Family • Euphorbiaceae - Acalypha indica Linn. - INDIAN ACALYPHA - Re dai tie xian cai Scientific names Acalypha caroliniana Blanco Acalypha indica Linn. Common names Maraotong (Ilk.) Taptapiñgar (Ilk.) Indian nettle (Engl.) Indian copperleaf (Engl.) Indian acalypha (Engl.) Three-seeded mercury (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Tie xian, Re dai tie xian cai. FRENCH: Ricinelle des Indes, Oreille de chatte, Herba chatte. HINDI: Kuppikhokli. INDONESIA: Lelating, Kucing-kucingan, Rumput kokosongan, Rumput bolong-bolong. KANNADA: Kuppigida. MALAYALAM: Kuppameni. MALAYSIA: Chika emas, Galak kuching. SANSKRIT: Haritamanjari. Botany Maraotong is an erect, simple or branched, slightly hairy annual herb, growing to a height of 30 to 80 centimeters. Leaves are ovate. 3 to 6 centimeters long, shorter than the long stalks, with toothed margins. Flowers are sessile, greenish, borne on numerous, lax, erect axillary spikes. The male flowers are very small, clustered near the summit. Female flowers are solitary and scattered, each with a large and leafy bract, 5 to 6 millimeters long. Capsules are 2 millimeters long and concealed by the enlarged bract, often containing only one seed. Seed is ovoid and smooth. Distribution - A common weed in and about towns, in thickets and waste places throughout the Philippines. - Found in tropical Africa and Asia, through Malaya and Polynesia. Constituents - Contains an alkaloid, acalyphine. - Major phytochemicals identified are acalyphine, cyanogenic glycoside, inositol, resin, triaetomamine and volatile oils. - Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded alkaloids, tannins, steroids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, and phenolic compounds. - Study for fatty acids yielded eicosatrienoic acid methyl ester [...]

Monarch fern

Family • Polypodiaceae - Polypodium scolopendrium Burm. f. Scientific names Polypodium scolopendrium Burm. f. Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Polypodium phymatodes Linn. Microsorium scolopendria (Burm. f.) Copel. Common names Monarch fern (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A Review on the Potential Uses of Ferns / M Mannar Mannan, M Maridass and B Victor / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 281-285. 2008. (2) Ecdysteroids from the medicinal fern Microsorum scolopendria (Burm. f.) / Eva Snogan, Isabelle Vahirua-Lechat et al / Phytochemical Analysis, Volume 18, Issue 5, pages 441–450, September 2007 / DOI: 10.1002/pca.1000 Botany Monarch fern is an epiphyte, with wide, creeping and glabrescent rhizomes. Stipes are scattered, 5 to 40 cm long, and naked. Fronds are variable in size, from simple-lanceolate to deeply pinnatifid, 10 to 40 cm long. Costae are prominent but the venation is hardly visible. Sori are very large, shallowly immersed, and conspicuous on the upper surface, in single rows along the main veins, or scattered, but not numerous. Distribution Growing in the crown or trunks of trees and on rocks along streams, at low and medium altitudes. Commonly distributed in the Philippines. Also found from Polynesia across Africa. Constituents Yields glycirrhizin and saponin. Properties Aromatic, aperative, diaphoretic. Parts used Young leaves. Uses Folkloric In Indo-China, young leaves of the fern used in chronic diarrhea. Others • Repellent: Young fronds spread on bed to keep off bed bugs. Study Findings • Ecdysteroids: Ecdysteroids might be responsible for some of M. scolopendria's medicinal properties. Study showed it to be an excellent source of ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone, and also [...]


