Family • Sapindaceae - Guioa koelreuteria (Blanco) Merr. Scientific names Guioa koelreuteria (Blanco) Merr. Guioa perrottettii Radlk. Sapindus koelreuteria Blanco Koelreuteria arborea Blanco Hemigyrosa perrottettii Blume Common names Alahabi (Sbl.) Marintak (Tagb.) Alasan (Tag.) Nisi-nisi (Sbl.) Anayen (Tag.) Ngisi-ngisi (Tag.) Angset (Tag.) Pamotolen (Pang.) Anoyen (Tag.) Paksion (P. Bis.) Bañgil (Sbl.) Pasi (Bik.) Basai (P. Bis.) Salab (Tag., Bik.) Busikag (Sul.) Salap (Pang., Tag.) Dañgalis (Tagb.) Salub (Tag.) Kasai (P. Bis.) Ulas (Ig.) Malasanki (Tag.) Uyos (C. Bis.) Malauas (Tag.) Botany Salab is a smooth tree, 5 to 10 meters in height. Leaves are smooth, alternate, pinnately compound, and 14 to 25 centimeters long, with 4 to 8 leaflets. Leaflets are straight or somewhat falcate, laneolate to oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 12 centimeters long, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are numerous, white, about 5 millimeters in diameter, and borne on axillary panicles 7 to 12 centimeters long. Fruit is red, broadly obovate, and about 1.5 centimeters wide, and consists of three spreading, rounded lobes, each of which contains a single seed. Distribution - Common in secondary forests at low and medium altitudes from northern Cagayan in Northern Luon to Balabac and Mindanao, and in most or all islands and provinces. - Also reported in Borneo. Parts used Seed. Uses Folkloric Oil extracted from the seeds used as a cure for certain skin diseases. Others - Wood: Used for making agricultural implements and tool handles. Study Findings • No studies found. Availability Wild-crafted.


Family • Fabaceae - Tamarindus indica Linn. - TAMARIND - Da ma lin Scientific names Tamarindus officinalis Gaertn. Tamarindus officinalis Hook. Tamarindus indica Linn. Tamarindus occidentalis Gaertn. Tamarindus umbrosa Salisb. Common names Asam (Sul.) Kalamagi (Bis., Ibn.) Salamagi (Ilk.) Salomagi (Ilk.) Salunagi (Ting.) Sambag (P. Bis.) Sambagi (Bis.) Sambi (Bis.) Sambak (Bik.) Sambalagi (Bik.) Samabalagi (Bik.) Tamarind, (Engl.) Tamarindi (Arabic) Tamarindo (Span.) Sweet tamarind (Engl.) Da ma lin (Chin.) Other vernacular names AFRIKAANS : Tamarinde. LAOTIAN : Khaam, Kok mak kham, Mak kham, Naam maak khaam. ARABIC : Aradeib, Ardeib, Tamar el hindi, Hhawmar, Humar, Sbar, Tamar hindi. MALAY : Asam, Asam jawa, Asam kuning, Kemal (Java), Tambaring. ASSAMESE : Teteli. MALAYALAM : Amlam, Amlika, Madhurappuli, Puli BEMBA : Mushishi. MARATHI : Ambali, Chicha. BENGALI : Ambli, Amli, Tentul, Tentuli. NEPALESE: Amilii, Titrii. BURMESE : Ma gyi, Ma jee pen, Ma gyi thi (Myanmar). ORIYA : Kainya, Koina, Konya, Omlika, Telul, Tentuli. CHINESE: Suan dou, Suan mei, Suan jiao, Luo wang zi, Luo huang zi. PERSIAN: Tamar i hindi (Iran), Tamre hendi. CROATIAN : Indijska datula, Indijska urma, Tamarind. POLISH : Tamarynd. CZECH : Tamarind. PORTUGUESE : Tamarindo (Brazil), Tamarindeiro, Tambarina. DANISH : Tamarind. PUNJABI : Imbli, Imlii. DUTCH : Assem, Indische dadel, Tamarijn, Tamarinde, Tamarindeboom. RUSSIAN: Finik indiiskii, Indiyskiy finik, Tamarind, Tamarind indiiskii. ESTONIAN : Tamarindipuu, Tamarind. SANSKRIT : Amla, Amli, Amlika, Chukra, Sarvamda, Tintiri, Tintiddii. FINNISH : Tamarindi. SERBIAN : Indijska urma, Tamarinda. FRENCH : Tamar indien (Assam-India), Tamarin, Tamarinier, Tamarinier des Indes. SINHALESE : Siyambala, Siyambula. GERMAN: Indische Dattel, Sauerdattel, Tamarinde, Tamarindenbaum. SLOVAKIAN [...]


