Family • Scrophylariaceae - Curanga fel-terrae (Lour.) Merr. - CURANJA Scientific names Curanga felterrae (Lour.) Merr. Curanga amara Juss. Curanga amara Vahl. Gratiola amara Roxb. Herpestis amara Benth. Picria fel-terrae Lour. Common names Sagai-uak (Sul.) Curanja (Engl.) Other vernacular names INDONESIA: Tamah raheut, Daun kukurang, Papaita. LAOS: Kong saden, Pu:n. MALAYSIA: Hempedu tanah, Gelumak susu, Rumput kerak nasi. VIETNAM: M[aaj]t d[aas]t, Thanh. Botany Sagai-uak is a smooth, prostrate herb. Branches are slender, straggling, 60 to 90 centimeters long, rooting at the lower nodes. Leaves are ovate, 3 to 6 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Flowers are crowded on short axillary and terminal racemes. Calyx in the flower is about 6 millimeters long, double that length in the fruit; its outer sepals are broadly ovate and heart-shaped. Corolla is dark reddish brown. Fruit is a capsules, ovate, flattened, 3 to 4 millimeters long, bivalved with several seeds. Spherical seeds are about 0.6 millimeter in diameter, with 8 oblong hollows. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Curangine / Detroit Medical Journal / Archive (2) Flavonoid glucuronides from Picriafel-terrae / Ying Huang, Tess De Bruyne, Sandra Apers, Yuliang Ma, Magda Claeys, Luc Pieters, Arnold Vlietinck / Phytochemistry, Volume 52, Issue 8, December 1999, Pages 1701–1703 (3) Isolation and identification of a new cucurbitacin from Picria fel-terrae / Zou JM, Wang LS, Ma XM, Shi RB, Guo YJ. / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2004 Nov;39(11):910-2. (4) Complement-inhibiting cucurbitacin glycosides from Picria fel-terrae. / Huang Y, De Bruyne T, Apers S, Ma Y, Claeys [...]


Family • Verbenaceae / Lamiaceae -Clerodendrum cumingianum Schauer Scientific names Clerodendrum cumingianum Schauer Common names Salumget (Tag.) Taxon info Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the Lamiaceae family. It is a member of the subfamily Ajugoideae, one of four subfamilies transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae based on morphological and molecular phylogenetics. Clerodendrum L. is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with more the 500 species identified, with ethnomedical use in many indigenous systems (Indian, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Chinese) for a variety of disease: syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice and hypertension. Botany Salumget is an erect, densely hairy shrub 1 to 4 meters in height. Branchlets are four-angled. Leaves are thin, ovate to broadly ovate, 12 to 31 centimeters long, and 9 to 20 centimeters wide, with pointed tip and somewhat heart-shaped base, and entire or toothed margins; the upper surface is glandular, and the lower, covered with very dense, soft hairs. Inflorescences are paniculate, compact, terminal, 13 to 30 centimeters long, and composed of numerous white flowers. Calyx tube is oblong, with five toothed lobes. Corolla-tube is funnel-shaped, about 2 centimeters long, hairy, divided into oblong lobes, and twice the length of the calyx. Stamens are longer than the corolla. Distribution - Found only in the Philippines, chiefly in secondary forests along streams at low altitudes, in Panay, Negros, Cebu, and Mindanao. Parts used Leaves Uses Folkloric Leaves used for stomachache. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Rubiaceae - Ixora coccinea Linn. - DWARF SANTAN Scientific names Ixora grandiflora Ker Ixora coccinea Linn. Common names Santan-pula (Tag.) Tangpupo (Bis.) Ixora (Engl.) Flame of the woods (Engl.) Jungle flame (Engl.) Jungle geranium (Engl.) Dwarf santan (Engl.) Scarlet jungleflame (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Rangan CAMBODIA: Kam rontea HINDI: Rugmini INDONESIA: Santan MALAY: Pechah priok MALAYALAM: Chethi VIETNAM: Dun trung quoc, dun do Gen info There are about 500 species in the genus Ixora. A few are in cultivation. There are numerous cultivars differing in flower color (yellow, pink, orange) and plant size. Several cultivars are dwarfs, under 3 feet.Other noteworthy ornamental santans: santan puti (Ixora finlaysoniana Wall), a shrub 2-4 m high, with white fragrant flowers; and Philippine santan (Ixora philippinensis Merr), a shrub or small tree, with white to pink flowers. Botany Santan is an erect and smooth ornamental shrub, growing to a height of 2 to 3 meters. Leaves are stalkless or on very short stalks, oblong, 5 to 9 centimeters long, heart-shaped or rounded at the base and blunt-tipped. Flowers are many, pink or red, and borne in terminal, stalkless or shortly stalked, hairy cymes. Calyx teeth are short and pointed. Corolla-tube is slender, 2.5 centimeters long; lobes are spreading and oblong, about half the length of the tube. Fruit is reddish, almost round, about 5 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - Cultivated for ornamental purposes. - Nowhere established in the Philippines. - Native of India. - Now pantropic. Constituents - Root contains an aromatic acrid oil, [...]

