Family • Araceae - Raphidophora merrillii Engl. - DRAGON TAIL PLANT - Long wei cao - Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. Scientific names Epipremnum merrillii Engl. & Krause Epipremnum pinnatum (L.) Engl. Raphidophora merrillii Engl. Raphidophora pinnata (L.) Schott. Philodendron nechodomii Britton Pothos aurea Lindl. & Andre Qi lin ye (Chin.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Ling shu teng, Bai su jiao, Bai zu teng, Shang shu long, Long wei cao. INDONESIAN: Lolo munding, Jalu mampang, Samblung. MAORI: 'ara SPANISH: Cortina, Enredadera. THAI: Ngot, Ngot khao, Naang rong. VIETNAMESE: R[as]y leo l[as] x[er], R[as]y ng[os]t. Common names Amiling (Is.) Amlong (Bik., Bis.) Amolong (Ilk.) Amuling (Is.) Bagak ( S. L. Bis.) Bakag (Bik.) Balikupkup (Bis.) Balision (Is.) Bisako (Bis.) Daila (Bis.) Dibatib (Bis.) Dukup (Bon.) Garban (Bis.) Garusiba (Ibn.) Gatgati (Bon.) Gayaman (Sbl.) Horoa (Bis.) Kigau (Bon.) Kilat (Sbl.) Malapakpak-balauai (Tag.) Mamisi (Ig.) Maragayaman (Sbl.) Tabatib (Tag.) Takoling (C. Bis.) Takotin (Bis.) Tampinbanal (Tag.) Tibatib (Tag.) Centipede tongavine (Engl.) Devil's ivy (Engl.) Dragon tail plant (Engl.) Golden pothos vine (Engl.) Pothos vine (Engl.) Swiss-cheese plant (Engl.) Taro vine (Engl.) Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Rhaphidophora merrillii Engl. / The Plant List (2) Epipremnum pinnatum / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED (3) Epipremnum pinnatum L. Araceae / Medicinal Plants in Papua New Guinea / WHO Botany Tabatib is a stout vine climbing on tree trunks, reaching a height of 5 to 6 meters. Leaves are oblong-ovate, up to 60 centimeters long, pinnately cleft almost to the midrib into 7 to 12 pairs of lanceolate, acuminate, falcate, 1-nerved lobes, 12 to 20 centimeters long, 2 [...]


Family • Loranthaceae / Viscaceae - Viscum articulatum Burm. f. - LEAFLESS MISTLETOE - Ma li ji sheng Scientific names Viscum articulatum Burm. f. Viscum compressum Poir. Viscum philippense Llanos Viscum opuntioides Bl. Viscum falcatum Llanos Viscum moniliforme Bl. Viscum dichotomum D. Don. Viscum flexuosum Gamble Viscum angulatum DC. ? Aspidixia articulata Van Tiegh. Aspidixia dichotoma Van Tiegh. ? Aspidixia angulata Van Tiegh. Bian zhi hu ji sheng (Chin.) Common names Logolai (Bag.) Taka (Ig.) Leafless mistletoe (Engl.) Jointed mistletoe (Engl.) Ma li ji sheng (Chin.) Other vernacular names BENGALI: Mandala. GUJARATI: Vando. HINDI: Budu, Hurchu, Pudu. MARATHI: Banda. ORIYA: Madanga. SANSKRIT: Kamini. Botany Taka is a much-branched, slender, smooth, pale, leafless hemi-parasitic plant, forming a green undershrub. Branches are flat, with pendulous tufts, 15 to 90 centimeters long; the internodes being variable in length; usually a trifle wider at the distal end, and striate. Leaves are visible only in the very young internodes as small bracts below the flowers. Flowers are very minute, stalkless, and in stalkless 3-flowered spikes. Spikes are two or several at a joint. Perianth of the male flowers is reflexed, and hardly 1/4 millimeter long. Female flowers are about 1/2 millimeter long, with two bracts, and the perianth lobes erect and triangular. Fruit is stalkless, nearly spherical, about 3 millimeters in diameter, white and shining when ripe. Distribution - From northern Luzon to Mindanao, on trees at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,200 meters in some regions. - Occurs in India to Taiwan and Malaya. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Taxon: Viscum articulatum Burm. f. / USDA / [...]


