Family • Rosaceae - Rubus rosaefolius Sm. - ROSELEAF RASPBERRY - Kong xin pao Scientific names Rubus rosaefolius Sm. Rubus minusculus Lev. & Van. Rubus commersonii Poir. Rubus jamaicensis Blanco Rubus comintanus Blanco Rubus apoensis Elm. Other vernacular names FRENCH: Framboise marron, Framboise pays. INDIA: Kibo-lepum. PORTUGUESE: Amora Do Mato, Amora-Preta, Amora-Vermelha, Moranguinho. Common names Baknit (C. Bis.) Daguinot (Bis.) Init (Ilk.) Lagiauat (Lan.) Pinit (If., Bon.) Ragini (Bik.) Sagmit (Tag.) Sampinit (Bag.) Sapinit (Tag.) Sapinitatana (Bag.) Saponit (Bag.) Suting (Ig.) Roseleaf raspberry (Engl.) Wild raspberry (Engl.) Kong xin pao (Chin.) Botany Sagmit is a spreading, low, spiny shrub, rarely exceeding a meter in height. Leaves are pinnate with 5 to 7 leaflets. Leaflets are smooth or hairy, with lobed margins, oblong-ovate or broadly lanceolate, and 2 to 7 centimeters in lenght. Flowers are borne upon slender, prickly, hairy, 3 to 5 centimeter-long stalks and arise from the uppermost leaf axils. Calyx is hairy. Petals are white, broadly oblong, and constricted toward the base. Berries are red, conically elongated, and 1.5 to 2 centimeters across. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ursolic acid analogues: non-phenolic functional food components in Jamaican raspberry fruits / Camille S Bowen-Forbes et al / Food Chemistry, Volume 116, Issue 3, 1 October 2009, Pages 633-637 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.075 (2) Rubus rosaefolius Extract as a Natural Preservative Candidate in Topical Formulations / Elissa Arantes Ostrosky, Elda Maria Cecilio Marcondes, Suzana de Oliveira Nishikawa et al / AAPS PharmSciTech Vol. 12 Number 2, Jun 2011 / DOI: 10.1208/S12249-011-9635-9 (3) Sorting Rubus names / Maintained by: Michel H. [...]


Family • Asteraceae - Pterocaulon redolens (Forst. f.) F.-Vill. - WING STEM GRASS - Yi jing cao Scientific names Pterocaulon redolens (Forst. f.) F.-Vill. Monenteles redolens DC. Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum CB Clarke Sphaeranthus elongatus Blanco Conyza redolens Willd. Tessaria redolens Less. Gnaphalium cylindrostachyum Wall. Yi jing cao (Chin.) Gnaphalium redolens Forst. f. Common names Sambong-gala (Tag.) Subusob (Ilk.) Subusob-a-balang (Ilk.) Wing stem grass (Engl.) Botany Sambong-gala is a wooly, erect, branched herb, 0.5 to 1 meter in height, with stems bearing very conspicuous longitudinal wngs. Leaves are alternate, stalkless, lanceolate, 3 to 7 centimeters long, and toothed at the margins. Heads are small and borne in large numbers on the upper parts of the branches. Flowers are pink to purplish. Distribution - In open waste places at low and medium altitudes in Lepanto and the Benguet Subprovincers, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Bataan, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindoro. - Occurs in Burma to New Caledonia and Australia. Constituents - Study of aerial parts yielded seven coumarins (5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, ayapin, puberulin, 5-methoxyscopoletin, 2',3'-dihydroxypuberulin, isofraxidin, and 5-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3'-methylbutyloxy)-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin) and three flavonoids (luteolin, tomentin, and chrysosplenol C). Parts used Leaves Uses Folkloric Decoction of leaves used for stimulant baths. Study Findings • Phytochemicals / Anti-Mycobacterial / Cytotoxicity: Studies on the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Pterocaulon redolens isolated ten components: seven coumarins and three flavonoids. (See above: Constituents) Six coumarins and one flavonoid displayed mild activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One flavonoid possessed moderate cytotoxicity against breast cancer and human small cell lung cancerr cell lines. