P

Pitogo

Family • Cycadaceae - Cycas rumphii Miq. - QUEEN SAGO - Long kou su tie Scientific names Cycas rumphii Miq. Cycas celebica Miq. Cycas circinalis Blanco Cycas corsoniana D. Don. Cycas recurvata Blume ex. J. Schust. Cycas riuminiana Porte Cycas sundaica Miq. ex. J. Schust. Cycas zeylanica J. Schust Cha ye su tie (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Hua nan su tie, Long wei su tie. FRENCH: Cycas de Ceylan. GERMAN: Sagopalme. JAPANESE: Kikasu rumufii RUSSIAN: Sagovnik rumfa. Common names Bait (Sul.) Bayit (YK.) Bitogo (Tag.) Patubo (Tag.) Patugo (Tag.) Pitogo (Tag.) Pitugo (P. Bis.) Uliba (Tag.) Oliva (Span.) Sauang (Ilk.) Spiny-leaved cycas (Engl.) False sago palm (Engl.) Queen sago (Engl.) Spiny-leaved cycas (Engl.) Long kou su tie (Chin.) General info  Cycas, the single genus of the family Cycadaceae, consists of about 100 species, chiefly Indo-Chinese and Australian (27). Cycads vary in size from trunks only a few centimeters to several meters tall. Slow in growth, cycads live long, some species known to last about 1,000 years. Botany Cycas rumphii is commonly confused with Cycas revoluta, but pitogo is a much larger plant, with larger leaves and smooth and glabrous ovules. Trunk is stout and woody, growing to a height of 12 meters, 20 to 50 centimeters in diameter, with a round and symmetrical crown of large, hard, stiff, evergreen leaves. Leaves are 1.5 to 2.5 meters long, crowded at the apex of the trunk, leaflets are 20 to 30 centimeters long, about 1 centimeter wide, smooth and shining, falcate, 45 to 90 on each side of the midrib. Male [...]

Purple heart

Family • Commelinaceae - Setcreasea pallida Rose - PURPLE QUEEN Scientific names Setcreasea pallida Rose Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D. R. Hunt Setcreasea purpurea Boom Common names Purple heart (Engl.) Purple jew (Engl.) Purple secretia (Emgl.) Purple queen (Engl.) Wandering jew (Engl.) Botany Purple heart is a low-growing succulent evergreen perennial herb with erect or sprawling stems. Leaves are elongated and pointed, glaucous green to violet-purple. Flowers are small, three-petaled, white, pink or purple. Distribution - Ornamental plant in gardens and borders. - Used as ground cover or hanging plant. - Propagated by cuttings. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Tradescantia pallida / Wikipedia (2) Anthocyanins of Tradescantia pallida. Potential Food Colorants / Z Ulin shi et al / Journal of Food Science Volume 57 Issue 3, Pages 761 - 765 / DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb08090 (3) Biowalls / Clean Air / Living Walls and Vertical GardensTrue art. (4) Common plants can help remove indoor air pollutants / Ani / Health News (5) Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals / Can plants control indoor air pollution? / Environmental Protection Agency (6) Houseplant Toxicity Week: Part 5 / Plants are the strangest people / (7) INAA applied to Tradescantia pallida plant study for environmental pollution monitoring / M. Saiki, E. R. Alves, N. M. Sumita, P. H. N. Saldiva / Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, 2003, Volume 53, Issue 1 Supplement, pp A189-A193 (8) Sensitivity of Tradescantia pallida (Rose) Hunt. 'Purpurea' Boom to genotoxicity induced by ozone. / de Souza Lima E, de Souza SR, Domingos M / Mutation Research [2009, 675(1-2):41-45] / DOI: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2009.02.007 [...]

