Family • Verbenaceae / Lamiaceae - Premna cumingiana Schauer - WOOLY LEAVED FIRE-BRAND TEAK Scientific names Premna cumingiana Schauer Premna cardiophylla Schauer Gumira cardiophylla (Schauer) Kuntze Gumira cumingiana (Schauer) Kuntze Premna tomentosa Willd. ? Common names Alagau (P. Bis.) Malaapi (Tag.) Banaba (Ibn.) Maparai (Bag.) Magalas (Tag.) Mulmagan (Tagb.) Magilig (Tag.) Palaudiauan (Ilk.) Magilik (Tag.) Woolly leaved fire-brand teak (Engl.) Manaba (Bik., Buk.) Botany Magilik is a tree reaching a height of 8 meters or more. Twigs and leaves are densely covered with yellowish-brown, coarse, shaggy hairs. Leaves are large, opposite, ovate or ovately-oblong to subelliptic, 30 centimeters or more in length, borne upon stout, similarly hairy petioles up to 10 centimeters long, broad, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, and pointed at the tip. Inflorescences are terminal, large, and composed of many small, white flowers. Fruit is rounded, compressed, and subtended by a cupular calyx. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Premna cumingiana Schauer / The Plant List (2) Premna tomentosa Willd. is an accepted name / The Plant List (3) Protective effect of Premna tomentosa extract (L. verbanacae) on acetaminophen-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. / Devi KP, Sreepriya M, Balakrishna K, Devaki T. / Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 Apr;272(1-2):171-7. (4) Immunomodulatory effects of Premna tomentosa extract against Cr (VI) induced toxicity in splenic lymphocytes--an in vitro study. / Pandima Devi K, Sai Ram M, Sreepriya M, Ilavazhagan G, Devaki T. / Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Mar;57(2):105-8. (5) Antidiabetic Activity of Ethanolic extract of Premna Tomentosa Root in Rat Model / Bharath Reddy T*, Goverdhan P, Jagadeeshwar K / Journal [...]


Family • Aizoaceae / Molluginaceae - Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. - FIVE- LEAVED CARPETWEED - Di ma huang Scientific names Mollugo pentaphylla Linn. Mollugo stricta Linn. Mollugo sumatrana Gandog. Other vernacular names BENGALI: Khet papra. CHINESE: Su mi cao. HINDI: Jharasi JAPANESE: Zakuro sou. MALAYALAM: Parpadakapullu. MARATHI: Jharasi, Sarsalida. ORIYA: Pita-gohun. Common names Lepouo (Bon.) Malagoso (Tag.) Malugoso (Tag., Bis.) Pisig-pisig (Bag.) Salsalida (Bis.) Sudlai (Sub.) Sulangkang (Sub.) Su mi cao (Chin.) Di ma huang (Chin.) Indian chickweed (Engl.) Itch flower (Engl.) Five-leaved carpetweed (Engl.) Botany Malagoso is similar i habit to sarsalida (Mollugo oppositifolia) – a slender, spreading or ascending, smooth, branched, annual herb, with branches 10 to 40 centimeters in length. Leaves are 1.5 to 3centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide, whorled or opposite, usually linear-lanceolate, and narrowed at both ends. Flowers are borne in compound cymes, with very slender and very short stalks. Sepals are 1.5 to 2 millimeters long. Capsule is as long as the sepals, and nearly spherical, with many seeds which are dark chestnut, thin-walled, and covered with raised tubercular points. The species differs fromsarsalida (M. oppositifolia) in the shape of the leaves, and in the smaller flowers and capsules. Distribution - Throughout the Philippines as a weed in cultivated areas, in open grasslands, etc., at low and medium altitudes. - Also occurs in India to Japan and southward to Malaya. Constituents - Studies have yielded a saponin and much salt-petre. - Study yielded two closely related triterpene alcohols - mollugogenol A and mollugogenol B. - Phytochemical screening yielded flavanoids, saponins, [...]

