Family • Blechnaceae / Polypodiaceae - Blechnum orientale Linn. - FISH FERN - Kuan chung Scientific names Blechnum orientale Linn. Blechnopsis orientalis (L.) Presl. Wu mao jue (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Long chuan jue, Guan zhong, Chi jue tou. MALAY: Paku ikan, Paku lipan, Paku ular, Paku kelindang. Common names Pakong-alagdan (Tag.) Centipede fern (Engl.) Fish fern (Engl.) Shield fern (Engl.) Kuan chung (Chin.) Botany Pakong-alagdan is a fern, the caudex stout, erect and densely covered with glossy brown scales. Stipes are erect, 10 to 40 centimeters long. Fronds are 20 to 200 centimeters long and 10 to 40 centimeters wide. Pinnae are sessile, 5 to 20 centimeters long and 0.5 to 2 centimeters wide. Sori are arranged in a long continuous line close to the costae. Distribution - Widely distributed in the Philippines. Also found throughout India, Sri Lanka, and the Malay Peninsula, and extends to the Malay Isalnds, tropical Asia, Polynesia, and Australia. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ferns and Man in New Guinea / based on a paper presented to Papua New Guinea Botany Society, 1982 / Jim Croft (2) Blechnium Orientale Linn - a fern with potential as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agent / How Y Lai, Yau Y Lim and Kah H Kim / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010, 10:15 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-15 (3) Anti-inflammatory plants used by the Kahmti tribe of Lohit district in eastern Arunachal Pradesh, India / Hui Tag, A K Das and Hari Loyi / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 6(4), 2007, pp 334-340. (4) Cytotoxic [...]


Family • Arecaceae - Borassus flabellifer L. - PALMIRA PALM - Shan ye zi Scientific names Borassus flabellifer L. Borassus sundaicus Becc. Borassus flabelliformis Murr. Borassus tunicatus Lour. Pholidocarpus tunicatus (Lour.) H. Wendl. Tang zong(Chin.) Common names Palmira (Tag.) Palmyra palm (Engl.) Fan palm (Engl.) Toddy palm (Engl.) Wine palm (Engl.) Tala palm (Engl.) Doub palm (Engl.) Shan ye zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Dom, Tal, Shag el muql. MALAY: Lontar, Arrak. BENGALI: Taala. MARATHI: Taad, Tadh. CHINESE: Shan ye shu tou lu, Shan ye shou tou zong, Shan ye tang zong NEPALESE: Taadii, Taal. DANISH: Palmyrapalme. PORTUGUESE: Broção, Palmira, Palmeira de leque, Palmeira de palmira. DUTCH: Lontar, Lontarpalm, Palmyrapalm. RUSSIAN: Lontarovaia pal'ma, Pal'mira, Pal'mirova pal'ma FINNISH: Palmyrapalmu. SINHALESE: Tuak? FRENCH: Borasse, Palmier de Palmyre, Rondier, Ronier. ye shu tou lu SPANISH: Boraso, Palma palmira. GERMAN: Borassuspalme, Lontaro, Palmyrapalme, Weinpalme. SWEDISH: Palmyrapalm. GUJARATI: Taada. TAMIL: Karimbana, Pannei. HIINDI: Taad, Tad mar, Tala. TELUGU: Karatalamu, Tatichettu. ITALIAN: Palma de ferro, Palma de Sagu, Palma di Palmira. THAI: Maktan, Tan, Taan tanot, Taan yai. JAPANESE: Parumira yashi, Ougi yashi. TURKISH: Tal. KHMER: Dom Thuout. URDU: Taad. Botany Palmira is a robust palm that can live up to 100 years, growing to a height of 20 to 30 meters, growing slowly at the beginning and accelerating as it ages. Trunk is large and straight, ringed with leaf scars.Canopy of green-bluish leaves has several dozen fronds spreading 3 meters across. Fruit measures 4 to 7 inches in diameter, has a black husk, and borne in clusters. When cut, the [...]