Pakong parang

Pteris ensiformis Burmann f. - ASIAN BRAKE Scientific names Pteris mutilata Pteris crenata SW. Pteris ensiformis Burmann f. Common names Buntot-kapon (Tag.) Asian brake (Engl.) Pakong-buntot(Tag.) Slender brake (Engl.) Pakong kapon (Tag.) Sword brake fern (Engl.) Pakong- parang (Tag.) Note The genus Pteris has about more than 650 species. A compilation lists pakong-parang with Pteris mutilata. Quisumbing's compilation lists it under Pteris ensiformis, pteris crenata. Although the botanical description shares significant similariites, the folkloric uses differ. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Immunomodulatory mechanism of the aqueous extract of sword brake fern (Pteris ensiformis Burm.) / Ming-Jiuan Wu, Ching-Yi Weng et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol98, Issues 1-2, 8 April 2005, Pages 73-81 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.12.031 (2) Identification of phenolic antioxidants from Sword Brake fern (Pteris ensiformis Burm.) / Yung-Husan Chen, Fang-Rong Chang et al / Food Chemistry 105 (2007) 48–56 (3) New Benzoyl Glucosides and Cytotoxic Pterosin Sesquiterpenes from Pteris ensiformis Burm. / Yung-Husan Chen, Fang-Rong Chang et al / Molecules 2008, 13, 255-266 (4) A Review on the Potential Uses of Ferns / M Mannar Mannan, M Maridass and B Victor / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 281-285. 2008. (5) Importance of Ferns in Human Medicine / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 231-234. 2007. (6) Ferns and Man in New Guinea / Australian National Herbarium (7) Inhibition of Low-Density Lipoprotein Oxidation and Oxidative Burst in Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils by Caffeic Acid and Hispidin Derivatives Isolated from Sword Brake Fern (Pteris ensiformis Burm.) / Hsiu-An Wei et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (26), pp 10579–10584 / DOI: 10.1021/jf071173b [...]

Paminta

Family • Arecaceae - Piper nigrum Linn. - BLACK PEPPER - Hu-chia Scientific name Piper glabrispicum  C. DC. Piper nigrum Linn. Piper aromaticum Lam. Common names Malisa (Tag.) Paminta (Tag.) Pamienta (Span.) Black pepper (Engl.) Pepper (Engl.) White pepper (Engl.) Hu-chia (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Filfil, Fulful, Fulful aswad. HUNGARIAN: Bors. PORTUGUESE: Pimenta, Pimenta negra. ASSAMESE: Jalook. ICELANDIC: Pipar. PUNJABI: Kali marich, Kali mirich. BENGALI: Golmarich, Kaalaamorich, Kalomarich. ITALIAN: Pepe. ROMANIAN: Piper. BURMESE: Nayukon, Nga youk kuan. JAPANESE: Burakku peppaa, Koshou, Peppaa, Pepaa. RUSSIAN: Perets bélyi, Perets chërnyi , Pjerets, Zelyony pjerets. CHINESE: Hu jiao (hu chiao), Hei hu jiao, Bai hu jiao, Woo jiu. KANNADA: Menasinaballii, Menasina, Menasina-kallu, Menusu. SANSKRIT: Krsna, Maricham, Ullaghah, Usanam. DANISH: Peber. KHMER: Môrech. SINHALESE: Gammiris, Miris. DUTCH: Peper LAOTIAN: Mak phik noi. SPANISH: Pimienta. ESTONIAN: Pipar. MALAY: Lada puteh, Lada hitam, Lada padi, Lada (Indonesia), Marica hitam (Indonesia). SWAHILI: Pilipili. FINNISH: Pippuri. MALAYALAM: Kurukulak, Kurumilagu, Kuru mulagu, Kurumulaku, Nallamulak, Nallamulaku. SWEDISH: Peppar. FRENCH: Poivre commun, Poivre blanc, Poivre noir. MARATHI: Kaaliimirii. TAMIL: Milagoo, Milaagu. GERMAN: Pfeffer, Grüner Pfeffer, Schwarzer Pfeffer; Weißer Pfeffer. NEPALESE: Marich. TELUGU: Miryaalatiga (Miryalatige), Miriyaalu, Savyamu. GREEK: Pipéri. NIGERIAN: Ozizi, Etikene, Odusa. THAI: Phrik thai. GUJARATI: Kaalaamirich, Kaalaamirii, Klamirich, Kalomirich. NORWEGIAN: Pepper. TURKISH: Kara biber, Siah biber. HEBREW: Pilpel. PERSIAN: Felfel siah. URDU: Kalimirch, Siyah mirch, Ushan. HINDI: Golmirch, Kaalii mirch, Malimirch. POLISH: Pieprz. VIETNAMESE: Trieu, Hat trieu. Botany Paminta is a stout climber with smooth branches, 2 to 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Leaves are somewhat leathery, broadly ovate to oblong-elliptic, 10 to [...]

