Family • Ebenaceae - Diospyros blancoi A. DC. - VELVET APPLE - Mao shi Scientific names Cavanillea philippinensis Desr. Diospyros blancoi A. DC. Diospyros discolor Wild. Diospyros durionoides Bakh. Diospyros malacapal A.DC. Diospyros merrilii Elmer Diospyros utilis Hemsl. Embryopteris discolor G.Don. Mabola edulis Raf. Common names Kamagong (Tag.) Mabolo (Tag.) Velvet apple (Engl.) Velvet persimmon (Engl.) Other vernacular names BANGLADESH: Gab. CHINESE: Mao shi, Tai wan shi, Yi se shi FRENCH: Pommier velours. INDONESIA: Bisbul. JAPANESE: Ke gaki MALAY: Buah lemah, Buan mentega, Buah sagalat, Kamagong, Kayu mentega. PORTUGUESE: Pecego-de-India. SPANISH: Camagon. Botany Mabolo is a medium-sized tree growing to a height of 20 meters. Leaves are leathery, oblong, up to 20 centimeters long, with a round base and acute tip. The blade is glossy green, smooth above and softly hairy below. Female flowers are axillary and solitary, larger than the male. Fruits are fleshy, globose, up to 8-10 centimeters in diameter, densely covered with short brown hairs. The pulp is edible. The fruit hairs have to be rubbed off before eating as it can cause peri-oral itching and irritation. Distribution In forests, at low and medium altitudes. A shade tree, it is planted along roads and parks. Constituents • Ethyl acetate extract of air-dried leaves yielded isoarborinol methyl ether, a mixture of a-amyrin palmitate, α-amyrin palmitoleate, ß-amyrin palmitate and ß-amyrin palmitoleate and squalene. • Yields triterpenes. • Leaf extract yielded alkaloids, reducing sugar, gum, flavonoids, and tannins. • Fruit is high in tannin . • Analysis for phenolic compounds yielded predominant amounts of rosmarinic acid followed by luteolin [...]


Family • Iridaceae - Eleutherine palmifolia (Linn.) Merr. - YELLOW-EYED GRASS Scientific names Eleutherine palmifolia (Linn.) Merr. Eleutherine plicata Herb. Sisyrinchium palmifolium Linn. Antholyza meriana Blanco Common names Ahos-ahos (C. Bis.) Bakong sa Persia (Tag.) Hagusahis (S. L. Bis.) Mala-bauang (Tag.) Mala-bawang (Tag.) Palmilla (Span.) Rosas sa Siam (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) New WntB-Catenin Signaling Inhibitors Isolated from Eleutherine palmifolia / Xiaofan Li, Takashi Ohtsuki et al / Chemistry - An Asian Journal, Volume 4 Issue 4, Pages 540 - 547 / DOI 10.1002/asia.200800354 (2) Antagonistic activity of Eleutherine palmifolia Linn / Kalidass Subramaniam*, Sembian Suriyamoorthy, Femina Wahab, Febina Bernice Sharon, Gilbert Ross Rex / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S491-S493 Botany Mala-bawang is a plant with bulbs about 4 centimeters long, ovoid-oblong, and narrowed at both ends, the outer layers thin, and purple. Leaves are lanceolate, 3 to 4 from each bulb, 30 to 50 centimeters long, 1.5 to 3 centimeters wide, narrowed at both ends, and plicate. Scapes are rather slender, as long as the leaves, and green. Spathes are 10 to 12 millimeters long, the outer two are green, the inner ones very much thinner, and greenish-white. Flowers are white, about 2 centimeters in diameter, with obovate spreading lobes. Distribution Introduced, now naturalized. Occasionally in waste places about towns. Sometimes, planted for ornamental purposes. Constituents - Phytochemical screening of bulb yielded phenols, sterols, phlobatannins, proteins, steroids, tannins, and reducing sugar. Properties - Traditionally used as diuretic, vermifuge, abortifacient, antifertility agent. Parts used Bulbs. Uses Folkloric - Macerated bulbs applied [...]