Family • Poaceae - Phragmites vulgaris (Lam.) Trin. - COMMON REED - Lu gen Scientific names Arundo vulgaris Lam. Arundo phragmites Linn. Arundo tecta Blanco Arundo donax Llanos Phragmites vulgaris (Lam.) Trin. Phragmites communis Trin. Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. Arundo madagascariensis F.-Vill. Neyraudia madagascariensis Merr. Common names Bagang (Bis.) Bugang (C. Bis.) Lupi (BGik.) Tabunak (Bis., P. Bis.) Tagisi (Ibn.) Tambo (Tag.) Tangbo (C. Bis.) Tanobong (Pang., Ilk.) Tantanubong (Ibn.) Tanubong (Ilk.) Uba-uba (Sul.) Common reed (Engl.) Lu gen (Chin.) Other vernacular names TURKISH: Kamis. FRENCH: Roseau commun. GERMAN: Schilf, Schilfrohr. PORTUGUESE: Canico. SPANISH: Carrizo comun. TURKISH: Kamis. Botany Tambo is a coarse, erect grass growing to a height of 1.5 to 3.5 meters. Stems are cylindrical and hollow, about 1 centimeter in diameter. Leaves are flat and linear, up to 50 centimeters long, 2.5 centimeters wide. Panicles are large, terminal, plume-like, somewhat nodding, 30 to 50 centimeters long, brownish, dense, very many-flowered, with slender branches. Spikelets are linear, and about 1 centimeter long. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Phragmites australis / Plants For A Future (2) Chemical and pharmacological study of Phragmites communis Trin. / Tsitsa-Tzardi E, Skaltsa-Diamantidis et al / Ann Pharm Fr. 1990;48(4):185-91. (3) Phytoremediation of pharmaceuticals--preliminary study. / Kotyza J, Soudek P, Kafka Z, Vanĕk T. / Int J Phytoremediation. 2010 Mar;12(3):306-16. doi: 10.1080/15226510903563900. (4) Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud. / Common Reed / Source: James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished. / Purdue University - New Crops (5) Phragmites australis (grass) / Common names / Global Invasive Species Database Distribution  - Widely distributed [...]


Family • Compositae - Artemisia dracunculus L. - TARRAGON - Long hao Scientific names Artemisia dracunculus L. Artemisia officinalis Gatteran Artemisia glauca Pall. ex Willd. Common names Little dragon (Engl.) Estragon (Span.) Tarragon (Engl.) Long hao (Chin.) General info  First called "Estragon" derived from the Arabic word "tharkhoum'" and the Latin word "dracunculus" meaning "little dragon" probably from the way the roots curls up like a dragon. The French refer to it as the "King of Herbs," flavoring many of its classic cuisine. Botany An aromatic perennial growing to a height of 2 feet. Leaves are linear or lanceolate , 1 - 4 in long, with small globe-shaped yellow or greenish-white flowers in terminal panicles. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Polyphenolic compounds from Artemisia dracunculus L. inhibit PEPCK gene expression and gluconeogenesis in an H4IIE hepatoma cell line / Dmitry Govorko et al / Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E1503-E1510, 2007. First published September 11, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00420.2007 0193-1849/0 (2) Tarragon / Essential Oil (3) Inhibition of blood platelet adhesion, aggregation and secretion by Artemisia dracunculus leaves extracts /Journal of ethnopharmacology ISSN 0378-8741 CODEN JOETD7 / 2007, vol. 114, no2, pp. 194-19 (4) Identification of benzodiazepines in Artemisia dracunculus and Solanum tuberosum rationalizing their endogenous formation in plant tissue / Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Mar 5;269(1):290-5. (5) Antifungal Constituents of the Essential Oil Fraction of Artemisia dracunculus L. Var. dracunculus / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2002, 50 (24), pp 6989–6992 DOI: 10.1021/jf020466w (6) Artemisia dracunculus - L. / Tarragon / Plants For A Future (7) Toxicological evaluation of the ethanolic [...]


