Family • Apocynaceae - Paralstonia clusiaceae Baill. Scientific names Paralstonia clusiacea Baill. Alyxia concatenata (Blanco) Merr. Common names Basikalang (Ilk.) Malabatino (Tag.) Batikuling (Tag.) Maladita (Tag.) Kuyauyau (P. Bis.) Tangitang (P. Bis.) Botany Malabatino is a small- to medium-sized tree reaching a height of 15 meters. Branches are marked by whorls of leaf scars. Leaves are in whorls, shining, leathery, oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are greenish white, somewhat fragrant, fairly small, and borne in rather dense clusters, with a tubular corolla. Fruit is hard, dull-green, ellipsoid, about 5 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends, containing a very flat seed encased in a woody, somewhat fibrous endocarp. Distribution - Common in In primary forests at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, Bataan, Rizal, Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan, Samar, Masbate, Negros, and Mindanao. - Also occurs in the Bonin Islands. Parts used Bark. Uses Folkloric Bark used for swellings. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Asteraceae - Elephantopus mollis HBK - ELEPHANT'S FOOT - Niu she cao Scientific names Elephantopus mollis Kunth Elephantopus tomentosus L. Bai hua di dan cao (Chin.) Common names Basut (Bon.) Tigalang (Sul.) Kaburon (Ig.) Elephant's foot (Engl.) Malatabako (Tag.) Soft elephant's foot (Engl.) Pauikan (If.) Tobacco weed (Engl.) Tabtabako (Ilk.) Di dan cao (Chin.) Botany Malatabako is a tall, erect, more or less hairy herb, 0.8 to 1.2 meters in height, unbranched except for the inflorescence. Leaves are scattered along the stem, not basal, oblong to oblong-elliptic, 8 to 20 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. Branches of the inflorescences are few, usually forked, and subtended by much-reduced leaves. Clusters of head terminating the branches are usually surrounded by three leaflike bracts which are ovate to oblong-ovate, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, and heart-shaped at the base. Flowering heads are crowded in each cluster, each head usually 4-flowered. Involucral-bracts are 8 to 10 millimeters long. Corolla is purple, 8 to 9 millimeters long. Achenes are ribbed. Pappus is 4 to 6 millimeters long, with rigid bristles. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemoprevention Bioactivity of Elephantopus mollis / David Sheng Yang Wang, Hsing-Ning Chang et al / Poster / American Society of Plant Biologists (2) Assessment of anti-protozoal activity of plants traditionally used in Ecuador in the treatment of leishmaniasis / Gachet MS, Lecaro JS et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 Mar 2;128(1):184-97. Epub 2010 Jan 11. (3) Cytotoxic and Apoptotic Effects of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Elephantopus mollis Kunth. in Human [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae - Jatropha multifida Blanco. - CORAL BUSH - Xi lie shan hu you tong Scientific names Jatropha multifida Linn. Jatropha janipha Blanco. Adenoropium multifidum (L.) Pohl Common names Mana (Span., Tag.) Tubang-americano (Bik.) Coral bush (Engl.) Coral nut (Engl.) Coral tree (Engl.) Physic nut (Engl.) Xi lie shan hu you tong (Chin.) Other vernacular names FRENCH: Médicinier, Médicinier espagnol, Pignon d'Inde, Plante bouteille. JAPANESE: Yatorofa muruchifida. RUSSIAN: Iatrofa mul'tifida, Iatrofa rassechennaia, Korallovoe derevo. SPANISH : Árvore coral, Árvore de bálsamo, Árvore de coral, Árvore dos corais, Árnica, Avellano purgante, Cabalonga, Cabalongo, Ceibilla, Chicaquil, Dontomás, Emético vegetal, Flor de sangre, Palo de fraile, Piñón extranjero, Piñón vómico, Tártago chicaquil, Tártago emético, Tártara. THAI : Fin ton, Ma hung daeng, Malako farang. Botany Mana is a smooth shrub 2 to 3 meters high, with the petioles as long as the leaves. Leaves are glaucous beneath, 15 to 30 centimeters in diameter, and cleft nearly to the base into about 10 lanceolate, entire or pinnately incised lobes, the lobes about 1 to 4 centimeters wide. Flowers are red, borne on long peduncled cymes, 3 to 6 centimeters broad. Capsules are obovoid, about 2 centimeters long, somewhat three-angled, with the angles rounded. Distribution - Ornamental cultivation. The inflorescences often in great demand by florists for making red corsages. - Planted as a hedge. - Introduced from tropical America. Constituents - Seeds contain 6% glucose, 1% bitter principle, 30% fixed oil. The latter turns vermillon with sulfuric acid. - Seed oil is similar to Jatropha [...]