Family • Salicaceae - Libas - Salix tetrasperma Roxb. - INDIAN WILLOW Scientific names Salix tetrasperma Roxb. Salix azaolana Blanco Pleieina tetrasperma (Roxb.) N. Chao & G T Gong Common names Libas (Tag.) Maksa (C. Bis.) Malatiki (Tag.) Tiaun (Tag.) Indian willow (Engl.) Botany Malatiki is a small deciduous tree, flowering after leafing. Bark is rough, with deep, vertical fissures. Young shoots and young leaves are silky. Leaves are lanceolate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, with minutely and regularly toothed margins. Male sweet-scented catkins are 5 to 10 centimeters long, and are borne on leafy branchlets. Female catkins are 8 to 12 centimeters long. Capsules are long, stipulate, in groups of 3 to 4. Seeds are 4 to 6, in a capsule. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Indian willow / Flowers of India (2) Studies on the traditional uses of plants of Malam Jabba valley, District Swat, Pakistan / Ilyas Iqbal and Muhammad Hamayun / EthnoLeaflets (3) Salix tetrasperma Roxb. / The Plant List (4) EVALUATION OF CATARACT PREVENTIVE ACTION OF SALIX TETRASPERMA / Prima Freeda D'souza, Ankita Kotak, Ashok Shenoy, A.Ramakrishna.Shabraya / scientificipca.org/paper/2011/09/15/201109151146080A.doc‎ Distribution - In forests and swamps and near streams at low and medium altitudes. - Found in Cagayan, Laguna, Rizal, and Bulacan Provinces in Luzon; in Bohol; and in Mindanao. - Also occurs in India to China, in Taiwan, and southward to Sumatra and Java. Constituents - Phytochemical screenings yield various types of sapogenins: quinovic acid, salicortin, saligenin, phenolic glycosides and pyrocatechol from the bark and leaves. - Bark yields salicin. - [...]


Family • Cyperaceae - Mariscus sieberianus Nees. - TALL SEDGE - Zhuan zi miao Scientific names Cyperus cyperoides (L.) Kuntze. Cyperus cyplindrostachys Boeck. Kyllinga sumatransis Retz. Mariscus sieberianus Nees. Mariscus sumatrensis (Retz.) J. Raynal Mariscus umbellatus Nees. Mariscus umbellatus Vahl. Scirpus cyperoides L. Zhuan Zi miao (Engl.) Common names Kupiupi (Sub.) Mañgilang (Sub.) Okokiang (Bon.) Flat sedge (Engl.) Tall sedge (Engl.) Other vernacular names INDONESIA: jukut bebalean (Sundanese), suket lumbungan (Javanese), tetemung (southern Sumatra). JAPANESE: Inu kugu. KOREAN: Bang dong sa ni a jae bi. MALAYSIA: menderong ekur tupai, rumput janggut baung, rumput mesiyang (Peninsular). PAPUA NEW GUINEA: kaiga (Ialibu, Southern Highlands) THAILAND: yaa rang-kaa (Loei). Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Famine foods / Cyperaceae / Robert Freedman (2) Medicinal Plants of China, Korea, and Japan: Bioresources for Tomorrow's / Christophe Wiart / Google Books Botany Mañgilang is a perennial sedge with short rhizomes. Stems are glabrous, 25 to 70 centimeters long. Leaves are often nearly as long as the stems, 3 to 5 millimeters broad. Umbels are simple, 2.5 to 12 centimeters in diameter. Rays are 5 to 12, 2.5 to 8 centimeters long, ultimately straight. Spikes are solitary, cylindric, about 2.5 centimeters long. Spikelets are linear-lanceolate, bearing 1 to 2 nuts which are trigonous and chesnut-colored. Distribution - In old clearings, open grasslands, etc., at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces. - Pantropic. Constituents - Cyprerus cyperoides has yielded tricin and luteolin as well as cyperaquinones. Properties - Anthelmintic, which may be due to cyperaquinines (quinones such [...]


