Family • Malvaceae - Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench. - GUMBO - Huang su kui Scientific names Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench. Hibiscus esculentis Linn. Common names Okra (Tag., Engl.) Gumbo (Engl.) Lady's fingers (Engl.) Huang su kui (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Bâmyah. HINDI: Bhindee, Dheras, Bandakai, Vendakai. POLISH : Czyli okra, Ketmia jadalna. CHINESE: Ka fei huang kui, Yue nan zhi ma, Yang jiao dou, Hu ma, Qiu kui. HUNGARIAN: Gombó, Bámia. PORTUGUESE: Gambô, Quiabo, Quibombô, Quibombó. BURMESE: You padi. ITALIAN: Gombo, Ocra, Bammia d'Egitto, Corna di Greci . ROMANIAN: Bame. CROATIAN: Jedilna oslez. JAPANESE: Amerika neri, Kiku kimo, Okura. RUSSIAN: Bamiia. DANISH: Okra. KHMER: Pôôt barang. SANSKRIT: Tindisa. DUTCH: Okra. KOREAN: Oh k'u ra. SPANISH: Gombo, Ají turco, Quimbombo, Ocra, Ruibarbo. FRENCH: Gombo, Gombeaud, Bamie-okra, Ketmie comestible (Belgium). LAOTIAN: Khüa ngwàng. TAMIL: Vendaikkaay. GERMAN: Ocker. MALAY: Bendi, Kacang bendi, Kacang lender, Sayur bendi , Kacang lendir , Kachang bendi, Kopi arab. THAI: Krachiap, Ton krachiap, Krachiap khieo, Krachiap mon, Bakhua mun. GREEK: Bamies. Bamia. NEPALESE: Van lasun. TURKISH: Bamya . HEBREW: Bamiya, Hibiscus ne'echal. NORWEGIAN: Grønsakhibisk URDU: Bhindii. Botany Okra is a coarse, erect, branched, more or less hairy, annual herb, 0.6 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are long-petioled, orbicular or orbicular-ovate, about 25 centimeters long or less; with a heart-shaped base; the margins, 3- to 5-lobed. Petioles are equal to the blade in length or longer. Flowers are axillary and solitary; corolla, large and yellow, and inside, deep purple at the base. Fruit is elongated, 10 to 25 centimeters [...]


Family • Cycadaceae - Cycas revoluta - SAGO PALM - Su tie Scientific names Cycas revoluta Thunb. Cycas inermis Loureiro Su tie (Chin.) Common names Oliba (Tag.) Oliva (Span.) King sago palm (Engl.) Sago palm (Engl.) Tie shu (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Bi huo jiao, Feng wei jiao, Feng wei song, Feng wei cao CZECH: Cykas japonsky. DANISH: Sagopalme. FINNISH: Saagopalmu. FRENCH: Cycas du Japon, Cycas sagoutier. GERMAN: Sagopalme. ITALIAN: Palma a sagu. JAPANESE: So-tetsu. KOREAN: So ch'eol. RUSSIAN: Sagovnik ponikaiushchii, Sagovnik ponikaiushchii drevovidnyi, Tsikas ponikaiushchii . SPANISH: Cicas revoluta, Palma sagú, Sagutero. Legend Cycas revoluta has been called the "living fossil" because of its origin traced all the back to the ancient flora of early Mesozoic era, (200 million years ago). Botany Oliba is a cycad with a stout and cylindric trunk marked with prominent scars, in the Philippines usually not growing more than a meter in height, elsewhere reported to grow as high as 5 meters. Leaves are numerous, crowded, spreading, 0.5 to 1.5 meters long. Leaflets are very numerous, close, and linear; 18 centimeters long in the middle, 4 to 6 millimeters wide, the upper surface glabrous, the lower, hairy. Ovules are hairy. Seeds are on loosely arranged leaves around the stem. Seeds are large, plum-like, and pale-yellow to tan. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cycad Coralloid Roots Housing Cyanobacteria / M. Caiola / Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology, 2004, Volume 4, VI, 397-409, DOI: 10.1007/0-306-48173-1_25 (2) Presence of aromatase inhibitors in cycads  (3) Cycas revoluta / Wikipedia [...]

