Family • Asteraceae - Grangea maderaspatana (Linn.) Poir. - MADRAS CARPET - Tian ji huang Scientific names Artemisia maderaspatana Linn. Cotula anthemoides L. Cotula sphaeranthus Link Grangea procumbens DC. Grangea maderaspatana (Linn.) Poir. Grangea sphaeranthus (Link) K. Koch Tanacetum aegypticum Juss. ex Jacquem. Tian ji huang (Chin.) Common names Pakopatoti-alog (Ilk.) Madras carpet (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Namuti. HINDI: Mustaru MALAYALAM: Nilampala MANIPURI: Leibungou MARATHI: Mashipatri VIETNAMESE: Rau cóc; Chân cua bồ cóc; nụ áo; cải đồng Botany Pakopatoti-alog is a hairy, branched herb, spreading from the roots and growing up to 70 centimeters high. Buds are white and wooly. Leaves are alternate, stalkless, sinuately pinnatifid, and divided into toothed lobes. Flowering heads are borne opposite the leaves, and are short-peduncled, rounded, and 8 to 10 millimeters in diameter.Flowers are small, very numerous, and yellow. Involucral bracts are ovate, thick, rigid, and hairy. Achenes are cylindric, glandular, and about 2 millimeters long. Pappus-hairs are connate, ending in a short, fimbriate tube. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A preliminary study on the analgesic activity of Grangea maderaspatana / Ahmed M, Islam MM, Hossain CF, Khan OF / Fitoterapia. 2001 Jun;72(5):553-4. (2) Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Grangea maderaspatana Poir. / Veena Patel, Sangita Shukla, Sandip Patel / Pharmacognosy Magazine, Vol. 5, No. 20. (2009), pp. 381-387 (3) A diterpene from Cipadessa fruticosa and Grangea maderaspatana / S R Rohatkar et al / Phytochemistry Volume 37, Issue 4, 7 November 1994, Pages 1213-1214 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)89562-X (4) Oestrogenic and pregnancy interceptory efficacy of a flavonoid mixture from Grangea maderaspatana poir (Artemisia maderaspatana) in [...]


Family • Apocynaceae - Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) E. Br. - CRAPE JASMINE - Gou ya hua Scientific names Tabernaemontana divaricata (Linn.) E. Br. Nerium divaricatum Linn. Tabernaemontana coronaria Willd. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Gou ya hua. GUJARATI: Sagar. HINDI: Tagar, Tagari, Nandi battalu. MARATHI: Ananta, Tagar. Common names Rosa de hielo (Span.) Pandakaking-Tsina (Tag.) Carnation of India (Engl.) Crape jasmine (Engl.) Ceylon jasmine (Engl.) Double-flowering crape jasmine (Engl.) East Indian rose-bay (Engl.) Pinwheel flower (Engl.) Wax-flower plant (Engl.) Botany Pandakaking-Tsina is an erect, smooth, much-branched shrub 2 to 3 meters in height, with abundant, milky sap. Leaves are opposite, each pair unequal, glossy, elliptic-ovate to elliptic-oblong, 6 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are usually double, white, fragrant, and borne singly or in pairs on peduncles at the axils of the leaves. Corolla-tube is about 2 centimeters long and the limb is spreading, about 5 centimeters in diameter, and yellow at the center. Distribution - Of recent introduction in the Philippines. - Cultivated in Manila and large towns for its flowers. - Origin is unknown, but now cultivated in most tropical countries. Constituents - Roots contain resin, extractive matter and a bitter alkaloid. - The milky juice contains caoutchouc and resin. - Studies have yielded alkaloids and non-alkaloid constituents, flavonoids, phenyl propanoids, phenolic acids and enzymes. - Phytochemical screening of an ethanol extract yielded steroids, tannins, saponins, gums and reducing sugar. Properties - Considered antioxidant, anti-infection, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, analgesic. Parts used Root, bark, leaves, sap, flowers. Additional Sources and Suggested [...]


