Family • Thymeliaceae - Wikstroemia ovata C. A. Mey - ROUND-LEAF SALAGO Scientific names Daphne indica Blanco, non L. Daphne foetida Blanco, non L. Wikstroemia ovata C. Mey. Common names Aradon (Ilk.) Dapnit (Bon.) Huka (Ifugao) Salago (Tag.) Sula (Bon.) Bootlace bush (Engl.) Round-leaf salago (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemotaxonomic studies of Hawaiian Wikstroemia / Samta Gupta and G. W. Gille / Economic Botany / Volume 23, Number 1 / January, 1969 / DOI 10.1007/BF02862968 (2) The cathartic effects in man of the leaves of Wikstroemia ovata Meyer (salago leaves) / 1933 CITATION: Philippine J Sci, 51(), 485-494 [English] / FDA Poisonous Plant Database / US FDA Botany Salago is a shrub with a tough bark, growing to a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, 3 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base. Flowers are yellow, tubular, about 1.5 centimeters long, borne in small clusters. Fruit is subglobose, 5 to 8 millimeters thick, shining, and yellowish-red, containing a solitary large seed enclosed by a fleshy skin. Distribution - In thickets and primary or secondary forests, at low and medium altitudes in Bontoc, Benguet, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon, and in Negros and Mindanao. - Also reported in Indonesia and Malaysia. Parts utilized  Leaves, bark. Constituents - The leaves yield a volatile oil and resin. - Studies have yielded glucosides, saponins, and the absence of alkaloids or cynogenetic substances. Properties - Leaves considered laxative [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae -Phyllanthus niruri Linn. - SEED-UNDER-LEAF - Ye xia zhu Scientific names Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Phyllanthus carolinianus Blanco Phyllanthus kirganelia Blanco Ku wei ye xia zhu (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhu zi cao, Yue xia zhu, Be bei cai, Xiao fan hun, Ba be cai, Xiao fan hun FRENCH: Quinine creole. HINDI: Bhuiaonla. PORTUGUESE: Quebrapedra. SANSKRIT: Ajata, Amala, Bbumyamalaki, Sukshmadala, Vituntika. SPANISH: Chanca piedra, Quinina criolla. Common names Kurukalunggai (Bik.) Malakirum-kirum (S. L. Bis.) Malakinum-kirum (Bis.) Ngingihel (If.) Sampasampalukan (Tag.) San Pedro (P. Bis.) Surusampalok (Bik.) Talikod (Ilk.) Taltalikod (Ilk.) Turutalikod (Bik.) Seed-under-leaf (Engl.) Stone-breaker (Engl.) Ye xia zhu (Chin.) Gen info  Chanca piedra is Spanish for "stone breaker," used by indigenous peoples of the Amazon as an effective remedy for the treatment of gallstones and kidney stones. Botany Sampasampalukan is an erect, branching, slender, smooth herb growing 50 to 60 centimeters high. Leaves are small and oblong, alternate and often imbricated, oblong to elliptic-oblong, 5 to 8 millimeters long, rather pale beneath, and on very short stalks. Flowers are axillary and solitary, pale green or white, about 0.5 millimeter long. Capsules are smooth, rounded or somewhat flattened, 1.5 to 2 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - A common roadside and garden weed throughout the Philippines. - Now pantropic, probably introduced into the New World. Constituents - Plant has yielded various phytochemicals: flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins, and saponins. - Plant yields phyllanthin, previously identified as pseudo-chiratan. It crystallizes in colorless needles or flakes, with an intensely bitter taste, almost insoluble [...]


Family • Liliaceae / Smilacaceae - Smilax china Linn. - CHINESE SARSAPARILLA - Ba qia Scientific names Smilax china Linn. Smilax chinensis Smilax pteropus Miq. Smilax taiheiensis Hayata Ba qia (Chin.) Common names Buanal (Ig.) Palipit (Bon.) Sarsaparillang-china (Tag.) China root (Engl.) Chinese sarsaparilla (Engl.) Chinese smilax (Engl.) Wild smilax (Engl.) Jing gong dou (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jin gang teng. FRENCH: Racine de Chine, Squine. GERMAN: Chinawurzel. HINDI: Chobchini. INDONESIA: Gadung cina, Peudang, Ghadhung tambha. MALAYSIA: Gadong china, Gadong saberang, Akar restong. PAKISTAN: Biri. SPANISH: Zarzaparilla De China. VIETNAM: Kim chang trung qu[oos]e. Botany Sarsaparillang-china is a woody vine armed with small thorns all over the stem. Rhizomes are long, thick and grey colored. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptically oblong to subrounded, 5 to 8 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide; those toward the end of the branches are much smaller and veined. Petioles are about 7 millimeters long, with adnate spiculate stipules which frequently are extended into tendrils. Inflorescence arises from the upper leaf axils, 3 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are white to yellowish-green, their pedicels subtended by bracteoles, umbellate. Berries are globose, reddish when ripe. Distribution - In mossy forests at altitudes of 1,600 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, and Zambales Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindanao and Negros. - Occurs in Japan and China, where is it indigenous. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Smilax china / Plants For A Future (2) Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Smilax china L. aqueous extract / Xiao-Shun Shu, , Zhong-Hong [...]

