Family • Lamiaceae - Rosmarinus officinalis - ROSEMARY - Mi die xiang Scientific names Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. Common names Dumero (Tag.) Romero (C. Bis., Tag., Span.) Rosmarino (Ital.) Rosemary (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Iklil al jabal. GREEK: Dendrolivano, Dentrolivano, Rozmari. PORTUGUESE: Alecrim. BULGARIAN: Rozmarin. HEBREW: Rozmarin. RUSSIAN: Rozmarin. CHINESE: Mi die xiang. HUNGARIAN: Rozmaring. SERBIAN: Ružmarin. CROATIAN: Ružmarin . ICELANDIC: Rósmarín, Sædögg . SLOVAKIAN: Rozmarín, Rozmarín lekársky. CZECH: Rozmarýna, Rozmarýna lékařská, Rozmarýn lékařský. ITALIAN: Rosmarino. SLOVENIAN: Rožmarin. DANISH: Rosmarin. JAPANESE: Mannenrou, Roozumari, Roozumarii, Rozumarii, Rosumarin, Mannenrou. SPANISH: Romero, Romero comun, Rosmario. DUTCH: Rozemarijn. KOREAN: Ro ju ma ri. SWEDISH: Rosmarin. ESTONIAN: Harilik rosmariin, Rosmariin. NORWEGIAN: Rosmarin. TURKISH: Biberiye, Hasalban, Kuşdili otu. FINNISH: Rosmariini. PERSIAN: Eklil kuhi, Rozmari. UKRAINIAN: Rozmaryn, Rozmaryn spravzhnii. FRENCH: Romarin, Romarin commun. POLISH: Rozmaryn. VIETNAMESE: Lá hương thảo. GERMAN: Rosmarin. Botany Romero is a small, erect. flowering woody undershrub, about 1 meter high, with densely arranged branches and leaves. Leaves are linear, about 1 to 3 centimeters long, with strong revolute edges, the lower portion covered with gray hairs. Flowers are bluish, less than 1 centimeter long, borne on racemes1 to 3 centimeters long. Distribution - Introduced from Europe. - Commonly sold in markets. - Cultivated in gardens for medicinal purposes. Properties - Antispasmodic, abortifacient, emmenagogue, stimulant, bitter tonic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, aromatic, nervine, stomachic, febrifuge. - Bitter and astringent leaves considered diuretic, dissolvent, and aperient. - Oil is carminative and stimulant. Constituents - Volatile oil, 1.2 - 2% - alpha-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene, rosemarin. - The most important [...]


Family • Rubiaceae - Gardenia jasminoides Ellis - GARDENIA - Chih-tzu Scientific names Gardenia augusta (Linn.) Merr. Gardenia jasminoides Ellis Gardenia florida Linn. Common names Rosal (Sp., Tag.) Gardenia (Engl.) Chih-tzu (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Gandhraj. CHINESE: Chih-tzu. HINDI: Gandhraj. KANNADA: Suvasane malle. MANIPURI: Kaboklei. MARATHI: Gandroya. SPANISH: Rosal. Botany Rosal is a smooth, unarmed shrub 1 to 2 meters high. Leaves are opposite, elliptic-ovate, 2 to 6 centimeters long, narrowed and pointed at both ends, shining and short petioled, and stipulate. Flowers are large and very fragrant, occurring singly in the upper axil of the leaves. Calyx is green, with funnel-shaped tube and about 1.5 centimeters long, 5-angled, or winged and divided into linear lobes about as long as the tube. Corolla is usually double, white but soon turning yellowish, and 5 to 8 centimeters wide. Stamens are as many as the corolla lobes. Anthers are linear, sessile. Ovary is 1-celled, style stout, clavate, fusiform, or 2-cleft, ovules numerous on parietal placentae. Fruits are ovoid or ellipsoid, 2.5 to 4.5 centimeters long, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, yellow, with 5 to 9 longitudinal ridges. Distribution - Cultivated for ornamental purposes. - A common garden plant. - Nowhere spontaneous. - Only the double-flowered variety occurs in the Philippines. - Native of southern China. - Now pantropic in cultivation. Properties • Antiophthalmic, emollient, emetic, stimulant, diuretic, antiperiodic, cathartic, anthelmintic, alterative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, sedative, analgesic, hypotensive, febrifuge. Constituents • Study of chemical constituents in fruits isolated nine compounds: imperatorin, isoimperatorin, crocetin, 5-hydroxy-7,3',4',5'-tetrainethoxyflavone, 2-methyl-3,5-dihydroxychromone, sudan [...]