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Leguminosae / Fabaceae - Caesalpinia latisiliqua (Cav.) Hattink Scientific names Caesalpinia latisiliqua (Cav.) Hattink Caesalpinia torquata Blanco Mezoneurum procumbens Blanco Mezoneuron latisiliquum (Cav.) Merr. Mezoneuron rubrum Merr. Mezoneuron glabrum sensu Fern.-Vill. Bauhinia latisiliqua Cav. Common names Arayat (Ilk.) Dauag (Tag.) Dauer (Ilk.) Kabit-kabag (Tag.) Kamit-kabag (Tag.) Kamot-pusa (Tag., Pamp.) Sabit (Ig.) Sagnit (Tag.) Sampinit (Tag., Mbo.) Sapinit (P. Bis.) Sapnit (Tag., Pamp.) Siit (Bis.) Sokit (Yak.) Tugabang (Bis.) Ugabang (Bis.) Botany Sapnit is a tall tree climber. Leaves are evenly bipinnate, about 30 centimeters long (more or less), and smooth, the rachis provided with a pair of recurved hooks from the base of the secondary rachises. Leaflets are elliptically oblong, 1.8 to 4 centimeters long and 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide, with truncate or retuse tip. Inflorescence is terminal, smooth, and 50 to 60 centimeters long. Calyx is glaucous, green, very broad, and obscurely lobed. Petals are greenish, and exceeding the calyx in length. Pods are 10 to 18 centimeters long and 3 to 4.5 centimeters wide, obtuse at both ends, winged along the dorsal edge, and compressed, and contain several red seeds. Distribution - In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Also reported in Timor. Parts used Leaves. Uses Edibility In the Philippines, young shoots eaten as salad. Folkloric Decoction of leaves given to relieve asthma. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Apocynaceae - Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz - SNAKEROOT - She gen mu Scientific names Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Kurz Rauvolfia trifoliata (Gaertn.) Baill. Ophioxylon serpentinum L. Common names Serpentina (Tag.) Java devil pepper (Engl.) Rauwolfia (Engl.) Rauvolfia (Engl.) Serpent wood (Engl.) Snakeroot (Engl.) Yin du she mu (Chin.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Arachoritita. BENGALI: Chandra. BURMESE: Bongmaiza. CHINESE: She gen mu, Yin du luo fu mu, Yin du she gen mu. FRENCH: Arbre aux serpents. GERMAN: Indische Schlangenwurzel, Rauwolfie, Schlangenholz. HINDI: Candrabhaga, Chandrabhaga, Chota chand, Sarpagandha , Sarpgandha. JAPANESE: Indo shaboku, Indo shaboku. KANNADA: Sarpangandha, Sarpagandhi, Patalagandhi, Sarpgandha, Sarpgandha. MALAY: Akar tikus, Pule pandak (Java), Pulai pandak (Indonesia). ORIYA: Patalagarur. SANSKRIT: Chandrika, Chundrika, Patalguruda, Sarpagandha. TAMIL: Chevanamalpodi. TELUGU: Patalaguni, Patalagaruda, Sarpagandha. Botany Serpentina is a small shrub with whorled branches and milky sap. Leaves are opposite, entire, oblong-elliptic, up to 30 centimeters long. Flowers are white, clustered in axillary cymes, with slender corolla tube and 5 spreading lobes. Fruit is a small drupe. Distribution - Introduced to the Philippines. - Indigenous to India and tropical Asia. - Reported in the Himalayas, Assam, Java, and the Malaya peninsula. Constituents - Yields bioactive constituents: yohimbine, reserpine, ajmaline, deserpidine, rescinnamine, serpentinine. - Roots have yielded two alkaloids (1% of the dried root), a lot of resin and starch. - Study yielded phytosterols, oleic acid, and unsaturated alcohols, and five alkaloids classified in two groups: three in the ajmaline group, white crystalline, weak bases, ajmaline, ajmaliine, and ajmalicine; and two in the serpentine group, [...]