Family • Caricaceae - Carica papaya Linn. - MELON TREE - Fan mu gua Scientific names Carica papaya Linn. Carica hermaphrodita Blanco Carica mamaja Vellero. Carica vulgaris DC. Papaya vulgaris A. DC. Papaya carica Gaertner Papaya sativa Tussac. Carica papaya Karsten Carica vulgaris DC. Common names Capaya (Pamp.) Kapaya (S.L. Bis., Sul.) Lapaya (Bon.) Papaya (Tag., Engl.) Papaye (Sul.) Papyas (Sub.) Tapayas (Bik.) Melon tree (Engl.) Pawpaw (Engl.) Papau (Engl.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Omita. LAOTIAN: Houng. BENGALI: Pepe. MALAY: Betek, Betik, Gedang, Kates, Ketalah. Papaya. BURMESE: Thimbaw. MALAYALAM: Karamooza, Omakai, Omakaya. CHINESE: Fan mu gua. MARATHI: Papai, Papaya, Popai. CZECH: Papaja. PALAUAN: Babai, Bobai. ESTONIAN : Harilik papaia, Papaia. POLISH: Melonowiec właściwy, Papaja. FIJIAN: Oleti. PORTUGUESE: Ababaia, Mamao, Papaia, Fruto de Mamoeiro, Papaeira. FRENCH: Papaye, Papayer. PUNJABI: Katcha pepita. GERMAN: Melonenbaum, Papayabaum. RUSSIAN: Papaia. GUJARATI: Papaiya, Papayi. SAMOAN: Esi. HAWAIIAN: He'i, Mikana, Milikana. SPANISH: Fruta bomba, Lechosa, Melon de arbol, Melon zapote, Papayero, Papayo, Papaya. HINDI: Papeeta, Papiitaa. SWAHILI: Papai. ITALIAN: Papaia. THAI: Loko, Malako, Malakor, Ma kuai thet, Sa kui se. JAPANESE: Motukuwa, Papaia, Popoo. TONGAN: Lesi, Lesi fefine KHMER: Ihong, Doeum lahong. URDU: Papiitaa, Pappeeta. KOREAN: Pa pa ya. VIETNAMESE: Du du. Botany Papaya is a small, erect,, usually unbranched, fast-growing tree growing 3 to 6 meters high. Trunk is soft and grayish, marked with large petiole-scars. Leaves are somewhat rounded in outline, 1 meter broad or less, palmately 7- or 9-lobed, each lobe pinnately incised or lobed. Petioles are stout, hollow, and about 1 meter long. Staminate inflorescence is axillary, pendulous, paniculate, and 1 to 1.5 meters long. [...]


Family • Cucurbitaceae - Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Gray - Wu jiao gua lou Scientific names Trichosanthes quinquangulata A. Gray Other vernacular names CHINESE: Wu jiao gua lou, Wu jiao ye gua lou, Lan yu kuo lou (Taiwan). THAI: Buap liam. Common names Kabalonga (Tag.) Patolasi-gayang (Gad.) Katimbau (Ilk.) Tabau-tabau (Ilk., Pang.) Kalanum-uak (Bis.) Tabugok (Tag.) Kaulalagda (Bag.) Tambanding (Ig.) Lima (Ig.) Tibabayang (Sul) Patolang-gubat (Tag.) Tibubukan-uak (Sul.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Trichosanthes names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia. quin Botany Patolang-gubat is a coarse, smooth vine with angled or grooved stems. Leaves are somewhat rounded in outline, 10-20 cm long, heart-shaped at the base, 5- or 7-angled or lobed. Male racemes have long peduncles with many flowers, with large bracts, one or two are open at a time. Flowers are white and large. Calyx-lobes are 2 to 2.5 cm long and irregularly toothed. Fruit is rounded, 10 cm across, smooth, red or crimson. Distribution - Found in thickets and old clearings, at low and medium ascending to 1,500 meters, in the Babuyan Islands; in Cagayan, Benguet, Bontoc, Nueva Viscaya, Pangasinan, Zambales, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Masbate, Panay, Mangsi; and in Mindanao. - Widely distributed from Indo-China throughout Malaysia. - Reported in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand. Parts used [...]