Family • Tiliaceae / Malvaceae - Corchorus olitorius L. - RED JUTE - Chang shuo huang ma Scientific names Corchorus catharticus Blanco Corchorus decemangularis Roxb. Corchorus lobatus Wildem. Corchorus olitorius Linn. Corchorus quinquelocularis Moench Common names Pasau (Tag., Sbl.) Pasau-na-haba (Tag.) Pasaw-na-haba (Tag.) Saluyut (Ilk.) Saluyot (Ilk.) Tagabang (Bis.) Taka (Mag.) Yaka (Mag.) Bush okra (Engl.) Jew's mallow (Engl.) Long-fruited jute (Engl.) Red jute (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Lif khaysha, Mulûkhîyah (Egypt), Nalta, Nalita. BENGALI: Deshi pat, Meetha pat, Tosha pat. CHINESE: Chang shuo huang ma, Shan ma (Taiwan). DANISH: Almindelig jute, Jute, Juteplante. DUTCH: Jute, Juteplant. ESTONIAN: Pikaviljaline Dzuut. FRENCH: Chanvre du Bengale, Corète potagère, Corette potagère (Réunion), Lalo (Créole- Haiti), Lalou (Créole- Haiti), Mauve des Juifs, Mélochie. GERMAN: Judenmalve, Langkapseljute, Langkapsel-Jute, Meluchie, Nalta-Jute. GREEK: Korchoros, Korkoros. HINDI: Janascha kashto,Jūtan, Mitha paat, Patsan, Paat, Patta, Tosha paat. ITALIAN: Corcoro ortense, Corcoro siliquoso, Malva dei giardini, Spinaci degli Ebrei . JAPANESE: Nagamitsunaso Taiwantsunaso Taiwan tsunaso. PORTUGUESE: Juta, Juta-tossa. RUSSIAN: Dzhut dlinnoplodnyi, Dzhut tossa, Krasnyj dzhut. SPANISH: Yute, Yute de fruto alargado. THAI: Fak yao, Krachao, Po krachao. TURKISH: Kırmızı jüt, Muluhia. VIETNAMESE: Rau đay. Gen info  Corchorus is a genus plant of about 40-100 species in the family Malvaceae. Jute is confusingly applied to any plant of the genus Corchorus and to its fiber. The chief sources of the fiber are the two species of Corchorus plant: C olitorius and C capsularis. In the Philippines, three Corchorus species are recorded with medicinal uses: Pasau, Pasau na bilog, and pasau na hapa. Another pasau, Pasau-na-hapai,Jussiaea erecta belongs to the family Onagraceae. Botany [...]

Peacock moss

Family • Selaginellaceae - Selaginella uncinata (Desv. ex Poir) J. C. Bak. - PEACOCK SPIKEMOSS Scientific names Selaginella uncinata (Desv. ex Poir) J. C. Bak. Common names Blue spikemoss (Engl.) Peacock spike-moss (Engl.) Peacock moss (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Four new biflavonoids from Selaginella uncinata and their anti-anoxic effect / Jun-Xia Zheng et al /Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 10, Issue 10 October 2008 , pages 945 - 952 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020802181166 (2) A new flavonoid with a benzoic acid substituent from Selaginella uncinata / Jun Xia Zheng et al / Chinese Chemical Letters, Volume 19, Issue 9, September 2008, Pages 1093-1095/ doi:10.1016/j.cclet.2008.06.024 Botany The plant is a trailing herb with weak stems rooting at the nodes to a length of 60 cm long. Leaves are dimorphic, 4-ranked, bright blue-green; the strobili are four-angled and 2 cm long. Distribution Native to China. Recently introduced to the Philippines. Properties and constituents • Jui Uses Folkloric • No recorded folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines. • In China, used to treat acute infectious jaundiced hepatitis, cholecystitis, enteritis. Study Findings • Anti-Viral / Biflavonoids: Previous studies have yielded chromone glycosides (uncinoside A and B) which has shown good anti-tumor and anti-viral activity. This study isolated a new biflavonoids with five known compounds and one known phenolic acid. Preliminary study found the ethyl acetate extract exhibited good anti-HSV1 and Anti-COX B3 virus activity. • Bioflavonoids / Anti-Anoxic: Study of ethanolic extract of S uncinata isolated four new and three known bioflavonoids. Compounds 4 and 5 showed [...]