Sea grape

Family • Polygonaceae - Coccoloba uvifera Linn. - PLATTER LEAF Scientific names Coccoloba uvifera Linn. Polygonum uvifera L. Common names Common sea grape (Engl.) Platterleaf (Engl.) Sea grape (Engl.) Seaside grape (Engl.) Shore-grape (Engl.) Other vernacular names FRENCH: Cipo Branco De Pernambuco, Kino, Raisin Marine, Raisinier, Raisinier Bord De Mer. GERMAN: Gemeine seestraube, Meertraubenbaum. PORTUGUESE: Cocoloba, Uva-da-praia, Uva-do-mar SPANISH: Uva caleta, Uva de playa, Uvero, Uvero de playa. SURINAM: Droifi, Druif, Sistridroifi, Zeedruif. Botany Sea grape is a sprawling bush or small tree, growing to a maximum height of 8 meters. Bark is smooth and yellowish. Leaves are alternate, short-petioled, large, leathery, glossy, dark green, broadly bean-shaped, with wavy margins, up to 15 centimeters long, with a reddish-colored primary vein extending from the base. Flowers are in terminal racemes, small, white and slightly fragrant, with five petals and eight stamens. Fruits are pear-shaped, reddish purple and green-dotted, 1.5 centimeters long, with a single hard seed, clustered in pendulous branches. Distribution - Salt tolerant, planted near beaches edges. - Ornamental distribution in parks and gardens. - Introduced to the Philippines in the 1940s. - In Hawaii, planted as a seashore windbreaker. - Native to the Florida, Bahamas, West Indies, South America and Mexico. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Effects of Coccoloba uvifera L. on UV-stimulated melanocytes / Jessica Eleonora Pedroso Sanches Silveira et al / Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine. Volume 24 Issue 6, Pages 308 - 313 / 10.1111/j.1600-0781.2008.00382.x About DOI (2) Three constituents with biological activity from Coccoloba uvifera seeds / Shailili Moreno [...]


Family • Onagraceae - Jussiaea repens Linn. - CREEPING WATER PRIMROSE - Shui Lung Scientific names Jussiaea fluviatilis Blume Ludwigia adscendens Jussiaea inclinata Blanco Jussiaea repens Linn. Common names Gabi-gabi (Mag.) Sigang-dagat (Tag.) Shui Lung (Chin.) Creeping water primrose (Engl.) Botany · Creeping or floating, smooth herbaceous plant. Floating stem frequently exhibits cylindric white vesicles and 1.5 to 5 cm long. · Leaves: obovate to oblong-ovate, rounded or obtuse, 1.5 to 5 cm long the floating stem frequently with cylindric white vesicles at the node. · Flowers: 5-parted and borne in the axil of the leaves. Calyx-lobes lanceolate, about 7 cm long. Petals, obovate, white, pale yellow at the base and about 12 mm long. Stamens 8, inserted; ovary 4-celled. · Fruits: capsular, linear, cylindric, 2.3 cm long, about 3 mm in diameter, narrow at the base, and somewhat longitudinally ridged. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antioxidative principals of Jussiaea repens: an edible medicinal plant / Hai-Lan Huang et al / International Journal of Food Science & Technology • Volume 42 Issue 10, Pages 1219 - 1227 Distribution Found in the shallow waters of streams and lakes and freshwater swamps throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. Parts utilized · Part utilized: entire plant. · Collect the whole year round. · Rinse, sun-dry or utilize fresh. Properties Antipyretic, diuretic, blood refrigerant and antidote. Antibiotic, antiphlogistic, alleviates swelling. Plain or sweet tasting, slightly cooling to refrigerant in nature. Uses Edibility · In southwestern China, plant is eaten as vegetable. Folkloric · Cold with fever, intense with [...]