Malayan Spurge

Family • Euphorbiaceae - Euphorbia antiquorum - TRIANGULAR SPURGE Scientific names Euphorbia antiquorum Common names Indian spurge (Engl.) Triangular milkwort (Engl.) Malayan spurge (Engl.) Triangular splurge (Engl.) Square spurge (Engl.) Tridhara (Hindi.) Square milk hedge (Engl.) General info  · There are more than 2,000 species of Euphorbia worldwide. A significant number are succulent, all contain latex and have a unique flower structure. Although it is present in many traditional medicinal systems, nearly all possess poison or toxicity. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Basic Info / Euphorbia (2) Ethnoveterinary healthcare practices in southern districts of Tamil Nadu / S. Ganesan et al / Indian J. Traditional knowledge Vol 7, No2, April 2008 (3) Eupha-7,9(11),24-trien-3beta-ol ("antiquol C") and other triterpenes from Euphorbia antiquorum latex and their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus activation / Akihisa T, Kithsiri Wijeratne EM et al / J Nat Prod 2002 Feb;65(2):158-62 (4) Insecticidal activity of Euphorbia antiquorum L. latex and its preliminary chemical analysis / WAPP de Silva, GK Manuweera, SHPP Karunaratne / J.Natn.Sci.Foundation Sri Lanka 2008 36 (1): 15-23 (5) Truangular splurge / Flowers of India (6) Constituents of the latex of Euphorbia antiquorum / Mohan B Gewali, Masao Hattori et al / Phytochemistry Volume 29, Issue 5, 1990, Pages 1625-1628 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(90)80134-3 Botany: · Succulent woody shrubs 1 to 3 cm high with milky sap. Mature stem cylindrical in shape with 3 to 6 ridges; younger branches green with 3 to 5 ridges. The projection of the ridges armed with a pair of 2 to 3 mm long spines. · Leaves: [...]


Family • Guttiferae - Garcinia mangostana Linn. - MANGOSTEEN - Shan zhu Scientific names Garcinia mangostana Linn. Mangostana garcinia Gaertn. Common names Mangosteen (Engl., Chabakano) Mangostan (Tag., S. L. Bis.) Mangostao (Portugese) Kanabla (C. Bis.) Manggis (Sulu) King's fruit (Engl.) Purple mangosteen (Engl.) Queen of Fruits (Engl.) Dao nian zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names DUTCH: Manggis, Manggistan FRENCH : Mangostan, Mangostanier, Mangoustan, Mangoustanier. GERMAN: Mangostane (tree), Mangostin (fruit). ITALIAN : Garcinia, Mangostana (fruit), Mangostano (tree). JAPANESE : Mangosuchin, Mangoosutin, Mangosutin. KOREAN : Mang ko seu t'in. MALAY : Mangis, Manggis (Indonesia), Semetah, Sementah. PORTUGUESE : Mangostão. SPANISH : Mangostán (tree), Mangustán (fruit). THAILAND: Mangkhut. VIETNAMESE : Cây măng cụt, Măng cụt, Trái măng cụt. Botany Mangosteen is a smooth, conical tree growing up to 10 meters high, outer bark smooth, dark brown, inner bark yellowish, branches nearly horizontal; leaves opposite, thick, leathery, 15 to 25 centimeters long, 6 to 11 centimeters wide, lanceolate, base tapering, apex acuminate, upper surface glossy, under surface dull, lighter color, petioles about 1 centimeter long; fruit a berry, dark purple, globose, 5 to 7 centimeters in diameter, smooth; rind firm, spongy, thick, resinous; seeds 4 to 8, dark brown, flattened, each surrounded by white or pinkish-white, juicy, sweet, edible pulp. Distribution and Production - Usually planted in parts of Mindanao and in the Sulu Archipelago, occasionally in other regions, as far as Sorsogon. - Probably introduced from Malaya. - Propagated by seeds which are immediately sown after extraction to obtain a high percentage of germination. Grows well in [...]