Family • Aizoaceae / Molluginaceae - Papait - Mollugo oppositifolia Linn. - SLENDER CARPETWEED - Cheng geng xing su cao Scientific names Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. Mollugo oppositifolia Linn. Mollugo spergula Linn. Mollugo subserrata Blanco Common names Amargoso-babi (Pamp.) Malagoso (Tag.) Margoso-damulag (Pamp.) Papait (Ilk.) Sarsalida (Tag.) Bitter leaf (Engl.) Slender carpetweed (Engl.) Cheng geng xing su cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names BANGLADESH: Gima shak. CHINESE: Jia fan lu, Cu huo li mu cao. SANSKRIT: Trayamana. TAMIL: Thara. THAI: Phak-khee-khuang. Botany Sarsalida is a slender, spreading or ascending, smooth, branched, annual herb, with branches as long as 10 to 40 centimeters. Leaves are opposite or whorled, spatulate, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long, and up to 1 centimeter wide. Flowers are white and fascicled, with slender stalks up to 1 centimeter long. Sepals are 3 to 3.5 millimeters long. Capsule is ellipsoid, a little shorted than the sepals. Seeds are numerous and covered with raised tubular points. Distribution - A common weed in and about towns at low and medium altitudes. - Also found in India to tropical Africa and Australia. Constituents • Study of aerial parts of Mollugo spergula yielded two novel triterpenoid saponins - spergulin A and spergulin B. • Exceptionally rich in iron and a good source of calcium. • Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, saponins, and terpenoids in excess; together with tannins, glycosides, steroids, and flavonoids. • Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins. • Methanolic extract of whole plant isolated an amino acid [...]

Shanghai beauty

Family • Euphorbiaceae - Jatropha integerrima Jacq. - FIDDLEHEAD - ATROPHA - Qin ye ying Scientific names Adenoropium hastatum (Jacq.) Britton & P.Wilson Adenoropium integerrinum (Jacq.) Pohl Adenoropium pandurifolium (Andr.) Pohl Jatropha acuminata Desr. Jatropha coccinea Link Jatropha diversifolia A.Rich Jatropha hastata Jacq. Jatropha integerrima Jacq. Jatropha pandurifolia Andr. Jatropha pauciflora C.Wright ex Griseb.. Common names Shanghai beauty (Engl.) Fiddlehead jatropha (Engl.) Fiddle-leaf spurge (Engl.) Peregrina (Engl.) Rose-flowered jatropha (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Qin ye ying (Taiwan). JAPANESE: Yatorofa integerima. RUSSIAN: atrofa tsel'nokrainiaia, Korallovyi tsvetok. SPANISH: Alelí, Alhelí, Peregrina. THAI: Pattawia. Botany Jatropha pandurifolia is a medium-sized branching shrub, growing up to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate to oblong, up to 10 centimeters long and 7 centimeters wide, fiddle-shaped or with 3 sharply pointed lobes. Blade is dark green above and light green below, with petioles up to 5 centimeters long, with entire margins. Flowers are red, branching at the terminal part and borne by a peduncle up to 12 centimeters long. Distribution - Introduced to the Philippines in the 50s, now widely spread. - Native to the West Indies. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Preliminary Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of n-Hexane Extract of Jatropha pandurifolia / Afsana Akhter et al / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 27 (6): 918-21 (2008) (2) A novel 8,9-seco-rhamnofolane and a new rhamnofolane endoperoxide from Jatropha integerrima roots / Somyote Sutthivalyakit et al / Tetrahedron Letters, Volume 44, Issue 18, 28 April 2003, Pages 3637-3640 / doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(03)00704-4 (3) Jatropha integerrima / Synonyms / The Plant List (4) Sorting Jatropha names / Common names / /Maintained by: Michel H. [...]