Family • Acanthaceae - Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees - KING OF BITTERS - Chuan Xin Lian Scientific names Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Wall. ex Nees Justicia paniculata Justicia latebrosa Russell ex Wall. Common names Aluy (Tag.) Likha (Tag.) Maha-tita (India) Chiretta (Engl.) Green chiretta (Engl.) Indian echinacea (Engl.) King of bitters (Engl.) Chuan xin lian (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Si fang lian. GUJARATI: Kiriyata, Olikiriyat. HINDI: Bhuinimb, Kalmegh, Kiryat, Mahatit. JAPANESE: Andorogurafizu paniikuraata, Senshinren. KANNADA Nelabevu gida. MALAYALAM: Nilaveppu, Kiriyatta. MARATHI: Olen Kirayat. RUSSIAN: Andrografis. SANSKRIT: Bhuinimb, Bhunimba, Kirata, Mahateet, Mahatikta. TAMIL: Nilavempui. TELUGU: Nela vemu. THAI: Fa thalai chon. Botany Sinta is an annual herb, erect, growing to a height of 30 to 100 centimeters. Stems are quadrangular. Leaves are simple, opposite, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, glabrous. Flowers are white, bilabiate, with rose-purple spots or markings in the lower lip in axillary or terminal racemes or panicles. Fruit is a capsule, linear-oblong, up to 2 centimeters long and 4 millimeters wide, furrowed, compressed longitudinally with small seeds. Constituents • Contains diterpene lactones, glycosides, b-sitosterol-d-glucoside, and flavanoids. •The active constituent of the extract is andrographolide. • Study of aerial parts isolated five labdane diterpenes, 14-deoxy-12-hydroxyandrographolide, 14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide, 14-deoxyandrographolide, andrographolide, and neoandrographolide. Properties • Extremely bitter and cooling. • Antidiarrheal, antipyretic, anti-infective, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial. • Stomachic, febrifuge. • Antityphoid, antifungal, antimalarial, antihepatotoxic. • Anti-cancer. • Tonic and immune-boosting. Uses Folkloric - Used for fever and liver ailments. - Used for diarrhea. - Abortifacient. - Extensively used in Ayurvedic medicine. Is in 26 Ayurvedic [...]

Strychnine plant

Family • Loganiaceae - Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. - NUX-VOMICA TREE - Ma qian zi Scientific names Strychnos nux-vomica Linn. Strychnos spireana Dop. Common names Nux-vomica tree (Engl.) Poison nut tree (Engl.) Strychnine plant (Engl.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Kachila, Kuchila, Thalkesur. CHINESE: Ma qian zi. DANISH: Braeknoed. DUTCH: Braaknoot , Kraanoog. FRENCH: Noix vomique. GERMAN: Brechnuss, Gemeinerbrech Nussbaum. GUJARATI: Kuchla. HINDI: Bailewa, Chibbenge, Kajra, Kuchla. ITALIAN: Noce vomica, Stricnina. JAPANESE: Machin. KANNADA: Hemusthi, Ittangi, Itti, Kajavara, Khasea, Yetti, Yettica. MALAYALAM: Kanhiram, Kanjera, Kanjiram. MARATHI: Jharkatchura, Kajrakar, Kara, Karo. PORTUGUESE: Noz-vómica. SANSKRIT: Kuchla, Kupilu. SPANISH: Nuez vómica. TAMIL: Eddikunchera, Kanchurai, Yetti. TELUGU: Kushti, Musadi, Mushadi. VIETNAMESE: Cây mã tiền, Mã tiền. Botany Strychnine plant is a medium-sized, deciduous tree, growing to a height of 10 meters, with a straight, thick trunk. Leaves are leathery, smooth, opposite, entire, shiny, broadly elliptic or ovate, 7.5 to 15 centimeters long and 6 to 8 centimeters wide, 5-nerved, blunt or rounded at the base, and pointed at the tip. Flowers are greenish-white, numerous, small, and borne on small, terminal hairy cymes 2.5 to 5 centimeters in diameter. Calyx is small, with 5 teeth. Corolla is tubular or funnel-shaped, with 5 reflexed, short limbs. Fruit is a berry, smooth, indehiscent, orange when mature, round and 3 to 5 centimeters in diameter. Rind is a shell-like pulp with 2 to 5 seeds embedded in it. Seeds are disc-shaped, nearly flat, 10 to 30 millimeters in diameter, 4 to 6 millimeters thick, shining, light silvery-grey, and covered with closely appressed hairs, odorless but quite bitter. [...]