Rosas de Japon

Family • Compositae / Asteraceae - Chrysanthemum sinense Sabine - CHRYSANTHEMUM - Chu hua Scientific names Chrysanthemum sinense Sabine Pyrethrum sinense DC. Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvelev Dendranthema sinense (Sabine) Des Moul. Tanacetum morifolium (Ramat.) Kitam. Tanacetum sinense (Sabine) Sch. Bip. Ju hua (Chin.) Common names Mansanilla (Ilk.) Rosas de Japon (Sp., Tag.) Chrysanthemum (Engl.) Ju (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the flowers of Chrysanthemum sinense / Nguyen MT, Awale S et al /Planta Med. 2006 Jan;72(1):46-51. (2) Toxicity Study of Ethanolic Extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium in Rats / Liping Li, Liqiang Gu et al / Journal of Food Science, Vol 75, Issue 6, pages T105–T109, August 2010 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01702.x (3) Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (CM) extract protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity / Kim InSu, Koppula S, Park PyoJam et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 Vol. 126 No. 3 pp. 447-454 / DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.017 (4) Antioxidant Action of a Chrysanthemum morifolium Extract Protects Rat Brain Against Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury / Guo-Hua Lin, Lin Lin, Hua-Wei Liang, Xin Ma, Jing-Ye Wang, et al / Journal of Medicinal Food. April 2010, 13(2): 306-311 / doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1184. (5) How does the coadministration of Chrysanthemum sinense along with azathioprine cause significant reductions in WBCs? / Pharmacology Weekly Botany Rosas de Japon is similar to manzanilla in botanical description, but usually taller. Flowering heads are white or variously colored in the Philippines, up to 10 centimeters or more in diameter, and composed of numerous rows of ray-flowers. Distribution - Cultivated for ornamental purposes. - Grows especially [...]


Family • Rosaceae - Rosa spp. - Rosa canina - ROSE Common names Rosas (Tag.) Rose Wild rose Hip berry Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Rose Petal Tea as an Antioxidant-rich Beverage: Cultivar Effects  (2) COX-1 and -2 activity of rose hip / Phytotherapy Research / Volume 21 Issue 12, Pages 1251 - 125 (3) An Antiinflammatory Galactolipid from Rose Hip (Rosa canina) that Inhibits Chemotaxis of Human Peripheral Blood Neutrophils in Vitro / Erik Larsen et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2003, 66 (7), pp 994–995 DOI: 10.1021/np0300636 Gen info  The Damask rose is the national flower of Iran and has been called the "Flower of the Prophet Mohammad." The use of rose oil dates back to ancient Persia. Petal steam distillation produces rose water and rose oil; 2000 petals yield a mere drop of rose oil. source Many medicinal benefits have been attributed to the rose, from the healing properties, to treatment of respiratory problems to skin health. The genus consists of many species, estimates ranging from thirty to over two hundred. Botany One of the most extensive genus in the plant kingdom, with some botanical reports of over 4,000 species. A prickly shrub, most grow upright, some are creeping. Flowers are yellow, white, pink or red, solitary or in branched clusters or corymbs at the end of short branches. four to five petals and sepals. Leaves are alternate, pinnnate, usually with five to nine leaflets with a terminal leaflet. Distribution Cultivated in all climates and places. Parts utilized: Flowers and [...]


Family • Malvaceae - Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. - RED SORREL - Shan jia zi Scientifric names HIbiscus sabdariffa Linn. HIbiscus digitatus Cav. HIbiscus gossypifolius Mill. Sabdariffa rubra Kostel Common names Roselle (Engl., Tag.) Red sorrel (Engl.) Luo shen hua (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Mei gui jia, Shan jia zi. GERMAN: Afrikanischer Eibisch, Hibiscus-Tee, Karkade-Tee, Roselle, Rote Malve. FRENCH: Oseille de Guinée, Thé rose d'Abyssinie. JAPANESE: Roozera, Roozeru, Rozerusou. POLISH: Hibiskus szczawiowy, Ketmia szczawiowa. PORTUGUESE: Caruru De Guine (Brazil), Quiabo Da Angola (Brazil), Rosela, Vinagreira. THAI: Krachiap, Kra chiap daeng. Botany Roselle is an erect, branched, nearly smooth annual herb, 1 to 2 meters in height. Stems are purplish. Leaves are 8 to 12 centimeters long, variable in shape, entire or deeply 3- or 5-lobed, the lobes oblong to oblong-lanceolate. Calyx is somewhat hairy, lobes are pointed, connate below the middle, forming a fleshy cup. Corolla is pink with a dark center, about 5 centimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, pointed, hairy, about 2.5 centimeters long, enclosed by a fleshy and enlarged calyx. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension / M Haji Faraji and A H Haji Tarkhani / Journ of Ethnopharmacology • Vol 65, No 3, pp 231-236, June 1999 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00157-3 (2) Effects of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a Thai Medicinal Plant, on the Mutagenicity of Various Known Mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by the Colon Carcinogens Azoxymethane and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in F344 rats / T Chewonarin et al [...]


