Family • Verbenaceae - Verbena officinalis L. - COMMON VERVAIN - Ma-pien Ts'ao Scientific names Verbena officinalis L. Verbena halei Small Verbena officinalis var. halei (Small) Common names Verbena (Engl., Tag,) Common vervain (Engl.) Herb of the cross (Engl.) Ma-pien ts'ao (Chin.) Botany Verbena is a more or less hairy herb, growing up to 90 centimeters in height, erect, but decumbent at the base. Leaves are 5 to 10 centimeters long, variously lobed and narrowed to the base; the lower ones are stalked, pinnatifid or coarsely toothed, more or less hairy, and usually hoary on the nerves beneath; this upper ones are without stalks and 3-lobed. Flowers are small, 4 to 6 millimeters long, without stalks and borne on dense, bracteate heads which elongate as the fruit ripens. The calyx is twice as long as the bracts and half as long as the corolla tube, minutely 5-toothed, and glandular- hairy. The corolla is blue or lilac, and hairy, with spreading limb; the lobes are subquadrate, with a hairy throat. Fruit is dry, ultimately spreading into four 1-seeded nutlets which are oblong and dorsally smooth, their under faces covered with minute, white flaking cells. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Verbena officinalis / Plants For A Future (2) Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn / Sau-Wan Lai et al / Neuropharmacology / Vol 50, Issue 6, May 2006, Pages 641-650 / doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2005.11.009 (3) Antiinflammatory activity and chemical composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis / PTR. Phytotherapy research ISSN 0951-418X / 2000, vol. 14, no6, pp. 463-465 [...]


Family • Violaceae - Viola odorata L. - SWEET-VIOLET - Xiang jin cai Scientific names Viola odorata L. Viola stolinifera Rodr. Viola wiedemannii Boiss. Xiang jin cai (Chin.) Other vernacular names ARABIC: Banafsaj, Albanafsaj alhelou FRENCH: Violette des jardins. Common names Bayoleta (C. Bis.) Violeta (Tag., Span.) English violet (Engl.) Garden violet (Engl.) Violet (Engl.) Scented violet (Engl.) Sweet-violet (Engl.) Gen info Together with another Viola, V. tricolor (heartease), used medicinally since ancient times. Used by the Athenians to "moderate anger." Violet garlands were worn to prevent headaches and dizziness. Heartease was once used in love potions. Botany Violeta is a low herb with stout rootstocks. Stems are short or lacking, with slender stolons. Leaves are crowded at the ends of the stems, orbicular to subreniform, 5 to 8 centimeters long, with heart-shaped base, round-tipped, and toothed margins. Flowers are fragrant, 1.5 to 1.8 centimeters. Sepals are green, about 1 cm long. Petals are violet with the throat marked with white spots or lines. Distribution - Ornamental cultivation as border plants around houses. Thrives best in Baguio and the Benguet area; not well adapted to lower altitudes. - Certainly introduced. Additional Sources and Suggested Readings (1) Viola odorata - L. / Sweet Violet : Plants For A Future (2) Mechanism of action of cytotoxic cyclotides: cycloviolacin O2 disrupts lipid membranes. / J Nat Prod. 2007 Apr;70(4):643-7 (3) Cyclotides: A Novel Type of Cytotoxic Agents / Vol. 1, 365-369, April 2002 Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (4) Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants / Sahib Gul Khattak et [...]