Family • Lamiaceae - Salvia officinalis L. - SCARLET SAGE Scientific names Salvia officinalis Linn. Other vernacular names ARABIC: Maramia (Palestine). TURKEY: Adacayi. Common names Common sage Culinary sage Garden sage True sage Scarlet sage Meadow sage Botany Sage is a herbaceous perennial shrub with wiry and squared stems. Leaves are opposite. grayish green, softly hairy or velvety. long stalked with round-toothed margins. Flowers are axillary, in whorls of 4 to 8, tubular, purple, blue or white. Distribution - Recently introduced. - Cultivated in the Bagiuo area. Constituents - Some important volatile constituents are a-thujone, b-thujone, 1,8-cineole and b-caryophyllene. - Contains terpene, camphor and salvene. - Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded flavonoid, saponin, hydrolysable and condensed tannin groups. (See study below) - Essential oil study yielded main compounds of 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). (See study below) Properties - Anhidrotic. - Considered tonic, stimulant. - Oils are antiseptic, antibacterial, astringent and irritant. - Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and antioxidant properties Parts utilized Leaves. Uses Culinary - Lemony and pleasantly bitter. - Young leaves eaten fresh in salads. - Used for omelets, soups and poultry stuffing. - An enhancing condiment for lamb, fish, duck, goose, artichoke. cheese, beans. Folkloric - Because of it antiseptic and astringent properties, used for sore throats, mouth irritations, cuts and bruises. - Used for snake bites. - Used for drying up perspiration. - Some studies claim it lowers blood sugars in diabetics. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients [...]


Family • Lamiaceae - Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex R. & S. - SCARLET SAGE - Xiang ya hong Scientific names Salvia splendens F. Sellow ex R. & S. Salvia brasiliensis Spreng. Salvia issanchou auct. Fenixanthes splendens ( Sellow ex R. & S.) Raf. Jungia spendens (Sellow ex R. & S.) Sojak Other vernacular names CHINESE: Pao zi hua. Common names Salvia (Engl.) Crimson sage (Engl.) Red salvia (Engl.) Scarlet sage (Engl.) Scarlet salvia (Engl.) St. John's fire (Engl.) Vista red (Engl.) Gen info Salvia is the largest genus of plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, with about 900 species of shrubs, perennials and annuals. Botany Salvia splendens is a small tender herbaceous perennial shrub, growing to a height of 90 centimeters. Leaves are ovate, acuminate and light green with toothed margins. Flowers are glabrous, bilabiate and bright red. Distribution - Recently introduced to the Philippines. - Grows well in Baguio City and other elevated regions. - Popular ornamental bedding or pot plant. - Native to Brazil. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Diterpenoids from Salvia splendens / Da-Pend Hu et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 46, Issue 4, October 1997, Pages 781-784 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(97)00180-5 (2) Salvia splendens / The Plant List (3) The antihyperglycemic effect of aerial parts of Salvia splendens (scarlet sage) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic-rats / P Mahesh Kumar, D Sasmal, Papiya Mitra Mazumder / Pharmacognosy Research, 2010, Vol 2, No 3, Pp 190-194 (4) Dimalonated anthocyanins from the flowers of Salviasplendens and S. coccinea / Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán, Jeffrey B. Harborne, Ron Self / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)83586-4, (5) Synthetic studies of [...]


Family • Rubiacea - Ixora chinensis Lam. - CHINESE IXORA - Shan dan Scientific names Ixora chinensis Lam. Ixora stricta Roxb. Ixora flammea Salisb. Common names Santan (Bik., Tag.) Santan-pula (Tag.) Santan-tsina (Tag.) Needle flower (Engl.) Chinese ixora (Engl.) Jungle flame (Engl.) Other vernacular names CAMBODIA: Kam rontea CHINESE: Mai zi mu. INDONESIA: Santan MALAY: Pechah priok MALAYALAM: Chethi VIETNAM: Dun trung quoc, dun do Gen info There are about 500 species in the genus Ixora. A few are in cultivation. There are numerous cultivars differing in flower color (yellow, pink, orange) and plant size. Several cultivars are dwarfs, under 3 feet.Other noteworthy ornamental santans: santan puti (Ixora finlaysoniana Wall), a shrub 2-4 m high, with white fragrant flowers; and Philippine santan (Ixora philippinensis Merr), a shrub or small tree, with white to pink flowers. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Ixora chinensis / No.73898 Botany Santan-tsina is an erect, smooth shrub 1.5 to3 meters in height. Leaves are opposite, sessile, oblong-obovate to elliptic-oblong, 7 to 13 centimeters in length, pointed at both ends, and borne on short petioles. Flowers are many, crowded in dense, corymbose clusters, 6 to 12 centimeters in diameter, light orange- red, red, yellow or white.Calyx-teeth are short and obtuse. Corolla is pink or reddish, 2 to 2.5 centimeters long, with rounded lobes 5 to 7 millimeters in length. Distribution - Cultivated for ornamental purposes; nowhere established. - Introduced to the Philippines at an early date. - Occurs in India to southern China and is widely distributed in Malaya and [...]