Shui mei

Family • Apocynaceae - Wrightia religiosa Teijs. and Binn. - SACRED BUDDHIST - Wu guan dao diao bi Scientific names Wrightia religiosa Teijs. and Binn. Echites religiosa Teijs. and Binn. Echites religiosus Common names Philippine jasmine Shui mei Sacred buddhist (Engl.) Water jasmine (Engl.) Wild water plum (Engl.) Wondrous wrightia (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Wu guan dao diao bi, Sui-mei (Cantonese). SANSKRIT: Kutaja. SINHALESE: Idda mal. THAI: Mok ban. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Wrightia names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. (2) β-Glucosidase Activity and Scent Production in Some Flowers / O. Suntornwat and S. Koocharoensap / Acta Hort. 679, ISHS 2005 (3) Diversity and Activity of PAH-Degrading Bacteria in the Phyllosphere of Ornamental Plants / Chontisak Yutthammo, Nudchanard Thongthammachat, Pairoh Pinphanichakarn, Ekawan Luepromchai / Microbial Ecology, February 2010, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 357-368 Botany Shui mei is a tropical shrub growing up to 3 meters tall. Bark is smooth and gray. Branchlets are thin, terete, often with many lateral and short branches, minutely puberulent. Petioles are 2 to 4 millimeters. Leaves are opposite, simple, elliptic, ovate or narrowly oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long and 1.5 to 3 centimeters wide, pubescent along the midvein, with 5 to 7 paired lateral veins. Cymes are often on short, few-leaved branches, short peduncled, and 1- to 13-flowered. Flowers are fruity scented, pendant, borned along the twiggy branches. Sepals are ovate, about 1.5 millimeters. Corolla is white and [...]


Family • Menispermaceae - Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr. - BROAD-LEAVED MOONSEED - Xi yuan teng Scientific names Pericampylus glaucus Merr. Menispermum glaucum Lam. Cocculus glaucus DC. Cocculus incanus Colebr. Pericampylus incanus Miers. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Guang teng. INDONESIA: Areuy geureung (Sundanese), Celuru (Javanese), Akar gamat (Moluccas). MALAYSIA: Gasing gasing, Kelempenang, Taworuk. THAI: Salit hom kha, Yan tap tao. VIETNAM: Ch[aa]u d[ar]o, D[aa]y l[ox]i ti[eef]n. Common names Botang-botang (C. Bis.) Gapisilid (Sub.) Hah-un (Yak.) Ha-un (Sul.) Lagauat (Bag.) Pamago (Bik.) Pisok (Ig.) Silong-pugo (Tag.) Tugian-tugian (Tag.) Broad-leaved moonseed (Engl.) Xi yuan teng (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemical constituents of Pericampylus glaucus (Lam.) Merr./ Liang P, Zhou Q, Zhou F. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1998 Jan;23(1):39-40, 63. (2) Triterpenoidal constituents of Pericampylus glaucus and their antitumor activity in vitro / Zhao Wei-quan, Cui Cheng-bin / Chinese Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2009-03 (3) Pericampylus glaucus (Lamk) Merr. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED (4) Secondary Metabolites and Their Anti-tumor Activity from Pericampylus Galucus and Three Actinomycetic Antibiotic-resistent Strains / ZhaoWeiQuan / Thesis, 2008 Botany Silong-pugo is a climbing shrub, with hairy branchlets when young. Leaves are thin, pale or subglaucous beneath, broadly ovate or nearly round, 5 to 8 centimeters wide, truncately rounded or heart-shaped at the base, sometimes slightly peltate, and pointed at the apex, with 5 basal nerves, and tomentose. Cymes or panicles are 2- to 3-chotomous. Flowers are numerous and yellow. Fruit is rounded, pea-sized, red or purplish, becoming black when ripe. Seeds are kidney-shaped, with crested edges. Distribution - Throughout the Philippines [...]