Family • Hippocrateaceae - Salacia prinoides (Willd.) DC. - CHINESE SALACIA - Suo la mu Scientific names Salacia prinoides (Willd.) DC. Salacia chinensis Willd. Salacia latifolia Blanco Salacia sinensis Blanco Tontelea prinoides Willd. Comocladia errata Blanco Common names Matang-ulang (Tag.) Ope (Ig.) Chinese salacia (Engl.) Lolly berry (Engl.) Lolly vine (Engl.) Snotty gobbles (Engl.) Suo la mu (Chin.) Other vernacular names AYURVEDIC: Saptrangi. CHINESE: Wu ceng long. MALAYALAM: Cherukoranti. THAI: Khampangjed chan. Botany Matang-ulang is a climbing, smooth shrub, reaching a height of 4 meters or more. Leaves are oblong, 8 to 16 centimeters long, margins entire or faintly and distantly toothed, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are borne in clusters in the axils of the leaves. Sepals are very small; petals are five and about 3.5 millimeters long. Fruit is ovoid or rounded, red, fleshy, about 1 centimeter in diameter, containing one seed. Distribution - In thickets and forests at low altitudes, often near the sea, in Zambales, Bataan, Batangas, Quezon, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Palawan, Biliran, Romblon, Leyte, Panay, Bucas Grande, Mindanao, and the Sulu Archipelago. - Also occurs in India, through Malaya to tropical Australia. Constituents - Study isolated sixteen compounds, including seven triterpenes ( lupeol, lupendiol, 30-hydorxylupenone, 3, 22-dioxo-29-normoretane, ursolid acid, beta-sitosterol, beta-daucosterol); four flavanoids (quercetin, quercet-in-3', 4'-dimethylether, Isorhamnetin, kaempferol-4'-methylether); three phenolic acids (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, egallic acid); two fatty series (hentriacontanol, hentriacontan-12-ol). - Roots contain alkaloids, glycosides, polyphenols, flavanoids, coumarins, proteins, carbohydrates, gums and mucilage, fixed oil and volatile oil. Stem and roots are abundant [...]

Morning glory

Family • Convolvulacea - Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet - MILE A MINUTE VINE - Wu zhu yu Scientific names Batatas cavenillesii (Roem.& Schult) G. Don Batatas senegalensis G, Don Convolvulus cavenillesii (Roem.& Schult) Spreng. Convolvulus palmata Forssk. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet. Ipomoea cavenillesii (Roem.& Schult Ipomoea tuberculata Roemer & Schult. Common names Coast morning glory (Engl.) Five-fingered morning glory (Engl.) Ivy-leaved morning glory (Engl.) Mile-a-minute vine (Engl.) Morning glory (Engl.) Railroad creeper (Engl.) Wu zhu yu (Chin.) Botany Ipomoea cairica is vining perennial, twining and herbaceous, up to 4 meters long, smooth or muricate. Leaf blades are 3 to 10 centimeters long, palmately divided in 5 to 7 lobes. Flowers are showy, white to lavender, peduncles 5 to 80 millimryrtd long. Corolla is purple, bluish purple or white with a purple center, funnelform, 4.5 to 6 centimters long. Distribution Widely distributed in the Philippines. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ipomoea cairica / (L.) Sweet, Convolvulaceae / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) (2) Antinociceptive effect from Ipomoea cairica extract / A A Ferreira, F A Amaral et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 105, Issues 1-2, 21 April 2006, Pages 148-153 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.10.012 (3) Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet / Synonyms / The Plant List (4) Assessment of residual bio-efficacy and persistence of Ipomoea cairica plant extract against Culex quinquefasciatus Say mosquito / Thiagaletchumi M, Zuharah WF, Ahbi Rami R, Fadzly N, Dieng H, Ahmad AH, AbuBakar S / Trop Biomed. 2014 Sep;31(3):466-76 / Trop Biomed. 2014 Sep;31(3):466-76. (5) Biolarvacidal Potential of Ipomoea Cairica Extracts Against Key Dengue Vectors / Ahmad Razali [...]