Family • Solanacea Capsicum annuum Other scientific names C. chamaexcerasus C. grossum Capsicum tetragonum Common names Kalubengan (Bon.) kalubsengan (Bon.) Sile (Tag.) Sili (Tag., Ilk, Bik.) Sileng bilog (Tag.) Green pepper, pepper (Engl.) Description Erect, branched, smooth, annual herb, 30-50 cms long, pointed at both ends. Flowers are solitary and axillary, 1 to 1.8 cm in diameter. Petals are white to straw-colored. Fruit is of various sizes and varieties. Capsicum annuum var. longum Other scientific names C. annuum var. longum Sendt. Common names Sileng-haba (Tag.) Sileng mahahaba (Tag.) Long pepper (Engl.) Spanish pepper (Engl.) A A Description Fruit is greenish-yellow or red, oblong lanceolate, narrowing to a tapering tip, up to 6 cm long and 1.5 cm across. It is spicy hot, often used in local pickles (achara) and for seasoning. Capsicum annuum var. grossum Common names Sileng-bilog (Tag.) Rounded pepper (Engl.) Description Fruit is ovoid to oblong-ovoid, green, red on ripening, 6-10 cm long and 5-6 cm in diameter. The variety is usually eaten as a vegetable or stuffed with meat. Other vernacular names (Capsicum annuum L. var. grossum (L.) Sendt. AFRIKAANS: Soet rissie. ARABIC: Felfel roomy, Filfil halwah (Iraq). CHINESE: Deng long jiao, Tian jiao, Shi tou fan jiao, Yuan tian jiao, Da la jiao, Qing jiao, Shi zi jiao. CROATIAN: Paprika slatka. DANISH: Soed capsicum. DUTCH: Zoete peper. FRENCH: Poivron, Poivron doux, Poivron d'Espagne, Piment doux. GERMAN: Spanischer Pfeffer . HEBREW: Pilpel matok. HINDI: Shimlaa mirch. HUNGARIAN: Paprika. ITALIAN: Peperone dolce. JAPANESE: Ama tougarashi, Shishi tougarashi, Beru peppaa, Piiman. [...]

Soldier's orchid

Family • Orchidaceae - Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. - LAWN ORCHID - Xi ye xian zhu lan Scientific names Orchis strateumatica Linn. Spiranthes strateumatica Lindl. Adenostylis integerrima Blume Adenostylis emarginata Blume Adenostylis strateumatica (L.) Ames. Adenostylis sulcata Lindley Zeuxine sulcata Lindl. Zeuxine emarginata Lindl. Zeuxine integerrima Lindl. Zeuxine membranacea Lindl. Zeuxine bracteata Wight Zeuxine brevifolia Wight Zeuxine robusta Wight Zeuxine tripleura Lindl. Zeuxine procumbens Blume Zeuxine strateumatica Schltr. Common names Centipede grass orchid (Engl.) Soldier's orchid (Engl.) Lawn orchid (Engl.) Silk orchid (Engl.) Xi ye xian zhu lan (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Xian zhu lan. JAPANESE: Kinu-ran. VIETNAMESE: Ty trụ; Lan cỏ; Lan cói. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Sorting Eragrostis names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne. Botany Zeuxine strateumatica is a terrestrial orchid. Stem is 5 to 30 centimeters tall, erect, smooth, and leafy at the top. Leaves are 2.5 to 5 centimeters long, with the margins usually recurved. Spike is 1.5 to 5 centimeters long, and densely flowered. Flowers are white, yellow, or very pale rose. Sepals are oblong, obtuse, and membranous. Petals are oblong and obtuse. Lip is yellow, equalling the sepals, cymbiform, contracted into a short, pubescent, claw-bearing, hammer-headed terminal lobe or 2 small lobes. Column is short and the rostellum short. Anther is ovate, and the pollinia pyriform. Capsule is about 7 millimeters long, and ellipsoid. Distribution - In forests at low altitudes in the Misamis and Agusan Provinces in Mindanao. - Occurs in Afghanistan, India, Ceylon, the [...]