Family • Caparidaceae / Cleomaceae - Polanisia icosandra Linn. - TICKWEED - Huang long cai Scientific names Arivela viscosa Linn. Cleome icosandra Linn. Cleome viscosa Linn. Cleome acutifolia Elm. Polanisia viscosa DC. Huang hua cao (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHAMORRO: Monggos-paluma, mongos-paloma, mungus paluma FRENCH: Acaya jaune, brède caya, collant, mouzambé jaune JAPANESE: Hime-futyoso POHNPEIAN: kuh kuhiolung, kuh yolung SPANISH: Barba de chivo, frijolillo, jitomate, malva pegajosa, plantanillo, sambo, tabaquillo Common names Apoi-apoian (Tag.) Balabalanoian (Tag.) Hulaya (P. Bis.) Kabau (Iv.) Lampotaki (Tagb.) Silisian (Tag.) Silisilihan (Tag.) Tantandok (Ilk.) Tulayag (P. Bis.) Asian spider flower (Engl.) Jazmin De Rio Cleome Viscosa Tickweed (Engl.) Wild mustard (Engl.) Huang long cai (Chin.) Botany Silisian is an erect, branched, annual, glandular, hairy and slightly rank-smelling herb, growing to a height of 0.3 to 1 meter. Leaf has 3 to 5 leaflets, oblong to oblong-ovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long. Flowers are in leafy, terminal racemes with the pedicels. Petals are yellow, narrowly obovate, 7 to 8 millimeters long. Capsule is cylindric, 4 to 7 centimeters long, 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, striate, glandular-hairy, and narrowed above. Distribution - A common weed at low and medium altitude, in settled areas throughout the Philippines. - Pantropic. Constituents - Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. - Plant yields a powerful and volatile principle, with a smell similar to mustard, considered antiseptic and antispasmodic. - The seed contains a volatile oil, acting as vermifuge. - Seeds contain 26% oil yielding 18% on expeller crushing, with a fatty acid profile of [...]

Spider lily

Family • Amaryllidaceae - Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb. - BEACH SPIDER LILY Scientific names Pancratium littorale Jacq. Pancratium illyricum Blanco Pancratium maritinum Blanco Hymenocallis adnata Herb. Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.) Salisb. Hymenocallis tennuiflora Herb. Hymenocallis tennuiflora Herb. Common names Ajos-ajos nga maputi (Bis.) Bakong (Tag..) Lirio (Span.) Spider lily (Engl.) Beach spiderlily (Engl.) Beach hymenocallis (Engl.) Pancratium (Engl.) Botany Spider lily is a bulbous, herbaceous plant. Leaves are fleshy, crowded, dark green and glossy, narrowly lanceolate, 0.5 to 1 meter long, 6 to 7 centimeters wide. Scape is erect, solid, somewhat compressed, about 0.5 meter tall, bearing at its apex few to many, sessile, umbellate flowers. The flowers are fragrant with the perianth-tube greenish below and whitish above, about 12 centimeters long, the lobes linear, white, and spreading, 10 centimeters long and 5 to 7 millimeters wide. The membraneous cup connecting the filaments is white, funnel-shaped, 4 to 5 centimeters diameter. The anthers are green and erect. Distribution - Cultivated as hedge in Manila and other large towns. - Grows wild in waste places, through bulb reproduction. - Found in a broad range of growing conditions, from wet and boggy to dry areas. - Native of tropical America. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) A methylflavan with free radical scavenging properties from Pancratium littorale / Jean-Robert Ioset et al / Fitoterapia Vol 72, Issue 1, January 2001, Pages 35-39 / doi:10.1016/S0367-326X(00)00250-1 (2) Selective cytotoxicity of Pancratistatin-related natural Amaryllidaceae alkaloids: evaluation of the activity of two new compounds / Carly Griffin, Natasha Sharda et al / Cancer Cell Int. 2007; 7: 10. / [...]

