., If.) Anti (Bon., Tag.) Bolagtab (Bis.) Gamagamatisan (Tag.) Hulablub (Bis.) Kamkamatisan (Tag.) Kamates-manuk (S. L. Bis.) Konti (Tag.) Kunti (Tag.) Kuti (Bik.) Lagkakum (Bis.) Lubi-lubi (Tag., Bis., Bik.) Malasili (S. L. Bis.) Muti (Sul., Buk.) Natang-ni-aso (Ig.) Nateng (Iv.) Onti (Tag.) Black nightshade (Engl.) Deadly nightshade (Engl.) Garden or common nightshade (Engl.) Poison berry (Engl.) Small-fruited black nightshade (Engl.) Wonderberry (Engl.) Botany Lubi-lubi is an erect, branched, smooth or nearly smooth herb, up to 1 meter or less in height. Stems are green and 3-angled. Leaves are ovate to oblong, 5 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at both ends, with subentire or undulately toothed or lobed margins. The flowers are umbellately disposed, 5 - 8 on each peduncle. Calyx is green with ovate-oblong lobes. Corolla is white, about 8 millimeters in [...]


Family • Annonaceae - Oxymitra bakeri Merr. Scientific names Oxymitra bakeri Merr. Common names Lagdañgang-bibit (Tag.) Uisiuis (Neg.) Botany Lagdañgang-bibit is a climbing shrub which is smooth, except for the younger parts, the infrutescens, and the flowers, which are hairy. Branchlets are coiled but not hooked. Leaves are narrowly lanceolate, 15 to 28 centimeters long, and 1 to 3 centimeters wide; the tip is pointed, and the base rounded and distinctly heart-shaped. Upper surface is smooth and shining; the lower surface has a few scattered hairs and is glaucous when dry. Flowers are numerous, borne on the axils of the leaves, and characterized by very long, flat, narrow, three outer petals, which are 12 to 13.5 centimeters long. Fruiting peduncle is solitary, slender, and 3 to 4 centimeters long. Fruit is numerous, smooth, ellipsoid, about 8 millimeters long, reddish brown when dry, apiculate, borne on hairy pedicels, and 8 to 10 millimeters long. Distribution - Endemic species found in damp forests at low altitudes in Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Camarines, Albay, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Alabat and Catanduanes. Properties Emmenagogue, tonic. Parts used Roots and stems. Uses Folkloric In the Philippines, decoction of roots and stems given "ad libitum" as uterine tonic and as an emmenagogue. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Meliaceae - Lansium domesticum Correa - LANGSAT - Da guo lan sa Scientific names Aglaia aquea Kosterm Aglaia domestica Correa Aglaia dookoo Griff. Lansium aqueam Jack Lansium javanicum Koord. & Valet. Lansium parasiticum Sahni & Bennet Common names Boboa (Bis.) Buahan (Mbo., Sul.) Bulahan (Bis.) Buan (Mbo.) Bukan (Bis.) Kaliboñgan (Mbo.) Lansones (Tag., Bik.) Lanzones (Tag.) Tubua (Bag.) Longkong (India) Langsat (Engl.) Longkong tree (Engl.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Duku. CHINESE: Lan sa, Lan sa guo, Da guo lan sa. DANISH : Sød duku. Langsat, Langsep. DUTCH : Doekoe , Kokosan. FRENCH: Duku Doux à Large Fruit, Duku Doux à Petit Fruit, Langsep. GERMAN : Süßer Duku, Dukubaum. ITALIAN : Duku dolce, Lansio. JAPANESE: Duku, Ransa. KOREAN: Long kong, Long sat. MALAY: Ceroring, Dookkoo, Duki, Duku, Kokosan. PORTUGUESE: Arbol-do-duku, Duku-doce. SPANISH: Arbol de duku, Duku dulce, Lanson. THAI : Duku, Langsat waan, Long gong, Longkong. VIETNAMESE : Bòn bon. Botany Lansones is a tree growing to a height of 4 to 15 meters. Leaves are alternate, 20 to 40 centimeters long, with 5 to 7 leaflets, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 7 to 18 centimeters in length, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, yellow and borne on spikes, solitary or fascicled on the trunk or larger branches. Fruit is yellowish-white, occurring in bunches on a single stem, ellipsoid or globose, 2 to 4 centimeters long, with bitter seeds that are surrounded by a translucent pulp (arillus). The outer skin is thin and tough, abundant in a milky juice. The pulp occurs in five sections [...]