Spider plant

Family • Liliaceae - Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques - RIBBON PLANT - Dian lan Scientific names Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques Common names Airplane plant (Engl.) Ribbon plant (Engl.) Spider ivy (Engl.) Spider plant (Engl.) Dian lan (Chin.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Steroidal saponins from the underground parts of Chlorophytum comosum and their inhibitory activity on tumour promoter-induced phospholipids metabolism of hela cells / Yoshihiro Mimaki et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 41, Issue 5, March 1996, Pages 1405-1410 / doi:10.1016/0031-9422(95)00789-X | (2) Apoptosis Induced Human Cell Lines by a Butanol Extract from Chlorophytum comosum Roots / Hirohisa Matsushita et al / Journal of Health Science, 51(3), 341-345 (2005) (3) The Best Plants to Purify Air / Holly L Roberts / Livestrong Botany A tufted grass-like perennial herb growing to a height of 60 cm. Leaves are narrow-linear, blunt at the tip, up to 2 cm wide, recurved, glossy, solid green. The variegated form may be pale green with white longitudinal stripes. Flowering racemes are long, pendulous. Flowers are small and white. Distribution Native to South Africa. Recently introduced to the Philippines. Suited for use as groundcover. Propagated by division of rhizomes and from plantlets. Parts utilized Roots Properties and constituents • Study isolated three new spirostanol pentaglycosides and four known saponins. Uses Folkloric • No reported folkloric use in the Philippines. • In Chinese traditional medicine, used for treating bronchitis, fractures and burns. Study Findings • Steroidal Saponins / Antitumor-Promoter Activity: Study isolated three new spirostanol pentaglycosides and four known saponins. The saponins were examined for inhibitory activity on [...]


Family • Fabaceae / Leguminosae - Sindora supa Merr. - KEROSENE TREE Scientific names Sindora supa Merr. Sindora wallichii F.-Vill. Common names Balayong (Tayabas) Manopo (Bik., Tag.) Paina (Bik.) Parina (Bik.) Supa (Tag., Bik.) Yakal-dilau (Tayabas) Kerosene tree (Engl.) Botany Supa is a is a deciduous, unarmed tree reaching a height of 20 to 30 meters. The bole is straight, regular, and without buttresses. Leaves are pinnate, about 15 centimeters long, with three pairs of leaflets which are glabrous, coriaceous, elliptic, 3.5 to 9 centimeters long and 2.5 to 5 centimeters wide. Panicles are terminal or axillary, 10 to 15 centimeters long. Pods are broadly ovate, about 4 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide, rounded at the base, somewhat beaked at the apex, evenly provided with spinelike thorns. Seeds are 1-3, black, shiny, with a large and fleshy aril. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sindora supa Merrill / Caesalpiniaceae / Supa / James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. (2) Sindora supa Merrill, Fabaceae / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) Distribution - Native to the Philippines. - Found in forests at low and medium altitudes in Quezon, Nueva Ecija, Camarines and Albay provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. - Also reported in Australia. Possibly naturalized in northern Queensland. Constituents - Freshly cut tree yields about 10 liters of oil. - Oil is probably a mixture of sesquiterpenes. Properties - Oil is non-drying, limpid, light yellow, homogenous, and slightly fluorescent, with a pleasant aromatic odor, and does not become rancid. - Wood [...]


Family • Cruciferae - Nasturtium indicum (Linn.) D.C. - INDIAN CRESS - Wu ban han cai Scientific names Nasturtium indicum (Linn.) D.C. Nasturtium montanum Wall. Sisymbrium indicum Linn. Rorippa dubia (Pers.) H. Hara Rorippa sinapis Burm. Sinapis patens Roxb. Other vernacular names BENGALI: Ban sarisha. CHINESE: Han cai, Ye you cai, Jiang jian dao cao, Qing ming cai. Common names Alalahia (Ibn.) Apopo (Bon.) Gandei (Bon.) Gelgelai (Bon.) Gilgiloi (Ig.) Lampuka (Ilk.) Sabi (Bag.) Undi (If.) Wu ban han cai (Chin.) Indian cress (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Traditional Phytotherapy among the Nath People of Assam / Mithun Sikdar and Uzzal Dutta / Ethno-Med., 2(1): 39-45 (2008) Botany Sabi is an annual erect, usually branched, nearly smooth herb, 20 to 40 centimeters high. Leaves are oblong to ovate-lanceolate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, variously lobed and toothed, often lyrate, and petioled, the upper ones being sessile or nearly so, the basal leaves wither by flowering. Racemes are long, and terminal, with many flowers at the tip. Flowers are small, yellow, and 2.5 to 3 millimeters long. Sepals are as long as the petals. Pod is spreading, slender, cylindric, straight or slightly curved, and 1 to 2 centimeters long. Distribution - In and about towns along drains, ditches, roadsides, etc., and in waste place, along streams, etc., throughout the Philippines in the more or less settled areas. - Introduced. - Also found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam. - Naturalized in North and South America. Properties Considered diuretic, stimulant, antiscorbutic. Parts used [...]