Family • Araliaceae - Nothopanax scutellarium (Burm. f.) Merr. - SAUCER-LEAF - Yuan ye nan yang shen Scientific names Crasulla scutellaria Burm. f. Aralia cochleata Lam. Nothopanax cochleatum Miq. Nothopanax scutellarium (Burm.f.) Merr. Polyscias balfouriana LH Bailey Polyscias pinnata J R Forst & G Forst Polyscias scutellaria (Burm. f.) Fosb. Common names Platito (Span., Tag.) Cup-leaved papua (Engl.) Dinner plate aralia (Engl.) False panax (Eng.) Saucer-leaf (Engl.) Shell-leaf (Engl) Shield aralia (Engl) Other vernacular names CHINA: Yuan ye nan yang shen. COOK ISLANDS: Kapaie, Kaope pa. FIJI ISLAND: Danidani. INDONESIA: Daun mangkok, Mamanukan, Godong mangkokan, Lanida, Ndalido, Ndari, Ranido, Daun koin, Daun papeda, Daun koin, Mangkok, Memangkokan, Goma matari, Sawoko, Rau paroro. MALAYSIA: Pokok puding mangkok, Semangkok, Daun belangkas. SAMOA ISLAND: Tagitagi. THAI: Krut kra thong. VANUATU ISLAND: Ndosir, Umroki. VIETNAM: Dinh lang dia. Botany Platito is an erect shrub growing to a height of 1.5 to 3.5 meters. Stem is woody, branched, round, long and straight. Leaves are simple, somewhat rounded and concave, saucerlike, 6 to 12 centimeters wide, heart-shaped at the base and distantly toothed in the margins. Distribution - Planted for ornamental purposes. - Rarely flowers in the Philippines. - Probably Malayan in origin. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Nothopanax scutellarium / Glob In Med (2) Evaluation of antiulcer activity of root and leaf extract of Polyscias balfouriana var.marginata / Sandhya S., Vinod K.R et al / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2010, 2(1): 192-195 (3) Triterpenic glycosides from Polyscias scutellaria / S. Paphassarang, J. Raynaud, M. Lussignol, M. Becchi / Phytochemistry, Volume 28, Issue 5, 1989, [...]


Family • Lauraceae - Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. - INDIAN LAUREL - Chan gao mu jiang zi Scientific names Sebifera glutinosa Lour. Tetranthera laurifolia Jacq. Litsea chinensis Lam. Litsea littoralis F.-Vill. Teranthera littoralis  Blume Sebifera balongai  Blanco Litsea tersa  Merr. Litsea sebifera Pers. Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. Other vernacular names FRENCH: avocat marron, bois d'oiseau HINDI: Maidalakdi, Ranamba, Maida lakadee. SANSKRIT: Medasaka. TAMIL: Muchaippeyetti, Uralli, Elumburukki. TELUGU: Kanugu nalike, Meda, Nara-nalike. Common names Balanganan (P. Bis.) Porikit (Tag.) Balongai (Tag.) Pungo (Tagb.) Batikuling (Tag.) Puso-puso (Ibn., Tag., Pamp., P. Bis.) Butus (Tag.) Sab-lot (Ibn., Ilk.) Dalauen-negro (Ibn.) Sapuan (Ig.) Dungul (Ibn.) Siblot (Ibn.) Ingas (Tag.) Tagutugan (Bik.) Lauat (Bik.) Tayapok (Mbo.) Lormangog (P. Bis.) Tilam (TYag.) Mapipi (Bik.) Tubhus (Iv.) Marang (Tag.) Indian laurel (Engl.) Olos-olos (Pang.) Pond spice (Engl.) Parasablut (Ilk.) Chan gao mu jiang zi (Chin.) Botany Puso-puso is a small tree reaching a height of 10 to 15 meters. Younger parts are usually more or less softly hairy. Leaves are elliptical to oblong-elliptical, 9 to 20 centimeters long, broadly pointed at the base and tapering to a fine, pointed tip. Flowers are small and yellowish, crowded in umbels in the axis of the upper leaves. Fruits are rounded, about 8 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - In secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Also occurs in India to southern China, through Malaya to tropical Australia. Constituents • Seeds contain a slightly aromatic, tallowlike oil (49%); 85% of which is laurostearin; the rest, olein. • Study yielded volatile oil [...]