Family • Lamiaceae - Marjoram hortensis Moench. - SWEET MARJORAM Scientific names Marjoram hortensis Moench. Origanum majorana Common names Marjoram (Engl.) Sweet marjoram (Engl.) Knotted marjoram (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of Origanum majorana L. (Sweet marjoram) / L Leeja and J E Thoppil / Journal of Environmental Biology January 2007, 28(1) 145-146 (2007) (2) Marjoram / (Majorana hortensis Moench.) (3) Vapor Phase Toxicity of Marjoram Oil Compounds and Their Related Monoterpenoids to Blattella germanica (Orthoptera: Blattellidae) / Young-Su Jang et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (20), pp 7892–7898 / DOI: 10.1021/jf051127g (4) Marjoram increases basal gastric acid and pepsin secretions in rat / Rafsanjani F N et al / Phytother Res. 2007 Nov;21(11):1036-8. General info Name derives from the Latin word amaracum or Greek amarakos. Its reputation as an aphrodisiac in Roman literature may be due to its unrelated similarity to the Latin "amor." The Greeks and Romans dedicated it to Aphrodite, the goddess of love, fertility and beauty. In weddings, it is used as garlands to symbolize love and honor; in death, it is a funerary herb used to promote restful peace. Botany Herb is a plant with simple leaves, opposite and stalked, elliptic, 10-13 mm long. Flowers are small, purple or white, few to many, arranged in spikelets. Inflorescences with enlarged overlapping bracts. Distribution Cultivated in the Baguio area. Constituents - Plant yields an essential oil, between 0.7 to 3.5 %. - Aroma components from a bicyclic monoterpene alcohol, cis-sabinene hydrate, a-terpinene, 4-terpineol, a-terpineol, terpinenyl-4-acetate, [...]


Family • Gramineae - Andropogon zizanioides ( Linn.) Urban - VETIVER - Yan lan cao Scientific names Andropogon zizanioides ( Linn.) Urban Andropogon muricatus Retz. Andropogon nardus Blanco Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Roberty Phalaris zizanioides Linn. Vetiveria zizanioides Stapf. Xiang gen cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRICA: Khus-khus grass. DANISH: Vetiverrod DUTCH: Vetivergras, Akar wangie. FRENCH: Chiendent odorant, Chiendent des Indes, Vétiver. GERMAN: Vetivergras, Vetiverwurzel. HINDI: Gandar, Khas khas. ITALIAN: Gramigna indiana, Gramigna delle Indie. KANNDA: Vetiveru MALAYALAM: Ramacham PORTUGUESE: Vetiver-da-India. SANSKRIT: Reshira, Sugandhimula, Sugandhimuta, Ushira. SPANISH: Zacate violeta TAMIL: Vettiver TELUGU: Kuruveru Common names Amoora (C. Bis.) Amoras (Ilk.) Anias de moras (Pamp.) Giron (P. Bis.) Ilib (Pamp.) Mora (Bik., Bis.) Moras (Tag., Bis., Bik.) Moro (Tag.) Narawasta (Sul.) Rais de moras (Span.) Rimodas (P. Bis.) Rimora (Sbl.) Rimoras (Bik.) Tres-moras (Bis.) Cuscus grass (Engl.) Fragrant grass (Engl.) Indian couch grass (Engl.) Vetiver (Engl.) Vetiver grass (Engl.) Yan lan cao (Chin.) Botany Moras is a coarse, erect, tufted perennial, growing 1 to 2 meters high. Roots are fibrous and fragrant. Leaves are arranged in two rows, about 1 meter long, 1 centimeters or less in width, and folded. Panicles are terminal, erect, purple or greenish, about 20 centimeters long; the branches are slender, whorled, spreading or ascending, 5 to 12 centimeters long. Sessile spikelets are about 4 millimeters long and muricate; the awn of the fourth glume is very short or absent. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Studies on antihypertensive and antispasmodic activities of Andropogon muricatus Retz. / Gilani, Anwar H; Shah Abdul et al / Canadian [...]