Family • Aizoaceae - Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. - DESERT HORSE PURSLANE - Jia hai ma chi Scientific names Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. Trianthema monogyna Linn. Portulaca toston Blanco Portulaca axilliflora Blanco Other vernacular names CHINESE: Shu mo shi ma chi xian. HINDI: Santhi, Patharchatta. SPANISH: Verdolaga, Verdolaga blanca, Verdolaga de cochi, Verdolaga de hoja ancha. VIETNAMESE: Sam bien, Co tam khoi, Rau sam gia. Common names Ayam (Bis.) Gulasimang-aso (Tag.) Toston (Tag.) Toston (Tag.) Ulisuman (P. Bis.) Desert horse purslane (Engl.) Black pigweed (Engl.) Giant pigweed (Engl.) Jia hai ma chi (Chin.) Botany Toston is a weed; a smooth or nearly smooth, prostrate, somewhat succulent herb, with branches up to 60 centimeters in length, with a rounded, tapering base and apiculate apex. Flowers are axillary, solitary, and stalkless, with pink, overlapping, oblong, mucronate calyx-lobes, 4 to 5 millimeters long. Capsule is truncate, 5 to 6 millimeters long. Seeds are about 10, small, black and kidney-shaped. Distribution - Common weed throughout the Philippines at low and medium altitudes. - Abundant in recently disturbed soil. - Pantropic. Constituents • Root contains a glucoside with saponin-like properties. • Methanolic extract of leaves yielded carbohydrates, protein, volatile oils, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids. • The principal constituent is ecdysterone; other constituents are trianthenol, 3-acetylaleuritolic acid, 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-dimethylflavone, leptorumol, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, and beta cyanin. Properties • Roots considered lithotriptic, diuretic, analgesic, stomachic, laxative and alterative; emmenagogue and cathartic in large doses. • Roots are sweet when fresh. Others report it as bitter and nauseous. • Studies have suggested antioxidant, diuretic, analgesic, [...]


Family • Acanthaceae - Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. - GANDARUSA - Qin qiu Scientific names Justicia gendarussa Burm. f. Gendarussa vulgaris Bojer Gendarussa vulgaris Nees Other vernacular names BENGALI: Jagatmadan. BRUNEI: Sarimbangun hitam. CHINESE: Qin qiu. FRENCH: Ayapana marron, Laliapana marron, Natchouli, Yapana malgache, Nitchouli. HINDI: Nili nargandi. MALAY: Gandarusa, Sikapapar, Tolonsi. MARATHI: Bakas, Kala adulasa. SANSKRIT: Bhutakeshi, Kasanah, Neel nirgundi, Nila nirgundi, Udisanbhalu, Vaidyasinha, Viadyasinha. SINHALESE Kalu veraniya, Kalu weraniya. TAMIL: Karunochi, Karunochchi. THAI: Chiang phraa mon. Common names Bugnan (Tagb.) Bunlaw (Bis.) Hi-ig (If.) Handal-usa (C. Bis.) Holingbañgon (Sul.) Kadpaayan (Ilk.) Kapinitulot (Tag.) Malabulak (Tag., Tagb.) Padil (Ting.) Paritulot (Tag.) Puli (Bik.) Pulpulto (Ibn.) Saling-bañgon (Sub.) Sinambagun (Sul.) Tagpaya (Ilk.) Tuhod-manok (Tag.) Black malabar nut (Engl.) Gandarusa (Engl.) Water willow (Engl.) Willow-leaved justicia (Engl.) Botany Tuhod-manok is an erect, branched, smooth undershrub, 0.8 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are opposite, lanceolate, green or variegated with short petioles, 7 to 14 centimeters long, 1 to 2.5 centimeters wide, pointed at the ends . Flowers are small, in 4- to 12-centimeters long spikes, terminal or in axils of leaves. Calyx-teeth are smooth, linear, and about 3 millimeters long. Corolla is nearly smooth, 1.5 centimeters long, white or pink, with purple spots. Capsule is club-shaped, about 12 millimeters long, and smooth. Distribution - Found from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most islands and provinces, chiefly along streams at low and medium altitudes in secondary and primary forests, and sometimes in thickets in and about towns, rarely planted. - Also occurs in India [...]