Paraiso

Family • Meliaceae - Melia azedarach Linn. - BEAD TREE - K'u Lien Scientific names Melia azedarach Linn. Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculifera Knox Melia chinensis Sieber ex Miq. Melia azedarach L. var. japonica (G. Don) Makino Melia japonica G. Don Melia toosendan Siebold et Zucc. Common names Paraiso (Span., Tag.) Bead tree (Engl.) Cape syringa (Engl.) China berry (Engl.) Chinese umbrella tree (Engl.) Indian lilac (Engl.) Pride of India (Engl.) K'u Lien (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS: Bessieboom, Bessieboom syringa, Maksering. LAOTIAN: H'ienx, Kadau s'a:ngz. ASSAMESE: Ghora nim. MALAY : Gringging, Marambung, Mindi, Mindi kecil . BENGALI: Bakarjam. MALAYALAM : Malaveppu. CATALAN: Mèlia. MARATHI: Bakan nimb. CHINESE: Lian, Ku lian, Lian shu, Zi hua shu, Sen shu, Chuan lian zi, Jin ling zi. NEPALESE: Bakenu, Khaibasi. CROATIAN: Melija, Očenašica. PERSIAN: Zanzalakht CZECH: Zederach hladký. POLISH: Miotla. DANISH: Paternostertræ. PORTUGUESE : Amargoseira, Amargoseira-do-Himalaio, Árvore-santa, Cinamomo, Conteira, Lilás-da-Índia, Lilás-das-Índias, Margoseira-do-Himalaio, Mélia, Paraíso, Sabonete-de-soldado. DUTCH: Kralenboom. SANSKRIT: Mahanimbah. FRENCH: Acacie d'Égypte, Adrézarach, Arbre à chapelets, Arbe margousier, Azédarac, Azédarach, Cascarelle, Cormier des indes, Lilas de Perse, Lilas des Indes, Margousier, Mélie Pater-noster. SPANISH : Agriaz, Agrión, Árbol de los rosarios, Arbol del para, Árbol del Paraíso, Árbol santo, Azedaraque, Cinamomo, Flor del paraiso, Melia, Paraíso, Paraíso sombrilla, Piocha, Rosariera. GERMAN: Chinesischer Holunder, Indianischer Lilak, Indischer Zederachbaum, Indischer Zedrachbaum, Paternosterbaum, Persischer Flieder, Zedrachbaum. SWEDISH : Zedrak. GREEK: Agriopaschaliá, Louloudiá, Moschokarfia, Paschaliá, Pseudomelia, Solomós. TAMIL: Kattu vembhu, Malai vembu, Malaivenimpu. HINDI: Bakain, Bakānā nīmba, Bakayan, Mahanimb. TELUGU: Kali yapa, Kondavepa, Turakavepa, Turka vepa. ITALIAN: Albero da rosari, Albero dei rosari, Albero dei paternostri, Lillà [...]

Payapa

Family • Moraceae - Balete - Ficus payapa Blanco - HAIRY FIG - Zhen guo rong Scientific names Ficus payapa Blanco Ficus drupacea Thunberg Ficus forstenii Miq. Ficus myorensis B. Heyne ex Roth Ficus pilosa Reinw. ex Blume Ficus indica Blanco ? Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhen guo rong. MALAY: Bulu timun (Java). SPANISH: Higuera de Mysore. VIETNAMESE: Cây Đa lông. Common names Balete (Ig.) Basakla (Ilk.) Dalagit (Bis.) Dalakit (C. Bis.) Lañgaban (Mag.) Nonok (Bis., Tak.) Payapa (Tag.) Puos (Itn.) Puspus (Ilk.) Brown wooly fig (Engl.) Hairy fig (Engl.) Payapa fig (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ficus payapa Blanco / The PLANT List (2) Sorting Ficus names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE (3) Chemical Constituents of Ficus drupacea Leaves and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities / Phan Van Kiem et al / Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 2013, Vol. 34, No. 1 / http://dx.doi.org/10.5012/bkcs.2013.34.1.263 Botany Payapa is a plant that starts as an epiphyte, like any strangling fig. Leaves are rigidly leathery, smooth, oblong to ovately elliptic, the smaller one oblanceolate, averaging 15 centimeters long and nearly half as wide, with blunt or rounded tip. Fruit is ellipsoid, about 2 centimeters in length, smooth and shining, hard, dull red, sessile, and subtended by 2 to 3 very small ovate bracts or ebracteolate. Distribution - In forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Also occurs in Borneo, Celebes, and Timor. Constituents -Study of leaves yielded a new megastigmane, 4'-dihydrophaseate sodium, one new benz- enediol glucoside, 1,4-di-O-β-glucopyranosyl-2-(1,1-dimethyl- propenyl)benzene, along with nine known compounds. Properties Vulnerary. Parts used [...]