Family • Labiatae - Ocimum sanctum Linn. - HOLY BASIL - Sheng luo le Scientific names Ocimum album Blanco Ocimum flexuosum Blanco Ocimum sanctum Linn. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Ocimum virgatum Blanco Common names Albahaca (Span.) Balanoi (Tag.) Bidai (Ilk.) Kamangkau (Bik.) Kamangi (Bis.) Katigau (C. Bis.) Kolokoko (Bis.) Kolonkogon (Bis.) Lalui (C. Bis.) Loko-loko (Pamp., Tag.) Luku-luku (Sul.) Magau (Mag.) Malinau (Sub.) Sacred basil (Engl.) Sulasi (Tag.) Holy basil (Engl.) Monk's basil (Engl.) Red basil (Engl.) Sacred basil (Engl.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Dohsh, Schadjant, Vasub. ASSAMESE: Tulasii. BENGALI: Kalatulsi (as O. sanctum), Kalotulsi, Kural (as O. sanctum), Tulasi, Tulshi, Tulsi. BURMESE: Lun, Pinsein-net, Kala-pinsein. FRENCH: Basilic sacré, Basilic sacré à feuilles vertes, Basilic thaïlandais. GERMAN: Indisches Basilikum. GUJARATI: Tulsi, Talasi (as O. sanctum). HINDI: Baranda, Jangalii tulasii, Kaalaa tulasii, Krishna tulasii, Tulasii, Varanda. JAPANESE: Bajiru hoorii, Kamimebouki, Kamibouki. KANNADA: Kalatulsi, Karitulasi, Sritulasi, Tulasi, Vishnu tulasi. KHMER: Che tak, Che tak me, Mareah proeu, Mrea preu. LAOTIAN Phak i tou thai, Saphaa, Sa phao lom deng, Sa phao lom khao. MALAY: Kemangi, Selasih merah, Selasih Siam. MALAYALAM: Krishnatulasi, Kunnakam, Punya, Shivatulasi, Shri tulasi, Sivatulasi, Trittavu, Tulasi. MARATHI: Tulas, Tulasa, Tulshi. NEPALESE: Krisna, Tulsii maa, Tulasii patra. PORTUGUESE: Manjericão-branco, Tulase (Brazil). SANSKRIT: Ajaka, Arjaka, Brinda, Gauri, Gramya, Haripriya, Krishnamula, Krishna tulasii, Laxmi, Madhavi, Manjari, Madurutala, Mudura tulla, Parnasa, Patrapuspha, Sri tulasi, SINHALESE: Madurutala, Mudura tulla. TAMIL: Alungai, Karuntulasi, Karut tulasi, Kullai, Nalla thulasi, Tiruttizhai , Tiruttilai, Tulasi, Tuzay. TELUGU: Brynda, Gaggera, Krishnatulsi, Kukka pala, Oddhi , Tulasi, Tulsi, Tulsichettu. THAI: Ka phrao, Ka phrao daeng khon, [...]


Family • Palmae - Metroxylon sagu Rottb. - SAGO PALM - Xi mi zong Scientific names Metroxylon sagu Rottb. Metroxylon rumphii Mart. Sagus inermis Roxb. Sagus spinosus Roxb. Common names Ambolong (Mbo.) Bagsang (Bis.) Langdang (Bis.) Lumbai (Bis.) Lumbia (C. Bis., Bag.) Lumbiag (Sul.) Sagu (Mbo., Bis.) Palma sagu (Span.) Sago palm (Engl.) Smooth sago palm (Engl.) True sago palm (Engl.) Xi mi zong (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Nakhlat daqîq es sâgô (Egypt), Sâgû. BURMESE: Thagu bin. CHINESE: Xi gu ye zi. DUTCH: Meelboom, Sagoboom. FRENCH: Sagoutier. GERMAN: Sagopalme. ITALIAN: Sago. JAPANESE: Sago yashi. KHMER: Sa kuu. MALAY: Pohon rumbia, Pohon sagu (Indonesia), Ambulung (Java), Kersulu (Java), Rumbia. PORTUGUESE: Palmeira. SINDH: Sabu-dana. SPANISH: Palma De Sagú, Palma De Sago, Palma Sagú, Palmera Sago (Argentina). SUNDANESE: Kirai. THAI: Sa khu. VIETNAMESE: Sagu. Gen info Sago is the most developed of the group of palms that provides a perennial source of staple crop. Sagos are multi-stemmed palms, and when cut down on maturity, it leaves behind an undamaged clump for future productivity. Trunks yield carbohydrates and fibers. Established after 5 to 7 years, a one hectare sago stand can yield 25 tons or more of edible starch indefinitely. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Glycaemic & insulinaemic responses in men at rest following sago meal / Hishamuddin Ahmad et al / Indian J Med Res 130, August 2009, pp 160-165 (2) Antioxidant Activities of Metroxylon sagu Extract and Its Therapeutic Effects on Cigarette Smoke Exposed Mice / Laura Peter Dabbi / Nov 2003 - JAN 2007 / [...]