Family • Aspleniaceae - Asplenium nidus Linn. - BIRD'S NEST FERN - Niao chao jue Scientific names Asplenium nidus Linn. Neottopteris nidus (L.) J. Sm. Neottopteris rigida Fee Thamnopteris nidus C. Presl Chao jue (Chin.) Common names Pakpak-lauin (Tag.) Pasdak (Tag) Dapo (Tag., other dialiects) Bird's-nest fern (Engl.) Tai wan shan su hua (Chin.) Other vernacular names HAWAII: Akaha, Ekaha, Ekaha kuahiwi. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: I'gou. TAIWAN: Shan su. VIETNAM: To dieu, Cay to chim, Rang o phung. Botany Pakpak-lauin is a huge herbaceous epiphyte at minor or moderate altitudes. Entangled rhizome is a mass of roots below. Leaves are erect and flaring from the crown aggregated in a dense tuft above. Leaves are broad and numerous, radiating from the center of the plant giving the appearance of a bird's nest; spiral, leathery, smooth, lance-shaped with entire margins, sharply pointed tips and broad bases. They often attain a large size, 40 to 120 centimeters long, 6 to 20 centimeters wide. Sori are numerous, elongate running along the line of the veinlets, reaching from the midrib about halfway to the margins. Spores are bilateral, monolete with a perispore. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Maternity and medicinal plants in Vanuatu II. Pharmacological screening of five selected species / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 52, Issue 3, 5 July 1996, Pages 139-143 / G. Bourdya, C. Françoisb, C. Andaryc and M. Boucard (2) Plants in Hawaiian medicine / Beatrice H. Krauss (3) Medical Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Bioactivity of the Ferns of Moorea, French Polynesia / Nicole Baltrushes / May 2006 [...]


Family • Apocynaceae - Kampupot - Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. - BANANA BUSH - Jian guo gou ya hua Scientific names Alstonia pacifica (Seem.) A. C. Sm. Ervatamia benthamiana Domin. Ervatamia pandacaqui Poir. Tabernaemontana mindanaensis Merr. Tabernaemontana mindorensis Merr. Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. Tabernaermontana orientalis R. Br. Tabernaermontana laurifolia Blanco Tabernaemontana semperflorens Perr. Tabernaemontana cumingiana  A. DC. Tabernaemontana lurida Van Huerck & M.-Arg. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jian guo gou ya hua. PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Oru, Karaban. THAILAND: Put farang, Phut tum. Common names Agtimaloi (Buk.) Alibotbot (P. Bis.) Alibutbut (Pamp., Bis., Bik.) Busbusilak (Ilk.) Halibutbut (Bik.) Kampupot (Tag.) Kudibetbet (Ig.) Kukabulau-buntai (Ibn.) Kuribetbet (Ilk.) Pandakaki (Tag., Bis., Pamp.) Pandakaki-puti (Tag.) Pandaya (Bik.) Sakang-manuk (Bik.) Salibukbuk (P. Bis.) Salimbabaya (C. Bis.) Talanisog (Bik.) Toar (Bik.) Tunkal (P. Bis.) Banana bush (Engl.) Windmill bush (Engl.) Botany Pandakaki is an erect, branched and smooth shrub, 1 to 4 meters high. Leaves are elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 5 to 12 centimeters long, narrowed at both ends, shining and short-stalked. Inflorescences are axillary and terminal, peduncled, and have rather few flowers. Calyx is green, ovoid, and short. Corolla is white, tinged with green, slender-tubed, 1.7 centimeters long and slightly enlarged upward; limb is 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, composed of five, spreading, falcate, lanceolate lobes. Follicles are red or yellowish-red, oblong, 2 to 4 centimeters long, and longitudinally ridged or keeled. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Analgesic components from bornean medicinal plants, Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume and Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Aug;40(8):2075-9. (2) Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antinociceptive activities of Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. / T.Taesotikula, A. Panthong [...]