Family • Basellaceae ? - Anredera scandens (Linn.) Moq. - CLIMBING FALSE BUCKWHEAT - Duan xu luo kui shu Scientific names Anredera scandens (Linn.) Moq. Anredera spicata Pers. Anredera cumingii Hassk. Gomphrena volubilis Blanco Polygonum scandens Linn. Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub Common names Malabato (Tag.) Olibato (Tag.) Duan xu luo kui shu (Chin.) Climbing false buckwheat (Tag.) Duan xu luo kui shu (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Taxon: Fallopia scandens (L.) Holub / USDA / Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (2) A retrochalcone from Anredera scandens / Fernando Calzada, Rachel Mata et al / Phytochemistry Volume 29, Issue 8, 1990, Pages 2737-2738 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(90)85235-8 (3) Study on Content Determination and Antioxidant Activity in vitro of Polysaccharide Produced by Anredera scandens / ZHAO Jin-li, ZHANG Ya-ru, SONG Juan / Acta Agriculturae Jiangxi, 2011-10 (4) ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACT OF BINAHONG LEAF (Anredera scandens (L.) Moq.) AGAINST Shigella flexneri WITH THE PROFILE OF THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY / Lilies Kusuma Wardhani, Nanik Sulistyani / Jurnal Ilmiah Kefarmasian, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2012 : 1-16 Botany Malabato is a smooth, somewhat juicy, herbaceous, annual vine, arising from large, fleshy tuberous roots. Stems are green or purplish, and slender. Leaves are shining, somewhat fleshy, ovate to oblong-ovate, 5 to 10 centimeters in length. Racemes are axillary, solitary, erect, usually simple, and 12 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, pale-greenish, and about 3 millimeters long. Sepals are broadly winged down the back. Distribution - Abundant in thickets at low and medium altitudes in Nueva Ecija, Laguna, Cavite, Rizal and Batangas Provinces [...]


Family • Solanaceae - Solanum verbascifolium Linn. - MULLEIN NIGHTSHADE - Tai wong ip Scientific names Solanum verbascifolim Linn. Solanum donianum Walp. Other vernacular names AFRIKAAN: Kondogbo. CHINESE: Tai wong ip. SPANISH: Hierba de San Pedro, Salvadora, Saca manteca. Common names Kasungog (Bag.) Kayok (Bag.) Liuangkag (Buk.) Malatabako (Tag.) Malatalong (Tag.) Noog-noog (Bis.) Pañgau (Ilk.) Talong-aso (Tag.) Ungali (Bis.) Mullein nightshade (Engl.) Botany Malatalong is a shrub 1 to 4 meters high, covered all over with dense, yellowish, grey, tomentum with scurfy, stellate hairs. Leaves are ovate, oblong-ovate or elliptic-ovate, 10 to 23 centimeters long, entire, and usually pointed at both ends, occasionally rounded at the base, the lower surface pale and densely covered with stellate hairs. Flowers are white or pale blue, about 2 centimeters across, in compact, dichotomous corymbs. Calyx is grayish green, cup-shaped, about 5 millimeters long, very wooly, with short and broadly triangular segments. Corolla is wooly without, with spreading, oblong-ovate lobes, about 1.3 centimeters in diameter. Fruit is fleshy, green or yellowish, rounded and about 1 centimeter in diameter, with minutely dotted seeds. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A cinnamide derivative from solanum verbascifolium L. / Li-Xin Zhou and Yi Ding / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 4, Issue 3 2002 , pages 185 - 187 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020290011396 (2) Isolation and structure elucidation of flavonoid glycosides from Solanum verbascifolium / Takashi Ohtsuki et al / Phytochemistry Letters, Vol 3, Issue 2, 11 June 2010, Pages 88-92 / doi:10.1016/j.phytol.2010.02.002 | (3) Antibacterial activity of plants used in [...]