Family •Annonaceae - Dasymaschalon clusiflorum Merr. Scientific names Dasymaschalon clusiflorum Merr. Unona clusiflora Merr. Unona dasymaschala F.-Vill. Unona longiflora Vidal Polyalthia clusiflora C. B. Rob. Common names Buyanus (C. Bis.) Malamarobo (S. L. Bis.) Kalabuyo (Tag.) Malasagiat (Ilk.) Kalimatas (Tagb.) Panagit (C. Bis.) Lanutan (Tag.) Sagapan (Bag.) Lanutan-puti (Tag.) Sagot (Ilk.) Malaatis (Tag.) Botany Malaatis is a shrub or small tree. Leaves are oblong-elliptical, 11 to 15 centimeters long, and 3.5 to 5 centimeters wide, smooth, with pointed tips. Flowers are solitary and yellowish green. Sepals are somewhat kidney-shaped, about 2 millimeters long, and 4 millimeters wide. Petals are ovate-lanceolate, 5 to 6 centimeters long and about 2 centimeters wide. Distribution - Common in forests at low and medium altitudes from Babuyan Islands to Palawan and Mindanao. - Also occurs in Borneo. Properties Considered cicatrizant, diuretic. Parts used Leaves, roots. Uses Folkloric - In the Philippines, leaves, either fresh or burned into ash, used as cicatrizant. - Fresh leaves are bruised and applied as topical to wounds, and the ash dusted on afterwards. - Decoction of roots or dried leaves used as diuretic. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Cyperaceae - Fimbristylis junciformis (Retz.) Kunth. Scientific names   Fimbristylis junciformis (Retz.) Kunth. Fimbristylis falcata Kunth Fimbristylis brevifolia Presl Scirpus falcatus Vahl Fimbristylis branchyphylla Presl Iria falcata (Vahl) Kuntze Fimbristylis haenkei Dietr. Common names Malasibuias (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemical composition of the essential oil from Fimbristylis falcata (Vahl) Kunth. / Shah G, Mathela C / Journal of Essential Oil Research 2009 Vol. 21 No. 6 pp. 553-554 Botany Apulid-gapang is a perennial, with woody and horizontal rhizomes that are usually short, or sometimes up to 5 centimeters in length. Stems are tufted, rigid, growing upwards, 4- to 5-angled or obscurely flattened, 10 to 20 centimeters long. Leaves are usually short but sometimes as long as 1.5 centimeters in length. Umbels are compound or decompound, about 8 millimeters in diameter, with 20 to 30 clusters. Spikelets are clustered, 2 to 5 in a cluster. Glumes are ovate. Nut is as long as one-third of the glume, obscurely striate or non-striate. Distribution Limited distribution in the Philippines. Occurs in India to Indo-China. Parts used Roots. Uses Folkloric Santals are reported to use the roots in dysentery. Study Findings • Essential Oil: Study of essential oil from the rhizomes of Fimbristylis falcata (Vahl) Kunth yielded more than 40 constituents. The major constituents were: camphor, cyperene, thymol, spathulenol, dehydroabietal and dehydroabietol. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Rubiaceae - Mitragyna speciosa Korth. - KRATOM Scientific names Mitragyna speciosa Korth. Nauclea speciosa Miq . Nauclea luzoniensis Blanco. Nauclea korthaisii Steud. Stephegyne speciosa Korth . Common names Lugub (Mand.) Mambog (Tag.) Polapupot (Ibn.) Kratom (Thai., Engl.) Other vernacular names MALAYSIA: Biak-biak, Ketum, Kutum. THAI: Ketum, Kratom, Katuan, Krataum, Taum, Kratom, Ithang, Kakuan. Street names Thang, Kakuam, Thom, Ketum, Biak. Botany Mambog is a forest tree that grows to a height of 10 to 25 meters. Leaves are elliptic, 8.5 to 14 centimeters long, 5 to 10 centimeters wide, smaller at the ends of the branchlets, pointed at the tip, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, and hairy on the nerves beneath. Petioles are 2 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are yellow, crowded in round, terminal inflorescences 3 to 5 centimeters long, the flowering heads consisting of up to 120 florets each. Calyx-tube is short and cup-shaped, with rounded lobes. Corolla tube is 5 millimeters long, smooth without and hairy within; the lobes 3 millimeters long, smooth and revolute in the margins. Fruit is oblong-ovoid and 5 to 7 millimeters long, with 10 ridges. Distribution - In forests at low altitudes in Cagayan Province in Luzon; in Mindoro and Mindanao. - Indigenous to Thailand, Malaysia, Myanmar. - Also occurs in Borneo and New Guinea. Constituents - Over 25 alkaloids have been isolated from kratom. The three most abundant indole alkaloids are mitragynine, paynanthine and speciogynine. Mitragynine is the primary active alkaloid in the plant. - Mitragynine (C22H31O5N), an indole alkaloid, was first isolated from [...]