Family • Oleaceae - Jasminum bifarium Wall. - CHINESE JASMINE Scientific names Jasminum ixoroides Elm. Jasminum bifarium Wall. Other vernacular names MALAYSIA: Jarum ali. Common names Chaksil (Ig.) Dingsil (Ig.) Horohamorauon (P. Bis.) Manoahiyas (C. Bis.) Manol (C. Bis) Manomonot (Ilk.) Sampagitaing-gubat (Tag.) Chinese jasmine (Engl.) Climbing jasmine (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Jasminum ixoroides Elmer is an accepted name / The Plant List Botany Sampaguitang-gubat is a shrub or woody climber growing to a height of 2 meters. Leaves are oblong-ovate, about 10 centimeters long, 5 centimeters wide, the upper ones smaller, pointed at the apex and broadly rounded at the base. Flowers are white and usually fragrant, borne on terminal inflorescences. Calyx is turbinate and terminating into setose segments. Corolla is smooth, its tube twice as long as the calyx, with oblong lobes rotately spreading. Berries are usually ellipsoid, less than 1 centimeter long, fleshy, shiny and bluish-black when mature. Distribution - Common in thickets from sea level to an altitude of 1,500 meters, from Ilocos Sur to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro, Cuyo, Palawan, Dumaran, Catanduanes, Leyte, Panay, Negros, Cebu, Bohol and Mindanao. - Frequently encountered in thickets along the seashore and tidal streams. - Also occurs in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago. Properties Febrifuge. Parts utilized Roots and leaves. Uses Folkloric - In the Philippines, root decoction used for scurvy and as wash for inflamed gums. - Root decoction used after after childbirth. - Infusion used for yaws. - Root decoction used as febrifuge. - [...]


Family • Ebenaceae - Diospyros ebenaster Retz. - EBONY PERSIMMON Scientific names Diospyros ebenaster Retz. Diospyros ebenum J. Konig ex Retz. Diospyros digyna Retz. Diospyros sapota Roxb. Diospyros nigra Perr. Diospyros nigra Blanco Sapote negro Sonn. Sapota nigra Blanco Common names Sapote (Tag.) Black persimmon (Engl.) Black sapote (Engl.) Chocolate pudding fruit (Engl.) Chocolate sapote (Engl.) Ebony persimmon(Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: He shi (Taiwan). FRENCH: Barbacoa, Barbaquois, Caca poule (Antilles), Ébènier des Antilles, Sapote noire, Sapotier. GERMAN: Ebenholzbaum, Schwarze Sapote. JAPANESE: Diosupirosu nigura. PORTUGUESE: Ébano das Antilhas. SPANISH: Ébeno agrio, Guayabota, Matasano de mico, Sapote negro, Zapote, Zapote de mico, Zapote negro, Zapote prieto. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phytochemical and antioxidant characterization of the fruit of black sapote ( Diospyros digyna Jacq.) / Elhadi M. Yahia, Fabiola Gutierrez-Orozco, Claudia Arvizu-de Leon / FOOD RES INT 01/2011; 44(7):2210-2216. / DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2010.11.025 (2) Sorting Diospyros names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 The University of Melbourne. (3) Antimicrobial C-glucoside from aerial parts of Diospyros nigra. / Dinda B, Bhattacharya A, De UC, et al. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2006 May; 54(5) :679-81. Botany Sapote is a tall, smooth tree, 7 to 15 meters high. Leaves are leathery, shiny, thick, oblong to elliptic-oblong, 10 to 20 centimeters long, and borne on rather short stalks. Flowers are dioecious, occurring singly in the axils of leaves and measuring from 1 to 1.5 centimeters long. Calyx is greenish, with broad truncate lobes. Corolla is tubular, lobed and white. Fruit is large, smooth, green, rounded, [...]