Family • Cucurbitaceae - Cucumis melo Linn. - CANTALOUPE - Xiang gua Scientific names Cucumis melo Linn. Cucumis dudaim Linn. Tian gua (Chin.) Common names Atimon (Bis.) Inkug (Sul.) Itimon (Ilk.) Katimon (Bis.) Melon (Span., Tag.) Cantaloupe (Engl.) Musk melon (Engl.) Xiang gua (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ha mi gua, bai lan gua, hua cai tu gua, yue gua, shao gua, bai gua, sheng gua DANISH: Netmelon DUTCH : Netmeloen, Muskaatmeloen. FINNISH : Verkkomeloni. FRENCH : Melon brodé, Melon de Cavaillon, Melon cantaloup brodé, Melon maraîcher. GERMAN: Netzmelone. HINDI : Kharbuza. ITALIAN : Melone retato, Melone reticolato, Melone moscato. JAPANESE : Masuku meron. PORTUGUESE : Melão reticulado, Melão-de-casca-de-carvalho. SPANISH : Melón bordado. SWEDISH : Nätmelon. THAI : Taeng thai. TURKISH : Kavun fidani. Botany Melon is a spreading, annual, more or less hairy vine. Leaves are somewhat rounded, angled, 6 to 15 centimeters long, heart-shaped at the base, and shallowly 3- to 7-lobed. Flowers are yellow, 1.5 to 2centimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, somewhat rounded or ellipsoid, 20 centimeters long or less, smooth, green, and longitudinally striped or mottled. Distribution - Cultivated in several forms or varieties in the Philippines. - Occasional as an escape. - Cultivated in all warm countries. Constituents - Fruit contains dextrose, 1.4 to 2.6%; citric acid, water, 92 to 96%; fat, 0.5 to 0.8%;. - Seed contains globulin and glutine, arginine, histidine, lysine, cystine, tryptophan, fixed oil, galactan and glucose. - Oil consists of glycerides of linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic and myristic acid; also, lecithin and chloresterin. - Roots contain nenemetin, [...]


Family • Cyperaceae - BOTO-BOTONES - Cyperus rotundus Linn. - NUT GRASS - Xiang tou cao Scientific names Cyperus rotundus Linn. Cyperus hexastachys Rottb. Cyperus odoratus Osbeck Cyperus tuberosus Roxb. Pycreus rotundus (L.) Hayek Xiang fu zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Suo cao, Hsiang-fu, Xiang tou cao. FRENCH: Herbe-à-oignon, Souchet à tubercules, Souchet rond. GERMAN: Rundes Zypergras. HAWAIIAN: Kili'o'opu, Pakopako ITALIAN: Zigolo infestante. JAPANESE: Hamasuge NEPALESE: Mothe. PORTUGUESE: Junça, Alho-Bravo, Capim-Alho, Capim-Dandá, Tiririca, Tiririca-Vermelha. SPANISH: Castañuela, Coquito, Juncia. COUNTRY: Ya haeo mu (Central Thailand), Ya khon mu. Common names Balisanga (Ilk.) Barsanga (Ilk.) Boto-botones (Bik.) Galonalpas (Pamp.) Kusung (Pamp.) Mala-apulid (Pamp.) Mota (Pamp.) Mutha (Tag.) Omadiung (Pamp.) Onoran (Pamp.) Sur-sur (Pamp.) Tarugug (Bik.) Nut grass (Engl.) Coco grass (Engl.) Nutsedge (Engl.) Purple nutsedge (Engl.) Botany Mutha is a slender, erect, glabrous, perennial grasslike plant, 10 to 40 centimeters high. Rhizomes or underground stems are wiry, bearing black, hard, ovoid tubers which are about 1 centimeter in diameter. Ground stems are usually solitary, distinctly 3-angled above. Leave 5 to 15 centimeters long, sometimes , 3 millimeters wide or less, and narrowly linear. Umbel is simple or compound, 2 to 6 centimeters long, with 2 to 8 unequal primary rays. Spikes are dense or rather lax. Spikelets are 3 to 8, 10 to 25 millimeters long, brown, slender, with 10 to 25 florets in each spikelet, linear, and slightly compressed. Rachilla of the spikelet distinctly winged. Glumes are 2.5 to 3 millimeters long, closely or loosely imbricate. Glumes of the floret distichously arranged, the first 2 empty, the third one bisexual. Fruit is [...]