Family • Acanthaceae - Ruellia tuberosa Linn. - POPPING POD Scientific names Ruellia tuberosa Linn. Ruellia clandestina. Other common names Bluebell (Engl.) Pink-striped trumpet lily (Engl.) Cracker plant (Engl.) Popping pod (Engl.) Meadow weed (Engl.) Snapdragon root (Engl.) Minnieroot (Engl.) Botany Low-growing perennial herb with tuberous roots, growing to a height of a foot or more. Leaves are opposite, elliptic, short petioled, abruptly narrowed at the base, with undulate margins and up to 12 cm long. Flowers are showy, with funnel-shaped, 5-lobed corolla, up to 5 cm across, and mauve or light bluish purple. Fruit is a pod with 7 to 8 seeds, bursting open and hurtling the seeds when it gets wet. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus / Cheryl A Lans / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine (2) Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Ruellia tuberosa / Fu-An Chen et al / Food Chemistry Volume 94, Issue 1, January 2006, Pages 14-18 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.046 (3) Fever Root - Ruellia tuberosa, Linn. / Yang Mekar ditamanku (4) Evaluation of biochemical contents, nutritional value, trace elements, SDS-PAGE and HPTLC profiling in the leaves of Ruellia tuberosa L. and Dipteracanthus patulus (Jacq.) / A Manikandan and D Victor Arokia Doss / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2010, 2(3):295-303 Distribution In open waste places in the Philippines. Parts used and preparation Roots and leaves. Constituents - Leaves contain apigenin and luteolin. - The seed oil yields myristic, capril and lauric acids. - Study yielded flavonoids, glycosides, [...]

Rabbit's foot fern

Family • Davalliaceae - Davallia solida (Forst.) Sw. - ENGLISH Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Medical Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry, and Bioactivity of the Ferns of Moorea, French Polynesia / Nicole Baltrushes / May 2006 / Moorea Digital Flora Project (2) Antioxidant activities and polyphenol contents of six folk medicinal ferns used as "Gusuibu" / Hung-Chi Chang, Guan-Jhong Huang et al / Botanical Studies (2007) 48: 397-406. (3) Samoan Medicinal Plants and Their Usage / ADAP 93-1 • Reprinted May 2001 Botany Rabbit's foot fern is an epiphytic, dimorphic fern with stems 1 cm or more in diameter. Sterile leaves are pinnate, sub-opposite, broadly deltoid, up to 20 cm long; base tripinnate and narrowly deltoid. Fertile leaves are more deeply lobed, with each lobe bearing several sporangia. Distribution Widespread in the Philippines. Also found in the Malay Peninsula to Polynesia. Cultivated as a hanging plant or air plant. Constituents Study yieled 4 new compounds: 3' -O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin, 4'-O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin, 6' -O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin, and 3-O-p-hydroxybenzoylmangiferin, as well as eight known compounds - mangiferin, 2-C-b-D-xylopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone, 4b-carboxymethyl-(À)-epicatechin, 4b-carb-oxymethyl-(À)-epicatechin methyl ester, eriodictyol, eriodictyol-8-C-b-D-glucopyranoside, icariside E5, and icariside E3. Properties Considered antibacterial, tonic, laxative, purgative, anti-inflammatory. Parts used Rhizomes. Uses Folkloric No known medicinal use in the Philippines. Rhizomes used as herb tonic; for treatment of osteoporosis, arthralgia and arthritis. In Fiji, used as antibacterial; used for asthma, sore throat. In Tahiti, used for dysmenorrhea, uterine hemorrhage, and to promote healthy pregnancy. In New Caledonia, used for fish poisoning. In Moorea, French Polynesia, used as laxative and purgative; for fractures and sprains; as [...]