Family • Cannabaceae - Cannabis sativa L. - MARIJUANA - Ye ma Scientific names Cannabis indica Lam. Cannabis sativa L. subs. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist Da ma (Chin.) Common names Damo (Tag.) Marihuana (Tag.) Marijuana (Engl.) Hemp (Engl.) Wild hemp (Engl.) Dagga (Africa) Laughing grass (Engl.) Ye ma (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS: Dagga ARABIC: Hashish qinnib (Egypt), Bang, Hashish, Kif (Morocco) Qinnib, Shahdanag CHINESE: Shan si miao, Xian ma, Hu ma. DANISH: Indisk hamp. FRENCH: Chanvre indien, Bang, Chanvre cultivé. GERMAN: Indischer Hanf, Haschisch. HINDI: Bhaang, Bhang, Charas, Churras, Ganja. ITALIAN: Canapa indica, Canapa indiana. JAPANESE: Asa, Kannabisu, Mashinin, Taima. NEPALESE: Bhaang, Bhaango. PORTUGESE: Maconha. RUSSIAN: Indiiskaia konoplia, Konoplia indiiskaia. SPANISH: Cáñamo índico, Grifa, Hachís, Marihuana, Marijuana, Mariguana. THAI: Porkanchaa. TURKISH: Kinnab, Hind kinnabi Botany Cannabis sativa is an annual, dioecious, flowering herb. Leaves are palmately compound or digitate, with serrate leaflets. First pair of leaves usually have a single leaflet, gradually increasing to a maximum of 13 leaflets per leaf, usually 7 or 9; and at the top of the flowering plant, again diminishing to a single leaflet per leaf. Lower pairs are usually opposite, the upper pairs alternate. Flowers are imperfect, with staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers sometimes in the same plant. Seeds are usually achenes. Taxonomy - Various types of Cannabis have been described: plants cultivated for fiber and seed production, low-intoxicant, non-drug, or fiber types. plants cultivated for drug production, high intoxicant, or drug types. escape or wild forms of both types. - Breeders and [...]

Mondo grass

Family • Liliaceae - Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker-Gawl. - DWARF LILY TURF - Mai men dong Scientific names Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Common names Dwarf lily turf (Engl.) Mondo grass (Engl.) Snakebeard (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Mai men dong. FINNISH: Mukulakäärmeenparta. JAPANESE: Ja-no-hige KOREAN: jobnipmaekmundongajaebi. RUSSIAN: ofiopogon japonskij. Botany Mondo grass is a low, stemless, glabrous, grasslike, perennial herb with branching rhizomes. Leaves are leathery, narrow-linear up to 30 centimeters long, gracefully arching and dark green. Flowers are small, drooping, violet-purple to lilac or white, borne on erect racemes up to 8 centimeters long. Distribution - Recently introduced io the Philippines. - Used as ground cover. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Inhibitory effects of ethanol extract from Radix Ophiopogon japonicus on venous thrombosis linked with its endothelium-protective and anti-adhesive activities / Vascular Pharmacology / Volume 43, Issue 3, September 2005, Pages 157-163 / doi:10.1016/j.vph.2005.06.004 (2) Homoisoflavonoids from Ophiopogon japonicus and Its Oxygen Free Radicals (OFRs) Scavenging Effects/ Yi-Feng Zhou et al / Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines Vol 6, Issue 3, May 2008, Pages 201-204 / doi:10.1016/S1875-5364(09)60017-0 (3) Influence of sulfation on anti-myocardial ischemic activity of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide / Qin Zheng et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 4 April 2009 , pages 306 - 321 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020902727363 (4) Five New Homoisoflavonoids from the Tuber of Ophiopogon japonicus / Jin-Ming Chang, Chien-Chang Shen et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2002, 65 (11), pp 1731–1733 / DOI: 10.1021/np020204o (5) Ophiopojaponin D, a new phenylpropanoid glycoside from Ophiopogon [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Hibiscus tiliaceus Linn. - SEA ROSEMALLOW - Huang jin Scientifric names HIbiscus tiliaceus Linn. HIbiscus tortuosus Roxb. Paritium tiliaceum St. Hil. Other vernacular names FRENCH: Purau (Tahiti). JAPANESE: Yama-asa, Oo-hamaboo. PORTUGUESE: Algodão da praia (Brazil). SPANISH : Algondoncillo, Hibisco marítimo, Majagua, Mahoe. THAI : Po fai, Po na, Pho thale, Po thale. Common names Bago (Ilk., Bon., Tag.) Malubago (Tag., Bik.) Balabago (S. L. Bis.) Marakapas (Ibn.) Balibago (Tag., Bis.) Mayambago (Bik., C. Bis.) Bauan (Ibn.) Mulabago (Mag.) Dangliu (Tag.) Ragindi (Bis.) Danglog (Sul.) Ragindi (Bis.) Hanot (Iv.) Beach hibiscus (Engl.) Laogo (Bag.) Bladder ketmia (Engl.) Malabago (Tag., S. L. Bis.) Cottonwood (Engl.) Lambagu (Sul.) Lagoon hibiscus (Engl.) Majagua (Bik., C. Bis) Sea hibiscus (Engl.) Malabagu (Ilk.) Sea rosemallow (Engl.) Malibago ( Tag., P Bis., Sul.) Huang jin (Chin.) Botany Malabago is a much branched tree, 4 to 12 meters high. Leaves are suborbicular, 10 to 15 centimeters long, green, smooth and shining on the upper surface, grayish and hairy on the under surface, with a pointed tip and heart-shaped base, and minutely toothed margins. Sepals are hairy, 5 in number, oblong and about 2 centimeters long. Petals are yellow, dark purple at the inside base, orbicular-obovate or rounded, about 5 centimeters in length and width. Capsules are hairy, ovoid, 1.5 centimeters long, surrounded by persistent sepals and, at the base, by the bracteolar cup, falsely 10-celled, and 5-valved.   Distribution - Found throughout the Philippines, along the seashore and tidal streams. - Occasionally planted inland for ornamental purposes. [...]


