Family • Family - Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. Scientific names Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. Ficus arenata Elmer (Illegitimate) Common names Isis (Tag.) Pakiling (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ficus odorata (Blanco) Merr. / The Plant List (2) Chemical constituents of Ficus odorata / Tsai, P.-W.; Castro-Cruz, K.; Shen, C.-C.; Chiou, C.-T.; Ragasa, C. / Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal;Jul2012, Vol. 46 Issue 4, p225 (3) Prooxidant Effect of the Crude Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Ficus odorata Blanco Merr. in vitro: It's Medical Significance / Librado A. Santiago, Anna Beatriz R. Mayor / World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology / International Journal of Biological, Veterinary, Agricultural and Food Engineering Vol:8 No:1, 2014 Botany Pakiling is a small tree reaching a height of nine meters, with young hispidous, greeninsh branchlets. Leaves are simple, alternate, oblong or broadly ovtae and rounded, 16 to 20 centimeters long, 6 to 8 centimeters wide, acuminate at the apex, cordately inequilateral, margins toothed, lateral veins 6 to 8 pairs, prominent underneath, base penta- to octa-veined, venation semicraspedodromous. Young branches are greenish, pubescent, petiole 1.0 to 1.2 centimeters long. Distribution - Endemic in the Philippines. - Widely cultivated in Tayabas, Zambales, Pampanga, Bataan, and Laguna in Luzon. Constituents - Dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded l -sitosteryl-3ß-glucopyranoside-6'- O-palmitate, squalene, lutein , α-amyrin acetate, lupeol acetate, and ß-carotene. - Phytochemical screening yielded terpenes, glycosides, and phenolic acids. Crude extract yielded low gallic acide and quercetin equivalence. Properties - Dried leaves are fragrant. Uses Folkloric - Used in the treatment of allergy, asthma, diarrhea, diabetes, tumor [...]


Family • Thymelaeaceae - Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne. Scientific names Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne Gyrinopsis decemcostata Hall. f. Aquilaria cumingiana (Decne) Hallier f. Common names Alahan (Tag.) Dalakit (S. L. Bis.) Bago (Mbo.) Maga-an (Tag.) Binukat (Ak., Bis.) Palisan (Tag.) Butlo (Neg.) Pamaluian (Bag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Gyrinopsis cumingiana Decne / The Plant List (2) AGARWOOD PRODUCTION- A MULTIDISCIPLINARY FIELD TO BE EXPLORED IN BANGLADESH / Selina Akter*, Md. Tanvir Islam, Mohd Zulkefeli, Sirajul Islam Khan / International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Life Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 1: January 2013 (3) OVERVIEW OF THE AGARWOOD OIL INDUSTRY / Dr. Pakamas Chetpattananondh / Paper presented at the IFEAT International Conference in Singapore, 4 - 8 November 2012 \'Essential Asia\' Pages 131-138 in the printed Conference Proceedings Botany Palisan is a shrub or small tree, growing to a height of 5 meters. Bark is ashy gray, mottled, and smooth. Leaves are alternate, smooth, elliptically oblong, about 15 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide at the largest, with pointed tip and a blunt or rounded base. Flowers are yellowish, about 1.5 centimeters long, borne in fairly small, rounded clusters. Fruit is pendant and orange-red, containing a single seed and two locules across which it splits upon opening, slightly obovoid or broadly ellipsoid and about 1.5 centimeters long. Seeds are ovoidly compressed, about 7.5 millimeters long. Distribution - Found in primary forests at low and medium altitudes in Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Quezon, Laguna, Camarines, and Albay Provinces in Luzon; and in Catanduanes, Samar, Sibuyan, Leyte, Panay, Mindanao, and Jolo. [...]