Family • Cucurbitaceae - Cucumis sativus - CUCUMBER - Hu gua Scientific names Cucumis sativus Linn. Huang gua (Chin.) Common names Kalabaga (Bis.) Kasimun (Bon.) Maras (Sul.) Madas (Sul.) Pepino (Span., Tag.) Pipino (Tag., Ilk.) Cucumber (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Huang kwa, wong gaw, qing gua, tseng kwa KHMER : Trâsâk. BURMESE : Thakhwa. KOREAN : Oh ee (oi). DANISH : Agurk. LAOTIAN : Tèèng. DUTCH : Komkommer. MALAYSIA : Timun FINNISH : Kurkku. NEPALESE : Asare kankro, Airelu kankro, Kakro, Khira. FRENCH : Concombre, Concombre commun, Concombre vert long, Concombre blanc long PORTUGUESE : Pepino. GERMAN : Gurke. SINHALESE : Pipinya (Pipingha), Pipingkai. ITALIAN : Cetriolo SPANISH : Pepino, Cohombro. HINDI : Kheera, Kakri, Kakdi, Tihu. SUNDANESE : Bonteng. INDONESIA : Ketimun THAI : Taeng kwaa , Taeng om (ChiangMai), Taeng raan (Northern Thailand). JAPANESE : Kyu uri, Kyu uri, Moro kyu. Botany Pipino is an annual, rather coarse, fleshy, prostrate or climbing vine. Leaves are ovate, 8 to 14 centimeters long, 5-angled or 5-lobed, the lobes or angles being pointed, and hispidious on both surfaces. Flowers are axillary, solitary, or fascicled, stalkless or short-stalked, and bell-shaped. Male and female flowers are similar in color and size, yellow, and about 2 centimeters long. Fruit is usually cylindric, 10 to 20 centimeters long, smooth, yellow when mature, and slightly tuberculated. A variety is smaller and greenish. Seeds are numerous, oblong, compressed, and smooth. Distribution - Cultivated in the Philippines. - Planted in all warm countries. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) [...]


Family • Arecaceae - Caryota mitis Lour. - FISHTAIL PALM - Jiu ye zi Scientific names Caryota sabolifera Wall. ex. Mart. Caryota mitis Lour. Caryota furfuracea Blume ex Mart Caryota griffithii Becc. Common names Bato (Tag.) Pugahan (Tag.) Clustering fishtal palm (Engl.) Many-stemmed fishtail palm (Engl.) Tufted fishtail palm (Engl.) Jiu ye zi (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Nakhlat câryôtâ. CHINESE: Duan sui yu wei kui, Cong li kong que ye zi (Taiwan), Tuan sui yi wei k'uei, Chiu yeh tzu. FRENCH: Caryote doux. GERMAN: Fischschwanzpalme. INDONESIA: Sarai. ITALIAN: Palma cariota. KOREAN: K'ae ri oh t'a ya cha. MALAY: Dudar, Nudok, Dudok, Leseh, Leuteu. Mudor (Sarawak). MYANMAR: Minbow. SPANISH: Palma cola de pescado (El Salvador). THAILAND: Taou-rung-dang. VIETNAMESE: Dung dinh. Botany Pugahan is a palm, differing from other Caryota species in having many suckers and producing clusters of small-sized palms, up to 7 meters tall. Stems are solitary or clustered, slender to massive, with conspicuous nodal rings. Petioles, leaf-sheaths and spathes are scurfily villous. Leaves are 1.2 to 3 meters long; leaflets are obliquely cuneiform, erose amd toothed; the upper margin acute. Spadix is scurfy, axillary and pendulous. Male buds are cylindric; male flowers are small, about 5 millimeters long. Fruit is 10 to 13 millimeters in diameter, bluish-black when ripe, containing a single globose seed. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Examination of the itch response from the raphides of the fishtail palm Caryota mitis / Diane Snyder et al / Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology • / Volume 48, Issue 2, April 1979, Pages 287-292 [...]