Family • Zingiberaceae - Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm. - SPIRAL GINGER - Zhang liu tou Scientific names Banksia speciosa Koenig Costus speciosus (Koenig) Sm. Cheiloscostus speciosus (J. Koenig) Specht Costus formosanus Nakai Bi qiao jiang (Chin.) Common names Tabubungiaw (Bis.) Canereed (Engl.) Crepe ginger (Engl.) Spiral flag (Engl.) Spiral ginger (Engl.) Wild ginger (Engl.) Zhang liu tou (Chin.) Other vernacular names ASSAMESE: Jom lakhuti. CHINESE: Guang shang lu, Lao mu guai gun, Shuo jiao hua. HINDI: Keu. KANNADA: Pushpamoola. MALAY: Setawar. SANSKRIT: Kemuka. TELUGU: Kashmeeramu. VIETNAMESE: Cây cu chóc. Botany Spiral ginger is a rhizomatous herbaceous plant. Stems are stout, leafy, up to 2 meters or more in height, and 1.6 centimeters in diameter. Leaves are spirally arranged, oblong, 15 to 30 centimeters long, with pointed tip, short stalks and covered with soft hairs on the lower surface. Flowers occur in very dense, solitary spikes. Spikes are very dense, solitary, terminal, ovoid, 5 to 10 centimeters long; purple bracts ovate, 2.5 to 4.5 centimeters long. Calyx is flattened, purple, 3 to 5 centimeters long, with 3 short, ovate lobes. Corolla segments are white, oblong, 4 to 6 centimeters long. Lip is white, suborbicular, 6 to 8 centimeters long, crinkled, irregularly and rather finely toothed, the margins incurved and meeting. Stamen is flat, and including the broad petaloid connective, is about 5 centimeters long and 12 to 15 centimeters wide. Fruits are capsules, ovoid to rounded, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, red, crowned by the persistent calyx. Distribution Widely cultivated as an ornamental plant, sometimes escaping from [...]


Family • Boraginaceae - Rotula aquatica Lour. - AQUATIC ROTULA - Lun guan mu Scientific names Rotula aquatica Lour. Rhabdia lycioides Mart. Common names Bongtal (Tag.) Buntut-buaya (Tag.) Kulatai (Tag.) Takad (Tag.) Aquatic rotula (Engl.) Other vernacular names CHINESE: Lun guan mu. HINDI: Pashanabhed. KANNADA: Paashaanabheda. MALAYALAM: Kallurvanchi. MARATHI: Machim. SANSKRIT: Ashmahabhedah, Mutrala, Pashanabhedah. Botany Takad is a shrub or bush that grows to a height of 2 to 3 meters. Leaves are alternate, imbricate, ovate-oblong, usually 0.8 to 1.5 centimeters in length, and short-stalked. Flowers are small and crowded, and borne on terminal inflorescences. Sepals are five, about 4.5 millimeters long, and narrow with sharp points. Corolla is purple or pink, 5 to 6 millimeters long, and five lobed. Fruit is an orange or red drupe, somewhat rounded, fleshy, about 4 millimeters in diameter, and containing four seeds. Distribution - Grows characteristically among rocks crevices and trailing over gravel bars in stream beds at low altitudes in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Zambales, Bulacan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; and in Mindoro. - Pantropic. - Also native to China, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Rotula aquatica / Wikipedia (2) Evaluation Of Antimitotic Activity Of Rotula Aquatica (Lour): A Traditional Herb Used In Treatment Of Cancer / Patil S, Narayanan S, Eibl G, Jolly CI. / ndian J Exp Biol. 2004 Sep;42(9):893-9. (3) Studies on the antilithic effect of Rotula aquatica lour in male Wistar rats / Christina A J M, Priya Mole, Moorthy P / Methods Find [...]