Orange lirio

Family • Amaryllidaceae - Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Kuntze - AMARYLLIS LILY Scientific names Hippeastrum puniceum (Lam.) Voss. Hippeastrum equestre (Alton) Herb. Amaryllis punicea Lam. Other vernacular names FRENCH: Lys rouge. Other common names Orange lirio (Tag., Engl.) Amaryllis lily (Engl.) Barbados lily (Engl.) Easter lily (Engl.) Maroon lily (Engl.) Red lily (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) 3-O-Acetyl-narcissidine, a bioactive alkaloid from Hippeastrum puniceum Lam. (Amaryllidaceae) / Santana O, Reinab M, Anaya AL, Hernández F, Izquierdo ME, González-Coloma A. / Z Naturforsch C. 2008 Sep-Oct;63(9-10):639-43. (2) Hippeastrum puniceum / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) Botany Orange lirio is a bulbous perennial with runners or stolons. Leaves are fleshy green, swordlike, 25 to 40 centimeters long, 3 centimeters wide, strap-shaped, narrowed at the tip, developing fully as the flowers wilt. Stem arising from the bulb is cylindrical, hollow, 30 to 40 centimeters long, the tip bearing 2 to 4 stalked, showy, more or less nodding, red or orange colored flowers. Flowers are trumpet-shaped, 8 to 10 centimeters in diameter, the tube about 2.5 centimeters long, and the 6 segments 10 to 12 centimeters long. The fruit is a roundish capsule. There are several cultivated forms, including a hybrid with dark red flowers with a white stripe running along the center of each segment. Distribution - Cultivated. - Planted in towns and cities in the Philippines. - Native to South America. Constituents - Study isolated an alkaloid, 3-O-acetyl-narcissidine. Parts used Flowers, bulbs. Uses Folkloric - No reported medicinal use in the Philippines. - In [...]

Orchid tree

Family • Caesalpiniaceae - Bauhinia variegata Linn. - POOR MAN'S ORCHID - Yang ti jia Scientific names Bauhinia variegata Linn. Bauhinia candida Ait. Common names Butterfly tree (Engl.) Kanchnar (India/Sanskrit) Koiralo (India, Nepal) Orchid tree (Engl.) Mountain ebony (Engl.) Poor man's orchid (Engl,) Red flowered bauhinia (Engl.) Yang ti jia (Chin./Taiwan) Kachnar (India/Hindi) Gen info Bauhinia is a genus of more than 200 species. The genus was named after the Bauhin brothers, Swiss-French botanists. The leaves share the double-leaf configuration of a heart, or more popularly, that of a butterfly. (Also see: Alibangbang / Bauhinia malabarica) The Hongkong orchid tree (Bauhinia blakeana is named after one of the British Governors of Hongkong, Sir Henry Blake, 1898-1903) and is now the floral emblem of Hongkong. The flower looks like an orchid, and thus has earned the name "Orchid Tree." It is usually sterile, and debated as of hybrid origin between Bauhinia variegata and Bauhinia purpurea. Botany Bauhinia variegata is a moderate sized deciduous tree growing to a height of 10 meters or more. Leaves are alternate and lobed to one-third of their length, heart-shaped at the base with a deep cleft that divides the apex. Flowers are in short racemes, faintly fragrant, petals broad and overlapping, lavender to purple or white. Pods are long, narrow, flattened,10 to 15 centimeters by 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters, containing 5 to 10 seeds. Distribution Ornamental. Parts used Bark, leaves, flowers, roots. Constituents - Yields flavonoids:quercetin, rutin, apigenin and apigenin 7-O-glucoside. - Phytoscreening reported flavonoids, lectin and albumin. - Stem yields sitosterol, [...]


Family • Lamiaceae - Suganda - Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb. - Zuo shou xiang Scientific names Coleus amboinicus Lour. Coleus aromaticus Benth. Coleus suganda Blanco Plectranthus aromaticus Roxb. Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Sprengel Common names Bildu (Sul.) Clavo (C. L. Bis.) Garabo (Surigao) Latai (Sub.) Latay (Sub.) Suganda (Tag.) Country borage (Engl.) Indian borage (Engl.) Oregano (Span., Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Pathorchur. CHINESE: Zuo shou xiang. FRENCH: Plectranthus aromatique. HINDI: Pathorchur, Patharchur, Pashan bhedi. JAPANESE: Koreusu aromatikusu. MALAY: Ajeran (Indonesia), Bangun bangun, Daun jinten (Java), Jintan (Indonesia), Sukan. MALAYALAM: Kannikurkka, Panikkurukka, Navarayilla. SANSKRIT: Parnayavani, Karpooravalli, Pashanabhedi. SPANISH: Torongil de Limon, Oregano. Botany Suganda is an erect, spreading, branched, rather coarse, strongly aromatic, green herb, with fleshy stems. Leaves are fleshy, broadly ovate, 4 to 9 centimeters long, often heart-shaped, and somewhat hairy, with rounded toothed margins, with the tip and base decurrent. Flowers are small, and occur in distant whorls. Calyx is bell-shaped; the throat is smooth inside, with two lips, the upper lip being ovate and thin, the lower lip having four narrow teeth. Corolla is pale purplish and 5 times longer than the calyx, with a short tube, inflated throat, and short lips. Distribution - Cultivated for its aromatic leaves. - Certainly introduced. - Also occurring in India to Malaya. Constituents - Fresh leaves yield 0.055 volatile oil, largely carvacrol. - Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, proteins, phenols, tannins, flavanoids, saponins, glycosides. - Aerial parts yielded essential oil with 28 constituents, 16 of which were identified. Thymol (83.39%) was the major compound, while 1-octen-3-ol, terpine-4-ol, eugenol, trans-caryophyllene, [...]