Family • Rubiaceae - Dilang-butiki - Hedyotis philippensis (Willd.) Merr. - GENIE'S TONGUE Scientific names Hedyotis philippensis (Willd. ex Spreng) Merr R. Bar.ex CB Rob. Hedyotis congesta R. Bar. Hedyotis laevigate Miq. Hedyotis prostata Korth. Knoxia corymbosa Elm. Metabolus laevigatus DC. Metabolus prostratus Blume Oldenlandia cristata (Willd. ex Roem & Schult.) Spermacoce philippensis Willd. Common names Dilang-butiki (Tag.) Magdadakan (S. L. BIs.) Malantubas (S. L. BIs.) Pulapasagit (P. Bis.) Genie's tongue (Engl.) Other vernacular names MALAYSIA: Sebueh, Bunga kakarang. THAILAND: Mae klon, Saam nam. VIETNAM: An di[eef]n philippin. Botany Magdadakan is a low and spreading herb, up to 1 meter high, with slender twigs which are hairy when young. Leaves are smooth, except for the prominent midrib beneath, narrowly oblong, up to 9 centimeters long and 3.5 centimeters wide; the terminal ones much smaller, lanceolate, borne on 1-centimeter long petioles, acuminate and pointed on both ends. Flowers are axillary, white, crowded on heads in the axils of leaves. Calyx is bell-shaped. Corolla is a little longer than the calyx, and the limb separates into oblong, spreading segments. Fruit is green, smooth, somewhat rounded, 1.5 to 2 millimeters in diameter. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) PRELIMINARY IN VITRO PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF TROPICAL RAIN FOREST PLANTS OF MALAYSIA / Wiart C, Kumar A, Mogana R et al / (2) Shaman, Saiva and Sufi: A Study of the Evolution of Malay Magic / Richard Winstedt, Sir Richard Olof Winstedt / Google books (3) Potential antifungal plants for controlling building fungi / Rajesh K Verma et al / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 7(4), 2008, pp 374-387 [...]


Family • Rubiaceae - Gardenia pseudopsidium (Blanco) F.-Vill.) Scientific names Gardenia pseudopsidium (Blanco) F.-Vill. Gardenia barnesii Merr. Sulipa pseudopsidium Blanco Common names Barambang (Pamp.) Kalapi (Tag.) Bayag-usa (Tag.) Kasablan (Mag.) Bukok (S. L. Bis.) Kasikas (Ig.) Bunutan (Neg.) Lamog (Mag.) Butunalaga (Neg.) Lomo-lomo (Bag.) Gililak (Tag.) Malabayabas (Tag.) Kalanigai (P. Bis.) Malatambis (Chab.) Kalanigi (P. Bis.) Sulipa (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A REVISION OF PHILIPPINE GARDENIA (RUBIACEAE) / K. M. Wong / Yee Wen Low / Edinburgh Journal of Botany 03/2011; 68(01):11 - 32. DOI: 10.1017/S0960428610000272 Parts used Gardenia pseudopsidium (Blanco) Fern.-Vill. is considered a doubtful name, to which some authors have referred the endemic G. barnesii Merr. Botany Malabayabas is a small tree. Leaves are crowded at the ends of branchlets, obovate-oblong, 11 to 22 centimeters long, 4 to 10 centimeters wide, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are fragrant, white, but turning yellow, 7 to 10 centimeters long, and 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Calyx-tube is obscurely ridged, and the upper half linearly segmented, green and smooth. Corolla-tube is 5 to 6 centimeters long. Fruit is green, hard, ovoid or somewhat rounded, 5 to 7 centimeters long, obscurely ridged longitudinally, and terminated by the calyx crown. Seeds are many and embedded in pulp. Distribution - Common in the primary forests at low altitudes in Cagayan, Benguet, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Rizal, Bataan, Batangas, Laguna, Quezon, and the Camarines Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Busuanga, Masbate, Negros, Samar, and Mindanao. Parts used Fruit. Uses Folkloric Fruit used for smallpox. [...]