Family • Solanaceae - Physalis minima Linn. - TINKLING BELL GRASS - K'u chi Scientific names Physalis minima Linn.. Physalis pubescens Wight. non L. Physalis angulata var. angulata Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xiao suan jiang. FRENCH: Coqueret à petit fruit, Coqueret médicinal. MALAY: Letup, Letup-letup, Rumput meranti. Common names Amansit (Ilk.) Unti (Tag.) Amanti-ti-ugsa (Bon.) Unti-untihan (Tag.) Itlog-gagamba (Tag.) Pygmy groundcherry (Engl.) Lapak-lapak (Sul.) Sunberry (Engl.) Pantug-pantugan (Tag.) Tinkling bell grass (Engl.) Takla (Sub.) K'u chi (Chin.) Tultullaki (Ilk.) Taxon confusion Physalis, a genus of the family Solanaceae consists of about 100 species. Among these, Physalis minima has been confused with P. angulata (putokan). Some compilations list them as synonyms, others list them as separate species. In Bangladesh, the two have long been misidentified. A critical examination separates them as species. Botany Pantug-pantugan is an erect, branched, hairy annual herb, growing 0.5 to 0.8 meter high. The branches are terete and often tinged with purple; the ultimate ones slightly angular. Leaves are ovate, 6 to 12 centimeters long, 4.5 to 7 centimeters wide, with pointed tip, rounded or slightly heart-shaped base, nearly entire or faintly undulately lobed margins. Flowers are solitary, axillary, about 8 millimeters long. Corolla is pale yellow, with 5 large, purple spots at the base inside. Fruit is round, fleshy and edible, about 1 centimeter in diameter. Calyx is inflated, accrescent, and ovoid, about 3 centimeters long, 2 centimeters in diameter, green, with 5 prominent and alternating slender and purplish ribs. Distribution - Found from the Babuyan Islands and [...]

Patolang bilog

Family • Cucurbitaceae - Luffa cylindrica (Linn.) M. Roem - WASH-RAG SPONGE, VEGETABLE - SPONGE, GOURD TOWEL - Tian luo gua Scientific names Cucurbita luffa Hort. Luffa cylindrica (Linn.) M. Roem Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. Luffa pentandra Roxb. Momordica cylindrica Linn. Momordica luffa Linn. Common names Kabatiti (Bon., Ilk.) Kabatiti-aso (Ilk.) Patola (Bis., Bik., Tag.) Patolang bilog (Tag.) Patulang-uak (Tag.) Patula-amu (Sul.) Salag-salag (Tag.) Tabau-tabau (Ilk.) Tobobok (Tag.) Tabobog (Tag., Bis.) Tabubok (Tag.) Angled luffa (Engl.) Bath sponge (Engl.) Gourd towel, sponge gourd (Engl.) Tian luo gua (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Luf CHINESE: Si gua, Shui gua, Tian luo gua, Tian si gua DANISH: Luffa, Vegetabilsk svamp DUTCH: Loofah, Loefahspons, Plantaardige spons. ESTONIA: Ruljas käsnkõrvits. FRENCH: Courge torchon, Luffa d'Egypte, Eponge végétale, Pétole, Courge cylindrique de Chine. GERMAN: Schwammgurke, Schwammkürbis, Ägyptische Schwammkürbis. HINDI: Mozhuku peerkankai, Jhinga, Dhundal, Turai, Meethi torai. INDONESIAN: Blustru, Belustru. ITALIAN: Luffa, Luffa d'Egitto, Petola, Spugna vegetale. JAPANESE: Hechima. KHMER: Ronôông muul. LAOTIAN: Bwàp khôm. NEPALESE: Palo, Ghiu toriya. PORTUGESE: Esponja-vegetal. SINHALESE: Vatakolu. SPANISH: Lufa, Esponja vegetal, Pepino para paste. SUNDANESE: Emes. THAI: Buap hom (Boap hom, Buop horm), Buap klom. TURKISH: Luf Botany Patolang-bilog is a climbing, hairy, smooth vine, reaching a length of 12 or more meters. Stems are four-angled. Leaves are rounded-ovate to kidney-shaped, 10 to 20 centimeters across, shallowly 5- to 7-angled or lobed, denticulate scabrous, with pointed tips and heart-shaped bases. Male flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves on long-peduncled racemes, and are crowded at or near the apex of the peduncle. Calyx is green; [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae - Euphorbia heterophylla Linn. - PAINTED EUPHORBIA - Bai bao xing xing cao Scientific names Euphorbia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke Euphorbia geniculata Ortega. Euphorbia prunifolia Jacq. Poinsettia geniculata (Ortega) Klotz & Garcke Poinsettia heterophylla (L.) Klotz. & Garcke Common names Pintado (Tag.) Mexican fireplant (Engl.) Painted euphorbia (Engl.) Painted leaf (Engl.) Painted spurge (Engl.) Spurge weed (Engl.) Wild poinsettia (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC : Laban el-homara, Labeinah. CHINESE: Bai bao xing xing cao. FRENCH: Caca de poule GERMAN: Poinsettien-Wolfsmilch. JAPANESE: Shoujou sou, Kusa shoujou. PORTUGUESE : Adeus-Brasil, Amendoim-bravo, Café-do-diabo, Flor-do-poeta, Leiteira. SPANISH : Golondrina, Hierba de leche, Lechosa, Pascuilla. TAMIL : Aṇdavāayu keeṟai, Siru pālpeṟukki. Botany Pintado is an erect, branched, smooth, half-woody herb or shrubby plant, 0.5 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are alternate and extremely variable in shape, most often oblong-ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, the lower ones usually entire, the upper ones variously lobed, sinuate, dentate, or subentire, and the uppermost ones blotched with red at the base, similar to the bracts. Bracts are leaflike, much smaller than the leaves; the lower part is red and the upper, green. Involucres are clustered at the ends of the branches, about 3 millimeters long, green, with one sinus bearing an unappendaged gland. Capsules are nodding, about 5 millimeters wide. Distribution - Introduced species. - Ornamental cultivation in Manila and larger towns. - Occasionally, astray in waste places. - Native of tropical America. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, BIOACTIVITY AND WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF EUPHORBIAHETEROPHYLLA (Euphorbiaceae) LEAF [...]