Family • Magnoliaceae - Magnolia coco Lour. - CHINESE MAGNOLIA Scientific names Magnolia coco (Lour.) DC. Gwillimia indica (Lour.) N. H. Xia & C. Y. Wu. Liriodendron coco Lour.. Liriopsis pumila Spach. ex Baill. Talauma coco (Lour.) Merr.. Common names Magnolia (Tag., Engl.) Coconut magnolia (Engl.) Dwarf magnolia (Engl.) Egg magnolia (Engl.) Michelia coco (Engl.) General info: Magnolia is an ancient genus. By the end of the 18th century, Magnolia species were described in China and Japan. The frist asiatic species were M. denudata, M. lilliflora, M. coco, and M. figo. Its bark has long been used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is called houpu. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Inhibition of low density lipoprotein oxidation by tetrahydrofurofuran lignans from Forsythia suspensa and Magnolia coco (2) Magnolia: gen info / Wikipedia (3) The Constituents from the Leaves of Magnolia coco / Hsi-Jung Yu, Chien-Chih Chen andBor-Jinn Shieh / Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society, Volume 45, Issue 6, pages 773–778, December 1998 / DOI: 10.1002/jccs.199800116 (4) Two New Constituents from the Leaves of Magnolia coco / His-Jung Yu et al / J. Nat. Prod., 1998, 61 (8), pp 1017–1019 / DOI: 10.1021/np970571d (5) Analysis of Chemical Constituents of Essential Oils from Magnolia coco by GC-MS / ZHU Xiao-yong,SHAO Min-min,ZHANG Hong-jian,LU Ru-mei* / Chinese Journal of Experimental Traditional Medical Formulae, 2011-08 (6) Magnolia coco / Synonyms / The Plant List Botany Plant is a medium-sized shrub or a small tree growing to 3 meters. Leaves are smooth alternate, acuminate, elliptic-oblong, up to 16 centimeters long, dark green above, and waxy pale [...]


Family • Moraceae - Malaisia scandens (Lour.) Planch. - BURNY VINE - Niu jin teng Scientific names Alchornea scandens (Lour.) Mull.Arg. Caturus scandens Lour. Caturus tortulosus Seem. Malaisia scandens (Lour.) Planch. Malaisia tortuosa Blanco Trophis scandens Hook. & Arn. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Niu jin teng, Buo fan guo teng. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Doi a. Common names Hiñgi (Tag.) Hingiu (Tag.) Hinguin (Tag.) Malais-is (Tag.) Saba (Tag.) Sadak (Ilk.) Salimpagot (Tagb.) Sigid (P. Bis.) Burney vine (Engl.) Burnie vine (Engl.) Crow ash (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Malaisia scandens (Lour.) Planch. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China (2) Calcium crystals in the leaves of some species of Moraceae / Chi-Chih Wu and Ling-Long Kuo-Huang / Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. (1997) 38: 97-104 Botany Malais-is is a vine or climbing shrub reaching a height of 4 to 8 meters, smooth except for young branchlets and inflorescences. Leaves are leathery, oblong-ovate to elliptic-oblong, 4 to 10 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide, smooth, somewhat rough or sandpapery on the undersurface, with entire or obscurely toothed margins, the tip pointed and the base rounded or pointed. Female inflorescence is densely hairy. Fruit is oval, 6 to 7 millimeters long, red, stalkless, occurring in clusters on the axils of leaves, and 1 to 2 to each receptacle. Distribution - In thickets and forest at low and medium altitudes from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan. - Also occurs in China and Taiwan to Malaya, Australia, and Polynesia. Properties Rubbing against the stem can cause a burning sensation. [...]