Family • Malvaceae / Tiliaceae - Corchorus capsularis Linn. - WHITE JUTE - Huang ma Scientific names Corchorus capsularis Linn. Corchorus cordifolius Salisb. Corchorus marua Buch.-Ham. [Invalid] Common names Lumbay (Bis.) Panigbin (Bis.) Pasau-na-bilog (Tag.) Saluyot (Ilk.) Sumpa (Bis.) Yute blanco (Span.) Jute (Engl.) White jute (Engl.) Huang ma (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Jût (Egypt). MALAY: Kancing baju. BENGALI: Jhuto. MARATHI: Isabanda, Isapanda, Isaphanda. CHINESE: Huang ma., Yuan guo huang ma. PERSIAN: Jut. DANISH: Rundkapslet jute, Hvid jute. POLISH: Juta. DUTCH: Blanke jute, Juteplant, Rondpeulige jute. PORTUGUESE: Juta branca, Juta de fruto redondo. FINNISH: Juutti. PUNJABI: Patsan FRENCH: Chanvre de Calcutta, Corète textile, Corète capsulaire, Corette, Gooni, Jute à fruit capsulaire, Jute à capsules globuleuses. RUSSIAN: Dzhut, Belyi dzhut, Dzhut krugloplodnyi . GERMAN: Indischer flacks, Jutepflanze, Rundkapseljute, Rundkapsel-Jute, Weiße Jute. SANSKRIT: San. GREEK: Lefki giuta, Giuta me sfairika perikardia, Giuta me sfairikus karpus. SPANISH: Yute blanco, Yute de fruto redondeado. HINDI: Patsan, Shuti paat, Tita (Bitter) paat, San. THAI: Po krachao, Po seng, Seng, Po. ITALIAN: Corcoro, Iuta a frutto capsulare, Iuta bianca, Juta bianca. TURKISH: Bunlar beyaz jüt, Hind keneviri. JAPANESE: Ichibi, Tsunaso. VIETNAMESE: Bằng đay, Bố, Cây đay, Đai, Đay, Đay quả tròn. KOREAN: Hwangma. Gen info  Corchorus is a genus plant of about 40-100 species in the family Malvaceae. Jute is confusingly applied to any plant of the genus Corchorus and to its fiber. The chief sources of the fiber are the two species of Corchorus plant: C olitorius and C capsularis. In the Philippines, three Corchorus species are recorded with medicinal uses: Pasau, Pasau [...]


Family • Brassicaceae / Cruciferae - Brassica rapa (L.) - CHINESE CABBAGE, PAK CHOI - Ba cai Scientific names Brassica rapa (L.) cv group Pak Choi Brassica rapa (L.) subsp. pekinensis (Lour.) Brassica chinensis L. var. perkinensis (Rupr.) Sun. Brassica pe-tsai L. H. Bailey Brassica rapa L. subvar. pe-tsai (L.H. Bailey) Common names Pechay (Tag.) Petchay (Tag.) Petsay (Tag.) Chinese cabbage (Engl.) Chinese chard (Engl.) Chinese celery cabbage (Engl.) Snow cabbage (Engl.) White cabbage (Engl.) Pe-tsai (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Bai cai, Huang ya cai, Da bai cai, Juan xin bai, Hung ya bai cai, Huang ya bai, Wong nga paak. DANISH: Kinakål, Kinesisk kål, Petsai kål, Salatkål. DUTCH: Chinese kool, Petsai kool. ESTONIAN: Pekingi kapsas. FINNISH: Salaattikiinankaali, Kiinankaali. FRENCH: Chou de Pékin, Chou de Chine pommé, Chou pommé de Chine, Chou à salade pékinois, Chou pékinois, Chou blanc de Pékin, Chou de Shanton, Salade pékinoise, Chou pe-tsai. GERMAN: Breitblättriger China-Kohl, Schantungkohl, Pekingkohl, Chinakohl. GREEK: Kinezika lahana, Kineziko lahano. ITALIAN: Cavolo sedano. JAPANESE: Hakusai, Hakusai. NORWEGIAN: Kinakål. POLISH: Kapusta Pekinska. PORTUGUESE: Couve petsai. RUSSIAN: Kapusta Pekinskaja. SPANISH: Repollo chino, Col de China, Col petsai. SWEDISH: Salladskål, Sellerikål, Kinesisk petsai. THAI: Phakkat khao pli Botany Pechay is an erect, biennial herb, growing about 15 to 30 centimeters tall in vegetative state. Leaves are ovate, spreading, and arranged spirally. Petioles are enlarged, growing upright forming a subcylindrical bundle. Inflorescence is a raceme with pale yellow flowers. Seeds are 1 millimeter in diameter, reddish to blackish brown in color. Distribution - An ancient vegetable, cultivated over 4000 [...]