Suob kabayo

Family • Lamiaceae - Hyptis suaveolens Poir. - BUSH MINT - Jia huo xiang Scientific names Marrubium indicum Blanco Ballota suaveolens Linn. Hyptis suaveolens Poir. Schaueria suaveolens (L.) Hassk. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Mao she xiang. INDIA: Vilayati tulsi. Common name Amotan (Bik.) Bangbangsit (Ilk.) Bauing (Sul.) Bawing (Sul.) Kabling-kabayo (Tag.) Kolongkogong (Bik.) Litalit (Ilk.) Loko-loko (Bis.) Pansi-pansian (Tag.) Pilodo (P. Bis.) Suag-kabayo (Tag.) Suob-kabayo (Tag.) Bush mint (Engl.) Bush-tea-bush (Engl.) Pignut (Engl.) Wild spikenard (Engl.) Botany Suob kabayo is a coarse, erect, branched, more or less hairy, aromatic annual, 0.5 to 2 meters tall. Stems are square. Leaves are ovate, opposite, 4 to 9 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, pointed to somewhat heart-shaped at the base, and toothed at the margins. Flowers are long-stalked, occurring at the axils of leaves. Calyx in flower is hairy, about 4 millimeters long, but soon enlarges in fruit to about 1 centimeter long, striate with erect, stiff teeth. Corolla blue, strongly zygomorphic, bilabiate; stamens are 4, declinate, and about 8 millimeters long, with a limb 5 millimeters in diameter. Fruits have flat and mucilaginous seeds. Distribution - Very abundant in open, waste places at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines. - Native of tropical America. - Now pantropic. Constituents • Study yielded a greenish, volatile oil, with a powerful menthol odor. • Study yielded essential oils in the fruiting stage. The principle constituents were spathulenol, 1,8-cineole, and (E)-caryophyllene. source • Study of constituents of essential oil from leaves revealed eucaliptol (47.64%) to be most abundant, followed [...]


Family • Thymeliaceae - Wikstroemia ovata C. A. Mey - ROUND-LEAF SALAGO Scientific names Daphne indica Blanco, non L. Daphne foetida Blanco, non L. Wikstroemia ovata C. Mey. Common names Aradon (Ilk.) Dapnit (Bon.) Huka (Ifugao) Salago (Tag.) Sula (Bon.) Bootlace bush (Engl.) Round-leaf salago (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Chemotaxonomic studies of Hawaiian Wikstroemia / Samta Gupta and G. W. Gille / Economic Botany / Volume 23, Number 1 / January, 1969 / DOI 10.1007/BF02862968 (2) The cathartic effects in man of the leaves of Wikstroemia ovata Meyer (salago leaves) / 1933 CITATION: Philippine J Sci, 51(), 485-494 [English] / FDA Poisonous Plant Database / US FDA Botany Salago is a shrub with a tough bark, growing to a height of 1 to 3 meters. Leaves are opposite, ovate, 5 to 10 centimeters long, 3 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at the apex, rounded at the base. Flowers are yellow, tubular, about 1.5 centimeters long, borne in small clusters. Fruit is subglobose, 5 to 8 millimeters thick, shining, and yellowish-red, containing a solitary large seed enclosed by a fleshy skin. Distribution - In thickets and primary or secondary forests, at low and medium altitudes in Bontoc, Benguet, Bulacan, Bataan, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon, and in Negros and Mindanao. - Also reported in Indonesia and Malaysia. Parts utilized  Leaves, bark. Constituents - The leaves yield a volatile oil and resin. - Studies have yielded glucosides, saponins, and the absence of alkaloids or cynogenetic substances. Properties - Leaves considered laxative [...]