Family • Myrtaceae - Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet - CHINESE BELL FLOWER Scientific names Abutilon badium Hus. & Baq. Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet Abutilon mauritianum (Jacq.) Medik. Abutilon populifolim (Lamk.) Sweet Sida indica Linn. Sida populifolia Lamk. Common names Dalupang (Bis.) Giling-giliñgan (Tag,) Kuakuakohan (Tag.) Lulupau (Ilk.) Luplupao (Ilk.) Malbas (Tag,) Malis (Tag.) Malvas (Ilk.) Marbas (Tag.) Palis (Bis.) Pilis (Bis.) Tabing (Tag.) Taratakopes (Bis.) Takbitakbi (Sul.) Country mallow (Engl.) Indian abutilon (Engl.) Indian lantern flower (Engl.) Indian mallow (Engl.) Chinese bell flower (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Khitmi hindi. BENGALI: Potari. CHINESE: Mo pan cao. FRENCH: Fausse guimauve satinée, Guimauve, Herbe de douze heures, Mauve du pays. GERMAN: Indische Schönmalve. GREEK: Avutilon to indikon. HINDI: Kanghi. ITALIAN: Abutilone, Fiore di dodici ore. JAPANESE: Takasago ichibi. KANNADA: Shrimud rigida, Tutti. MALAYALAM: Ooram, Velluram. MARATHI: Petaari. PORTUGUESE: Abutilão (Brazil), Abutilo. RUSSIAN: Kanatnik indijskij. SANSKRIT: Atibala. SPANISH: Botón de oro, Malva amarilla. TAMIL: Paniyaratutti,Tutti. TELUGU: Tuturabenda. THAI: Khrop chak krawaan. VIETNAMESE: Cây cối xay, Cối xay. Botany Malbas is a perennial, half-woody, branched, erect shrub, 0.5 to 3 meters high. Leaves are green and toothed, orbicular-ovate to broadly ovate, 5 to 12 centimeters long and nearly as wide, with a prominently heart-shaped base and pointed apex, the margins entire or irregularly toothed. Flowers are yellow, 2 to 2.5 centimeters, solitary, borne in the axils of the leaves, and opens in the evening. Fruits is a rounded capsule, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, with 15 to 20 somewhat hairy, shortly awned carpels. Distribution - Throughout the Philippines in [...]


Family • Leguminosae - Arachis hypogaea Linn. - PEANUT - Hua sheng Scientific names Arachis hypogaea Linn. Luo hua sheng (Chin.) Common names Batung-china (Sul.) Mani (Span., Tag.) Peanut (Engl.) Earth nut (Engl.) Goober (Engl.) Ground nut (Engl.) Monkey nut (Engl.) Hua sheng (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS: Apeneutjie, Grondboontjie. JAPANESE: Nankinmame, Piinatsu, Rakkasei. ARABIC: Fûl sûdânî, Fûl sûdânî. KHMER: Sandaek dei. BENGALI: Mata kalai. KOREAN: Ttang kong. BURMESE: Mye pai. MALAYALAM: Nellakkadalai, Nilakkatala. CHINESE: Di duo, Chang sheng guo. MARATHI: Bhui muga. CZECH: Bursky orisek, Podzemnice olejná. NEPALESE: Mungphalii. DANISH: Jordnød, Jordnødder, Jordnoedder. POLISH: Orzech ziemny, Orzacha podziemna. DUTCH: Aardnoot, Grondnoot, Pindaplant PORTUGUESE: Amendoim verdadeiro, Aráquida, Jinguba, Mancarra, Mendoim, Mendubi, Mondubim. ESTONIAN: Maapähkel. RUSSIAN: Arakhis FINNISH: Maapähkinä. SANSKRIT: Bhu canaka, Mandapi. FRENCH: Arachide, Cacahuète, Pistache de terre, Pistachier de terre. SPANISH: Alcagüeses, Aráquido, Avellana americana, Cacahuate, Maní. GERMAN: Erdnuß, Echte Erdnuss, Erdmandel. THAI: Thùa lísong. GREEK: Arahida, Arahidi, Arapico fistiki. URDU: Mugphalii HINDI: Cini badama, Moong phali, Mosambi cana, Mumg phali, Muungaphalii. VIETNAMESE: Dau phong. ITALIAN: Arachide, Mandorla di terra, Nocciolina, Pistacchio di terra. Botany Mani is an annual, spreading, hairy, branched herb, with stems 30 to 80 centimeters long. Leaves are pinnate, 8 to 12 centimeters long, with a clasping petiole base and the sheath produced in 2 linear-lanceolate stipules. Leaflets are in two pairs, oblong to obovate, 2 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are axillary, few, fascicled, yellow, about 8 millimeters long. Pods ripen underground and are oblong, leathery, reticulate, 1 to 5 centimeters long, containing 1 to 3 [...]