Family • Pteridaceae - Onychium siliculosum (Desv.) C. Chr. Scientific names Pteris siliculosa Desv. Onychium auratum Kaulf. Cryptogramme aurata Prantl Pteris crysocarpa Hook abd Grev. Jin fen jue (Chin.) Common names Buhok-virgin (Tag.) Pako (Bik., Ilk., Pamp.,Bis., Tag.) Dila-dila (Tag.) Pakong-anuang (Tag.) Pako (Tag.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Flavanone and other constituents from Onychium siliculosum / Tian-Shung Wu, Cheng-Sheng Kuoh et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 20, Issue 3, 13 March 1981, Pages 527-529 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84186-2 (2) Studies on the Taiwan Folk Medicine VI. Studies on Onitin / Yang Meei-Shieu / Planta medica ISSN 1439-0221, 1986, vol. 52, no1, pp. 25-27 (3) Studies on the Taiwan Folk Medicine; III. A Smooth Muscle Relaxant from Onychium siliculosum, Onitin / S T Ho, M S Yang, T S Wu, C H Wang / Planta medicam Volume: 51, 1985 Apr (4) Medicinal plants used by Chakma tribe in Hill Tracts districts of Bangladesh / M Atiqur Rahman, S B Uddin and C C Wilcock / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 6(3), July 2007, pp 508-517 Botany Pakong-anuang has rhizomes that are short, stout, and covered with lanceolate, brown, and spreading scales. Stipes are naked, erect, pale, and occasionally brownish, 10 to 30 centimeters long. The fronds are 15 to 40 centimeters long, finely 3- to 4-pinnately divided. Pinnules are small, narrow, and numerous; sterile ones usually spatulate, less than 5 millimeters long, often toothed at the apex; the fertile ones are podlike, linear, entire, acuminate, 5 to 20 centimeters long and 1 to 2 millimeters wide. The indusium and sori [...]

Palo maria

Family • Clusiaceae - Calophyllum inophyllum - SWEET-SCENTED CALOPHYLLUM / ALEXANDRIAN LAUREL - Hong hou ke Scientific names Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. Calophyllum bintagor Roxb. Balsamaria inophyllum (L.) Lour. Common names Batarau (Neg.) Bitaog (Ilk., Sbl., Pamp., Tag.) Bitok (Tag.) Bitaoi (Pang.) Bitong (Tag.) Butalau (Tag., S.L. Bis., C. Bis., Mbo.) Dagkalan (Tag.) Dagkaan (Bag.) Dangkalan (Tag., Bik., P. Bis., Mag.) Dingkalan (Bik., Tag.) Langkagan (Mag.) Palo maria de la playa (Tag., Sul., Span.) Pamitaogen (Ilk.) Vutalau (Iv.) Alexandrian laurel (Engl.) Beauty leaf (Engl.) Ball Nut Tree (Engl.) Indian laurel (Engl.) Laurelwood (Engl.) Poon (Engl.) Sweet-scented calophyllum (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Kathchampa, Punnang, Sultanachampa. BURMESE: Ph'ông, Ponnyet. CHINESE: Hong hou ke, Hai tang mu, Hang tai guo, Jun zi shu, Ya la pu, Hu tong, Qiong ya hai tang shu. FRENCH: Arbre sacré des Polynésiens, Calophylle, Foraha, Huile de tamanu, Kamani (Tahiti), Laurier d'Alexandria, Tamanu (Tahiti). GERMAN: Alexandrinischer Lorbeer, Tacama Hacharz. HINDI: Sultanachampa, Sultan champa, Surpan, Surpunka, Undi. ITALIAN: Albero di Pannay. LAOTIAN: Ka ting. MALAY: Bentagor bunga, Bintangor, Pegana laut, Penaga pudek . SANSKRIT: Nagachampa, Punnaga, Punnage. SINHALESE: Domba, Pûna. SPANISH: Palo de Santa María, Palo María. SWAHILI: Mtomondo, Mtondoo. TAMIL: Pinnay, Punnagam,Punnai. THAI: Ka ka thing, Ka kra thueng, Kra thing, Kra thueng, Nao wakan, Saraphi naen, Saraphi thale, Thing. Botany Palo-maria is a medium-sized or large tree, reaching a height of 20 meters. Leaves are leathery, shiny, elliptic to obovate-elliptic, 9 to 18 centimeters long, narrowed to a pointed base and somewhat rounded tip. Flowers are fragrant, white, 2 to [...]