Family • Melastomataceae - Melastoma malabathricum Linn. - SINGAPORE RHODODENDRON - Ye mu dan Common names Bubtoi (Sbl.) Malatungau (Ibn.) Malatungaw (Tag.) Yagomyum (C. Bis.) Singapore rhododendron (Engl.) Malabar melastome (Engl.) Scientific names Melastoma malabathricum Linn. Melastoma heterostegium Naud. Melastoma fuseum Merr. Melastoma congestum Elm. Other vernacular names CHINA: Ye mu dan. INDIA: Shapti (Hindi), Bobuchunmei, Rongmei, Rindha, Palore (Marathi), Palore (Malayalam), Nekkarike (Telugu), Ankerki, Kinkenrika (Kannada), Gongoi, Koroti (Oriya), Myetpyai (Konkani), Phutuki, Phutkala (Assamese). INDONESIA: Harendong, Senggani, Kemanden, Kluruk. MALAYSIA: Senduduk, Sekedudok, Sikadudok, Kendudok, Kedudok, Sedudok, Lingangadi, Gosing-gosing, Gagabang, Ngongodo, Gata-gata, Kelarit. NEPAL: Diklak, Gabrasai, Koilar, Anguri, Tun kaphal, Angeri, Kali angeri Thulo chulesi, Chulesi, Lemlang. PALAU: Matakul. SRI LANKA: Bowitiya, Mahabowitiya, Katakaloowa. THAILAND: Khlong khleng, Khlongkhleng khee nok, Mang khre, Mang re, Re, Bre, Kadu-da, Chuk naaree. VIETNAM: Mua da hung, Mua se. Botany Malatungau is a spreading shrub growing to a height of 2 meters. Twigs and flower stalks are rough with small, triangular, upward pointing scales. Leaves are broadly lanceolate, 7 to 12 centimeters long, slightly rough and hairy on both surfaces. Flowers are 4 to 7 centimeters across, clustered, and mauve purple. Calyx is closely set with short, chaffy, silky or silvery scales. Fruit is ovoid, about 6 millimeters wide and pulpy within. Distribution - In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes in Zambales, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Pampanga, Bataan, and Cavite Provinces in Luzon; in Mindoro; in Sibuyan; and in Negros. - Domesticated in Baguio as an ornamental. - Also occurs in India to Indo-China [...]


Family • Leguminosae - TAYAM - Desmodium heterocarpon Linn. - FALSE GROUND NUT - Jia di dou Scientific names Desmodium buergeri Miq. Desmodium heterocarpum (L.) DC. Desmodium polycarpum (Poir.) DC. Desmodium capitatum DC. Hedysarum heterocarpon Linn. Hedysarum polycarpum Poir. Meibomia heterocarpa (L.) Kuntze Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Baay dam'nnaep. CHINESE: Jia de dou. INDONESIA: Buntut meyong sisir, Kaci, Akar entimor. MALAYSIA: Rumput kerbau derapah, Kacang kayu betina. VIETNAM: Tra[n]g qu'a di qu'a. Common names Huyop (If.) Tagiktik (Mbo.) Huyop-huyop (If.) Tayam (Tag.) Mangkit-parang (Tag.) Timbalau (Basg.) Mani-mani (P. Bis.) Asian ticktrefoil (Engl.) Mani-manian (Tag.) Carpon desmodium (Engl.) Naangkonod (Mbo.) False ground nut (Engl.) Botany Tayam is an erect or sub-erect perennial undershrub or creeping woody rootstock, with slightly angular and slender branches, clothed upwards with short, adpressed, grey hairs. Leaves usually have three leaflets, but single leaflets may be found on the lower stems of mature plants. Leaflets are green, hairy above, and thinly clothed with adpressed hairs beneath; the end one obovate-oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, the side ones smaller. Racemes are terminal and lateral, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long. Pods are 1.2 to 2 centimeters long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED (2) Study on Chemical Constituents of Desmodium heterocarpon / HUANG Zhong-bi, ZHANG Qian-jun, KANG Wen-yi, LI Chuan-kuan, CHEN Qing / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formula, 2010-17 (3) Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC. / Synonyms / The Plant List (4) Antimicrobial studies of leaf extracts from Desmodium heterocarpon (L.) DC / Arora Shefali, Yadav Vandana, Kumar Pankaj, Kumar Deepak / International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries, 2014, [...]