Family • Sapindaceae - Nephelium lappaceum Linn. - RAMBOUTANIER - Shao tzu Scientific names Nephelium lappaceum Linn. Nephelium glabrum Cambess. Nephelium chryseum Blum. Nephelium sufferrugineum Radlk. Euphobia nephelium DC Dimocarpus crinita Lour. Common names Usare (Sul.) Usau (Bis.) Hairy lychee (Engl.) Rambutan (Malaya) Ramboutanier (Engl.) Shao tzu (Chinese) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Hong mao dan. DUTCH: Ramboetan. FRENCH: Litchi chevelu, Ramboutan, Ramboutanier. HINDI: Ramboostan. ITALIAN: Nefelio. JAPANESE: Ranbuutan KHMER: Chle sao mao, Saaw maaw, Ser mon. KOREAN: Ram bu t'an. MALAY: Rambutan, Rambutan jantan. RUSSIAN: Rambutan. SPANISH: Rambután. THAI: Ngoh, Phruan. VIETNAMESE: Chômchôm, Vai thiêù. Botany Rambutan is an evergreen, bushy tree, growing to a height of 20 meters, with a dense, low, round and spreading crown. Leaves are pinnately compound, 15 to 40 centimeters long, with 3 to 8 leaflets. The leaflets are elliptic, 7.5 to 20 centimeters long, and 3.5 to 8 centimeters wide. Flowers are greenish white, fragrant, very small, without petals, and borne on axillary panicles. Fruit is oblong, 4 to 5 centimeters long, red to yellow, covered with thick, coarse hairs or soft spines. Pulp is edible, white, opaque, translucent, juicy and sweet. Distribution - Cultivated in most parts of the Philippines. - Also reported in India to Indo-China and Malaya, and extensively cultivated in Java and Malaya. Parts utilized Roots, leaves and bark. Constituents • Seeds yield 40-48 % rambutan tallow. The insoluble fatty acids of the tallow contain about 45 percent oleic acid. The tallow contains abundant arachin, some stearin and olein. - The seeds have traces of an [...]


Family • Urticaceae - Boehmeria nivea Linn. - CHINA GRASS - Chu-ma Scientific names Boehmeria nivea (Linn.) Gaudich. Boehmeria tenacissima Gaud. Urtica nieva Linn. Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Thmey. CHINESE: Zhu ma. FRENCH: Ramie. INDONESIA: Rami, Haramay. LAOS: Pan. MALAYSIA: Rami, Rami-rami. THAI: Po-paan, Po-bo, Taan khamoi. VIETNAMESE: Name Common names Amirai (Tag.) Arimai (Ilk.) Dami (If.) Hasu (Iv.) Lipang-aso (Tag.) Labnis (Ilk.) Lapnis (Ilk.) Ramie (Engl.) China grass (Engl.) Madame Parquet (Engl.) Ramie grass (Engl) Zhu ma (Chin.) Botany Ramie is an erect, branched, monoecious perennial shrub, 1 to 2 meters high, with a single cylindrical stem, and hairy branches and petioles. Leaves are long-petioled, alternate, broadly ovate, 10 to 18.5 centimeters long, 6 to 14 centimeters wide, with tapering pointed tip, coarsely toothed margin, the upper surface green, roughened with few scattered hairs, the lower surface white, except the nerves, and densely covered with appressed, matted, white hairs. Flowers are small and clustered; the clusters arranged in axillary panicles shorter than the petioles; unisexual, apetalous. Staminate (male) flowers have 4 calyx lobes which are green in color. Stamens are 4. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) The Anti-hepatitis B Virus Activity of Boehmeria nivea Extract in HBV-viremia SCID Mic / Jia-Ming Chang et al / eCAM / doi:10.1093/ecam/nem180 (2) Evaluation of the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Boehmeria nivea var. nivea and B. nivea var. tenacissima / Chun-Chung Lin et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology / 1998, vol. 60, no1, pp. 9-17 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(97)00122-0 (3) Inhibition of hepatitis B virus production by Boehmeria nivea [...]

Red gum eucalyptus

Family • Myrtaceae - Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. - RIVER RED GUM - Chi an Scientific names Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Common names Eucalyptus rouge (Engl., Fr.) Red gum eucalyptus (Engl.) Forest red gum (Engl.) River red gum (Engl.) Murray red gum (Engl.) Chi an (Chin.) Botany Eucalyptus camaldulensis is a tree growing 15 to 25 meters or taller, with an ash-colored, smooth, and exfoliating bark. Leaves are deciduous, alternate, lanceolate, acuminate, light green and thin. Inflorescences are axillary, simple, umbels are 5 to 11-flowered; peduncle is 1 to 1.5 centimeters, slender and terete. Flower buds are ovoid, 5 to 8 millimeters. Hypanthium is semiglobose, about 3 millimeters; stipes are 3 to 12 millimeters. Flowers are in umbels. Capsule is subglobose, 5 to 6 millimeters in diameter, disk broad, valves 3 to 5, exserted from the hypanthium. Distribution - Recently introduced to the Philippines. - Native to Australia where it is widespread. - Cultivated in China and Taiwan. Constituents - Phytochemical screening yielded saponin, saponin glycosides, steroid, cardiac glycoside, tannins, volatile oils, phenols, and balsam (gum). - Study yielded tannins, saponins and cardenolides. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. / Chinese Plant Names (2) The antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Terminalia catappa against some pathogenic microorganisms / H. Babayi, I. Kolo, J. I. Okogun and U. J. J. Ijah1/ BIOKEMISTRI 16(2):106-111 (December 2004) (3) The Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae) / Ayepola O O and B A Adeniyi / Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 4(11): 1410-1413, [...]