Family • Passifloraceae - Prutas-Baguio - Passiflora foetida Linn. - STINKING PASSION FLOWER - Tian xian guo Scientific names Passiflora foetida Linn. Passiflora hastata Bertol. Passiflora hibiscifolia Lam. Passiflora hispida DC. ex Triana & Planch Other vernacular names CHINESE: Long zhu guo, Ye xian guo, Long zhu cao, Long yan guo. FRENCH: Marie-Gougeat. GERMAN: Übelriechende Passionsblume. SPANISH: Granadilla de culebra, Pasiflora hedionda. Common names Lurunggut (Bik.) Masaflora (Bik.) Tauñgon (C. Bis.) Lurunggut (Bik.) Pasionaria que hiede (Span.) Pasionariang-mabaho (Tag.) Pasyonaryang-mabaho (Tag.) Prutas-Baguio (Tag.) Pop-pop bush (Engl.) Running pop (Engl.) Stinking passion flower (Engl.) Wild water lemon (Engl.) Tian xian guo (Chin.) Botany Pasionaring-mabaho is a herbaceous vine with slender and rounded stems, covered with prominent villous hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 6 to 9 cm long, shallowly 3-lobed, often sinuate and ciliate, with pointed tip and heart-shaped base. Flower is solitary, white or pinkish, 3 cm in diameter, subtended by a prominent involucre of 3 bracts. Fruit is dry, inflated, ovoid, orange, 3 to 5 cm long. All parts of the plant have a disagreeable odor. Distribution - In waste places at low altitudes, esp. in the Laguna, Rizal and Quezon provinces. - Introduced from tropical America. - Now pantropic. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / Botany.si.edu (2) Oral acute toxicity and estrogenic effects of the extracts of Passiflora foetida Linn. (Passifloraceae) leaves in female Wistar albino rats / Bleu Gomé Michel*a, Kouakou Koffib, Zahoui Ouga Stanislasa, Touré Alassanec, Traoré Flaviena / Annals of Biological Research, [...]