Pito-Pito

Common names Alagao leaves Anise seeds Banaba leaves Coriander seeds Guava leaves Mango leaves Pandan leaves Scientific names Premna Odorata Blanco Pimpinella Anisum Lagestroemia Speciosa Coriandum Sativum Psidium Guajava Mangifera Indica Pandanus Amaryllifolius Pito-Pito (literally, seven-seven) is a blend of seven seeds or leaves of seven traditional herbal medicinal plants, usually prepared as a decoction or a poultice and used in a wide variety of folkloric applications: headaches, fever, cough, colds, migraine, asthma, abdominal pains, diarrhea, etc. The ingredients vary according to availability and intended use. Seven (pito) is believed to be numerologically essential to the efficacy of the eventual formulation. A traditional combination is: seven leaves of alagaw, banaba, bayabas, pandan, and mangga with half a teaspoon each of anis and cilantro, boiled for 30 minutes, strained and drained. In the urban and suburban areas, it has become part of alternative new-age menu as a herbal tea blend. Commercial tea preparations substitute one or two ingredients with other herbal medicinal components. A popular substitute in herbal tea blends is Gotu-Kola (Centella asiatica); for wild-crafted use, pineappleand kaimito leaves. Variations are both in contents and numbers; recent combinations adding two more herbal ingredients are called "siyam-siyam."

Purple wreath

Family • Verbenaceae - Petraea volubilis Linn. - SANDPAPER VINE - Lan hua teng Scientific names Petraea volubilis Linn. Petraea kohautiana C. Presl. Common names Petrea (Tag.) Purple wreath (Engl.) Queen's wreath (Engl.) Sandpaper vine (Engl.) Sweet patria (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Nilmanilatai. CHINESE: Lan hua teng. HINDI: Nilmanilata. TAMIL: Kudirai valuppu. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A Review of Medicinal Plant Research at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, 1948–2001 / SA Mitchell, MH Ahmad / West Indian Med J 2006; 55 (4): 243 (2) Purple Wreath / Common names / Flowers of India (3) PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PETREA VOLUBILIS L. (VERBENACEAE / ) M. F. Abdelwahab, A. Abdel-Lateff, M. A. Fouad*, S. Y. Desoukey and M. S. Kamel / Bull. Pharm. Sci., Assiut University, Vol. 34, Part 1, 2011, pp. 9-20. Gen info Genus is named in honor of Robert James Petre, 8th Baron Petre of Ingatestone Hall in Essex, an English patron of botany. Sandpaper name derives from the rough-textured leaves. Botany Sandpaper vine is a slender, woody climber. Leaves are leathery, stiff and crisp, opposite, oblong-ovate, up to 6 to 12 centimeters long, the upper surface dull green and the lower surface bright emerald green, and with entire or slightly sinuate margins. Both surfaces are harsh and rough-textured like sandpaper. Flowers are violet, purple, or bluish, and 5-lobed, in long, terminal racemes. Sepals are showy, spreading, and star-shaped. Corolla is spreading, 5-lobed, violet, smaller than the calyx. Fruit is small, 1- to 2-seeded, embedded in the short [...]