Oriental pepper

Family • Polygonaceae - Polygonum orientale Linn. - TALL PERSICARIA - Shui hong hua zi Scientific names Polygonum orientale Linn. Polygonum amoenum Blume Polygonum torquatum De Br. Persicaria orientalis Common names Oriental pepper (Engl.) Prince's feather (Engl.) Tall persicaria (Engl.) Kiss me over the garden gate (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Shui hong hua zi. HINDI: Vasaka. Botany Polygonum orientale is a branching annual, 30 to 100 centimeters in height. Leaves are long petioled, ovate or ovate-cordate, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 5 to 12 centimeters wide, and covered with soft, silky, grey hairs. Racemes are cylindric, laxly panicled, 8 to 13 centimeters long. Flowers are white. Nut is rounded, black and shining, about 3 millimeters in diameter. A variety of the plant has rose-pink flowers. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Determination of taxifolin in Polygonum orientale and study on its antioxidant activity / Yan Wei, Xiaoqing Chen et al / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Volume 22, Issue 2, March 2009, Pages 154-157 / doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2008.08.006 | (2) Free radical-scavenging activity and flavonoid contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem, and seed extracts / Xinyu Jiang, Xiaoqing Chen and Yan Wei / Arch. Biol. Sci., Belgrade, 61 (1), 79-83, 2009 / DOI:10.2298/ABS0901079J (3) Studies on chemical constituents in herb of Polygonum orientale / Li Y J et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Mar;30(6):444-6 (4) Study on fingerprint-pharmacology correlation of protective effect of Polygonum orientale on myocardial cell oxidative injury induced by H202 / Zheng L, Li J, Chen H, Wang YL, Wang AM, Huang [...]


Family • Leguminosae / Fabaceae - Cynometra ramiflora Linn. - CYNOMETRA Scientific names Cynometra ramiflora Linn. Cynometra bijuga Spanoghe ex Miq. Cynometra hosinoi Kaneh. Cynometra neo-caledonica Guillaumin Common names Balitbitan (Tag.) Komon (Bis.) Odling (Bis.) Oringen (Tag.) Ula (Ibn.) Ulud (Tag.) Cynometra (Engl.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Chom prinh. INDONESIA: Kateng, Kepel, Wunut. MALAYSIA: Katong laut. THAILAND: Phang kha, Ma khak, Maeng kha. VIETNAM: C[aa]y tr[aa]m ngh[eej], C[aa]y m[os]t. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts / Shaikh J Uddin, I Darren Grice and Evelin Tiralongo / eCAM, doi:10.1093/ecam/nep111 (2) Evaluation of Neuropharmacological, Antibacterial, and Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of the Bark of Cynometra ramiflora Linn. / Siraj Md Afjalus et al / Int Journ Res. Ayurveda Pharm. 4(2), Mar-Apr 2013. (3) Cynometra ramiflora L / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED Botany Oringen is an erect, small tree. Leaves are alternate and smooth, consisting of 2 to 6 leaflets. Leaflets are leathery, about 10 centimeters long, about a third as wide. Flowers are yellowish white, corymbosely fascicled or upon short racemes, and subtended by large bracts. Fruit is hard, scurfy brown, 2 to 4 centimeters long. Distribution - In forests along streams at low and medium altitudes in Cagayan, Bulacan, Rizal, and Quezon Provinces in Luzon. - A recent contribution to horticulture, it is cultivated for its beautiful, pendant inflorescences covered with large, conspicuous, attractive silvery bracts. - Also occurs in from India, Indo-China, Thailand through Malaysia to the Pacific. Properties Roots considered purgative. Parts used Seeds, leaves. Uses Folkloric - [...]