Family • Blechnaceae / Polypodiaceae - Blechnum orientale Linn. - FISH FERN - Kuan chung Scientific names Blechnum orientale Linn. Blechnopsis orientalis (L.) Presl. Wu mao jue (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Long chuan jue, Guan zhong, Chi jue tou. MALAY: Paku ikan, Paku lipan, Paku ular, Paku kelindang. Common names Pakong-alagdan (Tag.) Centipede fern (Engl.) Fish fern (Engl.) Shield fern (Engl.) Kuan chung (Chin.) Botany Pakong-alagdan is a fern, the caudex stout, erect and densely covered with glossy brown scales. Stipes are erect, 10 to 40 centimeters long. Fronds are 20 to 200 centimeters long and 10 to 40 centimeters wide. Pinnae are sessile, 5 to 20 centimeters long and 0.5 to 2 centimeters wide. Sori are arranged in a long continuous line close to the costae. Distribution - Widely distributed in the Philippines. Also found throughout India, Sri Lanka, and the Malay Peninsula, and extends to the Malay Isalnds, tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Australia. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ferns and Man in New Guinea / based on a paper presented to Papua New Guinea Botany Society, 1982 / Jim Croft (2) Blechnium Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent / How Y Lai, Yau Y Lim and Kah H Kim / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010, 10:15 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-15 (3) Anti-inflammatory plants used by the Kahmti tribe of Lohit district in eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India / Hui Tag, A K Das and Hari Loyi / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 6(4), 2007, pp 334-340. (4) Cytotoxic [...]


Family • Arecaceae - Borassus flabellifer L. - PALMIRA PALM - Shan ye zi Scientific names Borassus flabellifer L. Borassus sundaicus Becc. Borassus flabelliformis Murr. Borassus tunicatus Lour. Pholidocarpus tunicatus (Lour.) H. Wendl. Tang zong(Chin.) Common names Palmira (Tag.) Palmyra palm (Engl.) Fan palm (Engl.) Toddy palm (Engl.) Wine palm (Engl.) Tala palm (Engl.) Doub palm (Engl.) Shan ye zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Dom, Tal, Shag el muql. MALAY: Lontar, Arrak. BENGALI: Taala. MARATHI: Taad, Tadh. CHINESE: Shan ye shu tou lu, Shan ye shou tou zong, Shan ye tang zong NEPALESE: Taadii, Taal. DANISH: Palmyrapalme. PORTUGUESE: Broção, Palmira, Palmeira de leque, Palmeira de palmira. DUTCH: Lontar, Lontarpalm, Palmyrapalm. RUSSIAN: Lontarovaia pal'ma, Pal'mira, Pal'mirova pal'ma FINNISH: Palmyrapalmu. SINHALESE: Tuak? FRENCH: Borasse, Palmier de Palmyre, Rondier, Ronier. ye shu tou lu SPANISH: Boraso, Palma palmira. GERMAN: Borassuspalme, Lontaro, Palmyrapalme, Weinpalme. SWEDISH: Palmyrapalm. GUJARATI: Taada. TAMIL: Karimbana, Pannei. HIINDI: Taad, Tad mar, Tala. TELUGU: Karatalamu, Tatichettu. ITALIAN: Palma de ferro, Palma de Sagu, Palma di Palmira. THAI: Maktan, Tan, Taan tanot, Taan yai. JAPANESE: Parumira yashi, Ougi yashi. TURKISH: Tal. KHMER: Dom Thuout. URDU: Taad. Botany Palmira is a robust palm that can live up to 100 years, growing to a height of 20 to 30 meters, growing slowly at the beginning and accelerating as it ages. Trunk is large and straight, ringed with leaf scars.Canopy of green-bluish leaves has several dozen fronds spreading 3 meters across. Fruit measures 4 to 7 inches in diameter, has a black husk, and borne in clusters. When cut, the [...]