Family • Euphorbiaceae -Phyllanthus niruri Linn. - SEED-UNDER-LEAF - Ye xia zhu Scientific names Phyllanthus niruri Linn. Phyllanthus carolinianus Blanco Phyllanthus kirganelia Blanco Ku wei ye xia zhu (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Zhu zi cao, Yue xia zhu, Be bei cai, Xiao fan hun, Ba be cai, Xiao fan hun FRENCH: Quinine creole. HINDI: Bhuiaonla. PORTUGUESE: Quebrapedra. SANSKRIT: Ajata, Amala, Bbumyamalaki, Sukshmadala, Vituntika. SPANISH: Chanca piedra, Quinina criolla. Common names Kurukalunggai (Bik.) Malakirum-kirum (S. L. Bis.) Malakinum-kirum (Bis.) Ngingihel (If.) Sampasampalukan (Tag.) San Pedro (P. Bis.) Surusampalok (Bik.) Talikod (Ilk.) Taltalikod (Ilk.) Turutalikod (Bik.) Seed-under-leaf (Engl.) Stone-breaker (Engl.) Ye xia zhu (Chin.) Gen info  Chanca piedra is Spanish for "stone breaker," used by indigenous peoples of the Amazon as an effective remedy for the treatment of gallstones and kidney stones. Botany Sampasampalukan is an erect, branching, slender, smooth herb growing 50 to 60 centimeters high. Leaves are small and oblong, alternate and often imbricated, oblong to elliptic-oblong, 5 to 8 millimeters long, rather pale beneath, and on very short stalks. Flowers are axillary and solitary, pale green or white, about 0.5 millimeter long. Capsules are smooth, rounded or somewhat flattened, 1.5 to 2 millimeters in diameter. Distribution - A common roadside and garden weed throughout the Philippines. - Now pantropic, probably introduced into the New World. Constituents - Plant has yielded various phytochemicals: flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, polyphenols, tannins, coumarins, and saponins. - Plant yields phyllanthin, previously identified as pseudo-chiratan. It crystallizes in colorless needles or flakes, with an intensely bitter taste, almost insoluble [...]


Family • Liliaceae / Smilacaceae - Smilax china Linn. - CHINESE SARSAPARILLA - Ba qia Scientific names Smilax china Linn. Smilax chinensis Smilax pteropus Miq. Smilax taiheiensis Hayata Ba qia (Chin.) Common names Buanal (Ig.) Palipit (Bon.) Sarsaparillang-china (Tag.) China root (Engl.) Chinese sarsaparilla (Engl.) Chinese smilax (Engl.) Wild smilax (Engl.) Jing gong dou (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jin gang teng. FRENCH: Racine de Chine, Squine. GERMAN: Chinawurzel. HINDI: Chobchini. INDONESIA: Gadung cina, Peudang, Ghadhung tambha. MALAYSIA: Gadong china, Gadong saberang, Akar restong. PAKISTAN: Biri. SPANISH: Zarzaparilla De China. VIETNAM: Kim chang trung qu[oos]e. Botany Sarsaparillang-china is a woody vine armed with small thorns all over the stem. Rhizomes are long, thick and grey colored. Leaves are simple, alternate, elliptically oblong to subrounded, 5 to 8 centimeters long, 2.5 to 4 centimeters wide; those toward the end of the branches are much smaller and veined. Petioles are about 7 millimeters long, with adnate spiculate stipules which frequently are extended into tendrils. Inflorescence arises from the upper leaf axils, 3 to 5 centimeters long. Flowers are white to yellowish-green, their pedicels subtended by bracteoles, umbellate. Berries are globose, reddish when ripe. Distribution - In mossy forests at altitudes of 1,600 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, and Zambales Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindanao and Negros. - Occurs in Japan and China, where is it indigenous. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Smilax china / Plants For A Future (2) Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Smilax china L. aqueous extract / Xiao-Shun Shu, , Zhong-Hong [...]