Family • Boraginaceae - Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam. - TREE HELIOTROPE - Teng zi dan Scientific names Tournefortia sarmentosa Lam. Tournefortia hirsutissima Blanco Tournefortia urvilleana Cham. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Teng zi dan, Tai wan zi dan. Common names Patayud (Bisw.) Salakapo (Ilk.) Sala-salakapu (Ilk.) Tanara-daganan (Bik.) Tree heliotrope (Engl.) Botany Salakapo is a climbing, hairy and somewhat woody vine. Leaves are oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, green, shining, somewhat harsh, pointed at the tip, and usually rounded at the base. Flowers are stalkless, pale-green, 5-parted, and borne on terminal, scorpioid inflorescences (cymes) about 10 centimeters or less in diameter. Calyx is 1.5 millimeters long, and hairy. Corolla is 5 millimeters long, with a limb 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is stalkless, rounded and 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phenolic compounds from tournefortia sarmentosa / Lin YL, Tsai YL et al / J Nat Prod. 1999 Nov;62(11):1500-3. (2) Anti-lipid-peroxidative principles from Tournefortia sarmentosa / Lin YL, Chang YY, Kuo YH, Shiao MS / J Nat Prod. 2002 May;65(5):745-7. (3) Ester Derivatives of Tournefolic Acid B Attenuate N-Methyl-D-aspartate-Mediated Excitotoxicity in Rat Cortical Neurons / Chuen-Neu Wang, Hsien-Chia Pan et al / Molecular Pharmacology March 2006 vol. 69 no. 3 950-959 (4) Lithospermic acid-containing composition / FreePatentsOnLine (5) Tournefortia sarmentosa extract attenuates acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity / Chun-Yuh Teng, Yi-Liang Lai et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, March 2012, Vol. 50, No. 3 , Pp 291-396 / doi:10.3109/13880209.2011.602695) (6) Effect of aqueous extract of Tournefortia sarmentosa on the regulation of macrophage immune response./ Chen ML, Wu S, Tsai TC, Wang [...]


Family • Acanthaceae - Sanchezia speciosa Leonard - YELLOW SANCHEZIA Scientific names Sanchezia speciosa Leonard. Common names Sanchezia (Local name) Shrubby whitevein (Engl.) Yellow sanchezia (Engl.) Other vernacular names FRENCH: Sanchezie. PORTUGUESE: Sanquesia. SPANISH: Cachimbo amarillo. Gen info - Genus named after John Sanchez, a 19th century professor of botany in Cadiz, Spain. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS IN BOTANICAL GARDEN, BAGUIO CITY / Chua, Racquel Tan PhD Biol 1 / (2) In vitro Anti-oxidant and Anti-cancer Activity of Methanolic Extract from Sanchezia speciosa Leaves / Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Yi Li Wong; Moharam, Bushra Abdulkarim; Won Fen Wong; Chung Yeng Looi / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences;2013, Vol. 16 Issue 20, p1212 (3) In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Activities of Ethanolic Extract and Fractionates of Sanchezia speciosa Hook f.  / Md. Abu Shuaib Rafshanjani et al / Int. Res.J. Pharm. 2014, 5(9) (4) Preliminary phytochemical screening and cytotoxic potentials from leaves of Sanchezia speciosa Hook.f  / Shumaia Parvin, Md. Abu Shuaib Rafshanjani, Md. Abdul Kader, Tahmida Sharmin / International Journal of Advances in Scientific Research, Vol 1, No 3, 2015 Botany Sanchezia is a small, semiwoody erect evergreen shrub growing 1.3 to 2.4 meters. Stems are smooth bright green to purple. Leaves are large, up to 26 centimeters in length, opposite, lanceolate. Blade is green, with well defined yellow or ivory veins. Flowers are yellow, tubular, with red bracts, about 5 centimeters long, and borne in terminal spikes of 6 to 10. Fruits are oblong capsules with 6 to 8 circular, [...]