Family • Caricaceae - Carica papaya Linn. - MELON TREE - Fan mu gua Scientific names Carica papaya Linn. Carica hermaphrodita Blanco Carica mamaja Vellero. Carica vulgaris DC. Papaya vulgaris A. DC. Papaya carica Gaertner Papaya sativa Tussac. Carica papaya Karsten Carica vulgaris DC. Common names Capaya (Pamp.) Kapaya (S.L. Bis., Sul.) Lapaya (Bon.) Papaya (Tag., Engl.) Papaye (Sul.) Papyas (Sub.) Tapayas (Bik.) Melon tree (Engl.) Pawpaw (Engl.) Papau (Engl.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Omita. LAOTIAN: Houng. BENGALI: Pepe. MALAY: Betek, Betik, Gedang, Kates, Ketalah. Papaya. BURMESE: Thimbaw. MALAYALAM: Karamooza, Omakai, Omakaya. CHINESE: Fan mu gua. MARATHI: Papai, Papaya, Popai. CZECH: Papaja. PALAUAN: Babai, Bobai. ESTONIAN : Harilik papaia, Papaia. POLISH: Melonowiec właściwy, Papaja. FIJIAN: Oleti. PORTUGUESE: Ababaia, Mamao, Papaia, Fruto de Mamoeiro, Papaeira. FRENCH: Papaye, Papayer. PUNJABI: Katcha pepita. GERMAN: Melonenbaum, Papayabaum. RUSSIAN: Papaia. GUJARATI: Papaiya, Papayi. SAMOAN: Esi. HAWAIIAN: He'i, Mikana, Milikana. SPANISH: Fruta bomba, Lechosa, Melon de arbol, Melon zapote, Papayero, Papayo, Papaya. HINDI: Papeeta, Papiitaa. SWAHILI: Papai. ITALIAN: Papaia. THAI: Loko, Malako, Malakor, Ma kuai thet, Sa kui se. JAPANESE: Motukuwa, Papaia, Popoo. TONGAN: Lesi, Lesi fefine KHMER: Ihong, Doeum lahong. URDU: Papiitaa, Pappeeta. KOREAN: Pa pa ya. VIETNAMESE: Du du. Botany Papaya is a small, erect,, usually unbranched, fast-growing tree growing 3 to 6 meters high. Trunk is soft and grayish, marked with large petiole-scars. Leaves are somewhat rounded in outline, 1 meter broad or less, palmately 7- or 9-lobed, each lobe pinnately incised or lobed. Petioles are stout, hollow, and about 1 meter long. Staminate inflorescence is axillary, pendulous, paniculate, and 1 to 1.5 meters long. [...]


Family • Cucurbitaceae - Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Gray - Wu jiao gua lou Scientific names Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Gray Other vernacular names CHINESE: Wu jiao gua lou, Wu jiao ye gua lou, Lan yu kuo lou (Taiwan). THAI: Buap liam. Common names Kabalonga (Tag.) Patolasi-gayang (Gad.) Katimbau (Ilk.) Tabau-tabau (Ilk., Pang.) Kalanum-uak (Bis.) Tabugok (Tag.) Kaulalagda (Bag.) Tambanding (Ig.) Lima (Ig.) Tibabayang (Sul) Patolang-gubat (Tag.) Tibubukan-uak (Sul.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Trichosanthes names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia. quin Botany Patolang-gubat is a coarse, smooth vine with angled or grooved stems. Leaves are somewhat rounded in outline, 10-20 cm long, heart-shaped at the base, 5- or 7-angled or lobed. Male racemes have long peduncles with many flowers, with large bracts, one or two are open at a time. Flowers are white and large. Calyx-lobes are 2 to 2.5 cm long and irregularly toothed. Fruit is rounded, 10 cm across, smooth, red or crimson. Distribution - Found in thickets and old clearings, at low and medium ascending to 1,500 meters, in the Babuyan Islands; in Cagayan, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Masbate, Panay, Mangsi; and in Mindanao. - Widely distributed from Indo-China throughout Malaysia. - Reported in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand. Parts used [...]