Paperbark tree

Family • Myrtaceae - Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake - CAJEPUT OIL TREE - Bai shu yu Scientific names Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T. Blake Melaleuca leucadendron var. angustifolia L. f. Melaleuca maidenii R. T. Baker Melaleuca smithii R. T. Baker Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Bai shu yu SANSKRIT: Kayaputi. Common names Paperback tree (Baguio, Engl.) Cajeput tree (Engl.) Cajeput oil tree (Engl.) Bottlebrush tree (Engl.) Punktree (Engl.) Five-veined paperbark (Engl.) Melaleuca (Engl.) Etymology Melaleuca is of Greek origin, meaning "black and white," referring to the white bark that is often charred by fire. Botany Melaleuca is a tree growing to 10 meters or more, with a dense narrow crown, a stout, often twisted trunk. Bark is spongy and corky and peels off in thin layers. Branches are pendulous. Leaves are thin, leathery, alternate, lanceolate, up to 7 centimeters long, 1.5 centimeters wide, 5-nerved, short-petioled, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are finely hairy, white, in dense spikes, up to 6 centimeters long, emits an unpleasant, musty odor. Fruit is small and greyish-brown with a narrow groove around the top surrounding a small, crater-like cup marked with 5 radial grooves. Distribution - Recently introduced to the Philippines. - Cultivated and planted along streets in Baguio and Manila. - Rare elsewhere in the Philippines. - Found in Australia, Brunei, Burma, Cambodia, Hawaii, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, New Caledonia Island, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S. T Blake / Melaleuca / T. F. Geary and S. L. Woodall [...]


Family • Asclepiadaceae - Hoya imbricata Decne Scientific names   Hoya imbricata Decne Hoya maxima (Karst.) Warb. Collyris major Naves Hoya pseudomaxima Koord. Common names Paui-pauikan (Tag.) Botany Paui-pauikan is a smooth, woody vine climbing or cleaving to tree trunks. Stems are wiry and form rootlets. Leaves are broadly ovate or rounded, 6 to 12 centimeters wide, heart-shaped at the base, rounded at the tip, somewhat leathery and rigid, and reddish-purple; the upper surface is convex and smooth, the lower surface concave, hairy and inhabited by ants. Inflorescences are borne on leafless stems, almost stalkless, with many small, odorless, velvety and creamy-white flowers, 8 to 10 millimeters in diameter. Corolla-lobes are very slender, pointed, reflexed, smooth on the outside, and hairy within. Distribution - Endemic species found on tree trunks at low and medium altitudes in Bontoc, Rizal and Laguna Provinces; and in Busuanga. Parts used Leaves. Uses Folkloric - Leaves applied externally as a poultice to ripen boils. - A mixture of burned and charred leaves - triturated, mixed with coconut oil and stirred thoroughly - is applied to old wounds or varicose ulcers ("bangkukang") for rapid cicatrization. Availability Wild-crafted.