Pakong-roman

Family • Parkeriaceae / Pteridaceae - Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. - WATER FERN - Shui song cao Scientific names Acrostichum thalictroides Linn. Acrostichum siliquosum Linn. Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. Ceratopteris siliquosum Copel. Fucaria thalictroides Desv. Pteris thalictroides Sw. Teleozoma thalictroides R. Br. Shui jue (Chin.) Other vernacular names JAPANESE: Mizu-warabi. VIETNAMESE: Rau Can troi, Ráng Gac nai. Common names Pakong-roman (Tag.) Pakong-sungay (Tag.) Pakong-tubig (Tag.) Paku-roman (Malaya) Floating stag's horn (Engl.) Oriental water fern (Engl.) Swamp fern (Engl.) Water horn fern (Engl.) Water sprite (Engl.) Shui song cao (Chin.) Botany Pakong-roman is a floating or loosely rooted aquatic fern, stout, fleshy, tufted with leaves that are divided into numerous narrow segments. Rhizomes are erect. Stipes are tufted, thick, naked, and succulent, 3 to 20 centimeters long. Young plants with sterile leaves are up to 15 centimeters high, with rounded pinnules or segments, 6 to 8 millimeters wide. The mature plants, which produce only the fertile fronds, grow up to 70 centimeters high, more compound, with thick, acute, ultimate segments, 10 to 30 centimeters long, 3 millimeters wide. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ethnomedicinal Importance of Pteridophytes used by Chenchus of Nallamalais, Andhra Pradesh, India / K Thulsi Rao et al / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 6-10. 2007 (2) Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. / van der Burg, W.J., 2004. Ceratopteris thalictroides (L.) Brongn. [Internet] Record from Protabase. Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (Editors). / PROTA (3) Ethnomedicinal Uses of Pteridophytes in Kolli Hills, Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, India / V. Karthik, K. Raju, M. Ayyanar, K. Gowrishankar and T. Sekar*/ J. [...]

Panagulingon

Family • Guttiferae - Cratoxylon sumatranum (Jack) Blume Scientific names Cratoxylon celebicum Blume Cratoxylon floribundum (Turcz.) F.-Vill. Cratoxylon horschuchii Blume Cratoxylon sumatranum (Jack) Blume Cratoxylon arboreum Elm. Ancistrolobus floribundus Turcz. Common names Bansilai (C. Bis.) Panaguliñgon (Tag.) Baringkokoring (Ilk.) Paguringon (Tag.) Baringkukurung (Ilk.) Paguringan (Mag.) Bariuanuring (Ibn.) Salinggogon (Tag.) Barikokoroi (Ilk.) Suilak (Ibn.) Biro (Neg.) Ugingan (Ilk.) Guyong-guyong (Tag.) Uling (Ting.) Kaminoringen (Ilk.) Ulingon (C. Bis.) Kansilai (P. Bis.) Ulingun (Mbo.) Kuelan (Ig.) Uring (Bag.) Kuttu (Ibn.) Utto (Ibn.) Olingon (C. Bis, Mbo., Sul.) Uugin (Ap.) Pagoriñgon (P. Bis.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Isolation and Structural Elucidation of New Xanthone from Rot Bark of Cratoxylum sumatranum / M.B.B. Buana, M. Iqbal, T.F. Barus, Z. Al-Fatony, H. Sudrajat and S. Khairi / Botany Research International 2 (4): 233-234, 2009 (2) Cytotoxic prenylated xanthones and the unusual compounds anthraquinobenzophenones from Cratoxylum sumatranum. / Seo EK, Kim NC, Wani MC, Wall ME, Navarro HA, Burgess JP, Kawanishi K, Kardono LB, Riswan S, Rose WC, Fairchild CR, Farnsworth NR, Kinghorn AD. / J Nat Prod. 2002 Mar;65(3):299-305. (3) Cratoxylum celebicum Blume / The Plant List (4) Cratoxylum sumatranum (Jack) Blume / The Plant List Botany Panagulingon is a small tree or an erect shrub. Bark is longitudinally checked, brownish with occasional whitish spots. Branchlets are smooth and very slender. Leaves are opposite, well scattered, narrowly oblong to broadly oblong, paler beneath, 10 to 14 centimeters long, 3 to 4 centimeters wide, entire, slenderly pointed at the apex, blunt at the base, and borne upon petioles 5 to 8 millimeters long. Flowers are [...]