Family • Myrtaceae - Syzygium jambos (Linn.) Alston - ROSE APPLE TREE - Pu tao Scientific names Caryophyllus jambos Stokes Eugenia jambos Linn. Eugenia malaccensis Blanco Jambosa jambos Millsp. Jambosa vulgaris DC. Common names Balobar (Tag.) Bunlauan (P. Bis.) Tampoi (Tag., Bik.) Tampoy (Tag.) Tanpul (Ibn.) Yampoi (Bis.) Malabar plum (Engl.) Rose apple tree (Engl.) Jambrosade (Engl.) Pu tao (Chin.) Other vernacular names BURMESE: Thabyu thabye. FRENCH: Jambosier, Pomme rose. GERMAN: Jambubaum , Rosenapfel, Rosenapfelbaum. JAPANESE: Futo momo. KHMER: Châm'puu. LAOTIAN: Chièng, Kièng. MALAY: Jambu air mawar (Indonesia), Jambu ayer mawar, Jambu kelampok, Jambu kelampol, Jambu kraton, Jambu mawar (Indonesia), Jambu mawer. MALAYALAM: Yamu panawa. NEPALESE: Gulaav jaamun. PORTUGUESE: Jambo amarelo, Jambo branco, Jambo rosa, Jambeiro. RUSSIAN: Sizigium iamboza, Sitsigium dzhamboza. SPANISH: Jambo amarillo, Manzana rosa, Manzanita rosa, Pomarrosa (Puerto Rico), Pomarrosa manzana rosa (Cuba), Pomarrosa pomo (Dominica Rep.), Yambo (Philippines). COUNTRY: Chomphûu náam dok mái, Ma nom hom. VIETNAMESE: Bô dào, Ly, Roi. Botany Tampoi is a small tree growing to about 8 meters high. Leaves are narrowly oblong or elliptic-lanceolate, 12.5 to 20 centimeters long, 2 to 4 centimeters wide, narrowed at both ends. Flowers are large, strongly scented, greenish-white, 5 to 7 centimeters across, borne in groups of 2 to 8 at the ends of twigs. Fruit is rounded, 3.5 to 5 centimeters diameter, dull yellow and tinged with pink. Distribution - Cultivated as a shade tree, in and about towns throughout the Philippines. - Occasionally naturalized. - Prehistoric introduction. - Also occurring in Indo-Malaya and cultivated in other tropical countries. Constituents - Bark [...]


Family • Fabaceae - Indigofera suffruticosa Miller - ANIL INDIGO - Ye qing shu Scientific names Indigofera suffruticosa Miller Indigofera anil Linn. Indigofera argentea Blanco Indigofera argentea Blanco Indigofera tinctoria Mill. non L. Other vernacular names CHINESE: Jia lan dian, Jing zi. FRENCH : Indigotier sauvage. GERMAN : Westindischer Indigo. HINDI : Vilaiti nil. MALAY : Tarum (Indonesia). PORTUGUESE : Anil, Anil de pasto, Anil-dos-tintureiros, Anileiro, Cáa-abi, Cáa-chica, Guajaná-timbé, Indigo. SPANISH : Añil, Añil cimarrón, Azul azulejo, Anil de pasto, Azul de hoja, Jiquelite, Platanito de tinto. TAMIL : Shimaiyaviri. VIETNAMESE : Chàm bụi. Common names Pauai (Iv.) Tagum (S. L. Bis.) Tagun (P. Bis.) Tayom (Ilk.) Tayon (Ilk.) Tayum (Ilk., Tag., P. Bis., C. Bis.) Yagum (Bis.) Anil (Engl.) Anil indigo (Engl.) Wild indigo (Engl.) Small-leaved indigo (Engl.) Ye qing shu (Engl.) Botany Tayum is an erect, branched, half-woody plant, 1 meter or less in height. Stems are sparsely covered with short, appressed hairs. Leaves are 5 to 8 centimeters long. Leaflets are 9 to 11, oblong to elliptic-oblong, 1 to 2 centimeters in length, pale, and appressed-hairy beneath. Flowers are red, about 5 millimeters long, borne on axillary and solitary racemes 2 to 3 centimeters in length. Pods are numerous, crowded, reflexed, strongly curved, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long, containing 6 to 8 seeds. Distribution - In waste places in and about towns, locally abundant, occasionally cultivated, from the Batan Islands and northern Luzon to Mindanao. - Pantropic. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Antimicrobial Activity of Indigofera suffruticosa / Sônia Pereira Leite, Jeymesson [...]