Family • Myrtaceae - Leptospermum flavescens Sm. - RED TEA TREE Scientific names Leptospermum flavescens Sm. Leptospermum porophyllum Cav. Leptospermum amboinense Blume Leptospermum annae Stein Leptospermum polygalifolium Salisb. Common names Paripiñgin (Neg.) Malasulasi (Tag.) Tinikaran (Bag.) Red tea tree (Engl.) Botany Malasulasi is a shrub or small tree growing to a height of about 5 meters. Leaves are linear-lanceolate, 0.8 to 3 cm long, and 2 to 6 mm wide; the apex is slightly pointed or blunt, and the base, pointed. Flowers are white and star-like, 1 cm wide, with very short stalks, if any. Fruit is about dark simsom, 5 to 7 mm in diameter. Distribution Usually on exposed ridges in mossy forests at altitudes of 1,000 tio 2,700 meters. Constituents Leaves and twigs yield an essential oil containing d-pinene, b-pinene, sesquiterpene, aromadendrene and eudesmen, sesquiterpene alcohol, eudesmol, citral 0.25 to 0.75 %; terpineol, geraniol, and phenol leptospermol. Parts used Leaves, oil. Uses Edibility In Malaya, dried leaves use for making tea. Folkloric Leaves used internally to stimulate the appetite and relive stomach discomfort. Leaves also used internally for dysmenorrhea. In the Moluccas, mountaineers distill a little volatile aromatic oil from the plant which is inhaled for bronchitis; also used as embrocation for rheumatism. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Simarubaceae - Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. - Niu jin guo Scientific names Harrisonia perforata (Blanco) Merr. Harrisonia bennetii Hook. f. Harrisonia citrinaecarpa Elm. Paliurus perforatus Blanco Paliurus dubius Blanco Fagara piperita Naves Lasiolepis multijuga Benn. Lasiolepis paucijuga Benn. Common names Asimau (Tag.) Bakit (Ilk., Pamp.) Dagiangas (Mbo.) Kamuñgi (Sul.) Laiya (Tag.) Mamikil (Tag.) Muntani (Bis.) Sapleng (Sbl.) Sapsapang (Ilk.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Nin jin guo. INDONESIA: Sesepang, Garut, Ri kengkeng. LAOS: Don kin ta. MALAYSIA: Kait-kait. THAILAND: Khonthaa, Naam chee. VIETNAM: S[aa]n, Da da, H[ar]i s[ow]n. Botany Mamikil is a somewhat climbing and nearly erect shrub, growing from 2 to 4 meters in height. Branches are armed with short, sharp spines. Leaves are pinnate, with an unpaired terminal leaflet up to 20 centimeters long. Leaflets are 1 to 15 pairs, oblong-ovate, 1.5 to 3.5 centimeters long, and with entire or crenate margins. Flowers are white, and borne on terminal racemes 3 to 5 centimeters long. Fruit is somewhat globular, fleshy, smooth, and 1 to 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Distribution - In thickets at low altitudes in Ilocos Sur, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Rizal, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon; and in Samar and Mindanao. - Also occurs in Burma to southern China and Java. Constituents - Roots yield a bitter principle, abundant in the cortical parenchyma. The organic base was provisionally called mamikilina, and the bitter principle, harrisonine. - Extraction of dried leaves yielded a novel tetranortriterpenoid (limonoid), perforatin, of the obacunol class. - Study yielded eight limonoids including three A, B and D-seco-16-nor-type ones, 5,6-dehydrodesepoxyharperforin C2, [...]