Family • Anacardiaceae - Mangifera indica Linn. - MANGO - Mang guo Scientific names Mangifera indica Linn. Mangifera anisodora Blanco Mangifera domestica Gaertn. Mangifera fragrans F.-Vill. Mangifera rostrata  Blanco Mangifera sylvatica  F.-Vill. Common names Mampalam (Sul.) Mampalang (Sul.) Manga (Tag.) Mangachupadera (Span.) Mangang-kalabau (Tag.) Mangang-piko (Tag.) Mango (Engl.) Mangka (Ig.) Paho (P. bis) Pao (Bon.) Mang guo (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Manja, Manga, Mangô, Mangu. KHMER: Svaay. ARMENIAN: Mang, Mango. KOREAN : Mang go. ASSAMESE: Aam, Aamro, Ghariyam. LAOTIAN: Mak mouang, Mwàngx. BENGALI: Aama, Amchur. LITHUANIAN: Indinis mangas. BURMESE: Thayeq dhì, Thayeq. MALAY: Ampelam, Mangga, Mangga, Mempelam. CHINESE: Mi wang, Wang guo, Guo, Ma meng. MALAYALAM: Amram, Choothaphalam, Manga, Maav, Maavu, Mampalam. CZECH: Amčur , Mangovník indický. MARATHI: Amba, Amchuur, Aamchuur. DANISH: Mango, Mangofrugt, Mangotræ. NEPALESE: Aanpa, Amacura. DUTCH: Manga, Mangga, Manja, Mangoestanboom, Mangostanboom. NORWEGIAN: Mango. ESTONIAN: India mangopuu (tree), Mangopulber. ORIYA: Aamba, Amchura. FINNISH: Mango, Mangopuu. PERSIAN: Anbeh. FRENCH: Mangue, Manguier. POLISH: Drzewo mangowe, Mango indyjskie. GEORGIAN: Mango. PORTUGUESE: Manga, Mangueira. GERMAN: Indischer Mangobaum, Mango , Mangofrucht, Mangobaum, Mangopalme. PUNJABI: Amb. GREEK: Magko, Mangko. RUSSIAN: Манго Mango GUJARATI: Aambo, Ambodiya, Marvo. SANSKRIT: Aamra, Ambrah, Amra chuta, Madhuula Madhuulaka, Madhuuli, Madhuulii. HAUSA : Mangoro, Mangwaro. SINHALESE: Amba, Dumpara, Etamba, Amba gasa. HEBREW: Mango. SLOVAKIAN: Mangovník indický. HINDI: Āma, Am chur, Āmacura, An̄cūra, Kaccā āma. TELUGU: Amramu, Māmiḍi, Māmiḍi kāya, Māmiḍi paṇḍu, Myāṅgō. ICELANDIC: Mangó. THAI: Mamuang. ITALIAN: Mango URDU: Aam, Amba, Amchur, Amchur. JAPANESE: Anchaa, Mangoo, Mangou. VIETNAMESE : Xoài. KANNADA: Āmra, Maavu, Māvina haṇṇu, Mavinkai churu. Botany Manga is a large tree, with a [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae / Phyllanthaceae - Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. - INDIAN SNOWBERRY - Shan qi jing Scientific names Breynia rhamnoides (Retz.) Muell.-Arg. Breynia officinalis Hemsley Breynia microcalyx Ridley Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) Phyllanthus rhamnoides Retz. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xiao ye hei mian shen, Shu li zhuang shan qi jing. JAPANESE: Hime kobannoki, Takasago kobannoki. MALAY: Hujan panas, Semomah, Seruyan. TAIWANESE: Ang-sim-a, Ang-chu-a, Ang-a-chu. THAI: Phiafān, Dapphit. VIETNAMESE: Cu de. Common names Dagum (Sub.) Gungumayi (Bon.) Kabaong (Bon.) Matang-hipon (Tag.) Matan saga (Kuy.) Matang-ulang (Tag.) Salamagi (Bon.) Santing (Sulu.) Singtug (Sul.) Tañgisan-bagio (Bag.) Torog-torog (P. Bis.) Tulug-tulug (P. Bis.) Indian snowberry (Engl.) Shan qi jing (Chin.) Botany Matang-hipon is an erect, monoecious, slender, smooth shrub, 1.5 to 4 meters high. Leaves are distichous, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are very small, greenish, axillary, and about 1 millimeter in diameter. Fruit is pink, somewhat fleshy, nearly spherical, about 5 millimeters in diameter. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Terpenic and phenolic glycosides from leaves of Breynia officinalis HEMSL / Morikawa H, Kasai R, Otsuka H, Hirata E, Shinzato T, Aramoto M, Takeda Y. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Sep;52(9):1086-90. (2) Breynia vitis-idaea / Common names / Wikipedia (3) In Vitro antioxidant activities of Breynia Vitis-Idaea extracts / Chandrashekar. G. Joshi*, Gopal M and Vaigundan D / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(5):340-347 (4) Two new glycosides from Breynia vitis-idaea. / Meng DH, Wu J, Wang LY, Zhao WM. / J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010 Jun;12(6):535-41. doi: 10.1080/10286021003745452. (5) Dental care of Andaman and [...]


Family • Moraceae - Moras - Morus alba Linn. - MULBERRY - Sang chih Scientific names Morus indica Linn. Morus alba Linn. Morus atropurpurea Roxb. Morus macrophylla Moretti Morus nervosa Deless. ex Spach. Common names Amingit (Ig.) Amoras (Ilk.) Mora (Ibn.) Moral (Span.) Moras (Tag.) Moraya (Ibn.) Morera (Span.) Tanud (Iv.) Tanyud (Iv.) Sang Chih (Chin.) Black-fruited mulberry (Engl.) Mulberry bush (Engl.) Mulberry tree (Engl.) Silkworm mulberry (Engl.) Silkworm tree (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: El ttuut, Tuth. KOREAN: Ppong, Ppong na mu. BENGALI: Tut. MALAY: Bebesaran (Indonesia), Bebesaran lampung (Indonesia, Java), Murbei (Indonesia), BULGARIAN: Chernitsia biala. NEPALESE: Kimbu. COUNTRY: Name POLISH: Morwa biala. CHINESE: Bai sang, Sang shu, Jia sang, Nu sang, Hu sang. PORTUGUESE: Amora da amoreira (fruit), Amoreira (plant), Amoreira branca. DANISH: Morbær (fruit), Morbær (plant). RUSSIAN: Shelkovitsa belaia, Tut belyi. DUTCH: Moerbei (fruit), Moerbezie (plant). SANSKRIT: Tula. FRENCH: Mûre de murier (fruit), Mûrier (plant) , Mûrier blanc. SPANISH: Mora (fruit), Mora blanca, Mora de árbol, Moral, Morera (plant), Morera blanca. GERMAN: Maulbeere (fruit), Maulbeerbaum (plant), Weiße Maulbeere. SWAHILI: Mforsadi, Mfurusadi. GREEK: Aspri moria, Aspromuria. SWEDISH: Vitt mullbär. HINDI: Shahtut, Tut. TAMIL: Kambli chedi, Mussuketi, Musukette. GUJARATI: Shetun. THAI: Mon. ITALIAN: Gelso bianco, Gelso comune, Mora di gelso (fruit), Moral blanco, Morera blanco, Morus, Moro (fruit), Moro bianco, Moro da carta. VIETNAMESE: D[aa]u, D[awf]m tang, Dâu-tàm, T[awf]m tang. JAPANESE: Guwa, Kara guwa, Ma guwa, Kara yama guwa. Botany Amoras is moderate-sized monoecious tree, 3 to 6 meters high, with reddish or yellowish brown, smooth bark, marked with long horizontal lenticels. Leaves are [...]