Abang Abang

Family • Vitaceae - Leea manillensis Walp. - WEST INDIAN HOLLY - Huo tong shu

Scientific names

Aquilicia sambucina Blanco
Leea sambucina Blanco
Leea guineensis G. Don
Leea palawanensis Elm.
Leea manillensis Planch.
Leea coccinea Walp.
Leea rubra F.-Vill. (?)
Tai wan huo tong shu (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Tai wan huo tong shu.
THAILAND: Kradangngaa daeng, Khueang khaeng maa, Seesa lueat.
VIETNAM: G[oos]i h[aj]c tr[aws]ng, C[or] h[aj]c.

abang-abangBotany
Abang-abang is a smooth or nearly smooth shrub or small tree, 3 to 5 meters in height. Leaves are three or four times pinnately compound, 50 to 80 centimeters long. Leaflets are elliptic-ovate to oblong lanceolate, 6 to 15 centimeters long, toothed at the margins, pointed at the tip and rounded or somewhat pointed at the base. Flowers are borne on large cymes, up to 50 centimeters in diameter, five-parted and about 3 millimeters long, a few opening at a time, the stalks and calyx are red, the petals, pale yellow. Fruit is dark red, depressed-globose and about 8 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
– Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
– Also reported in Taiwan, the Caroline Islands, and Yap.

Constituents
– Leaves of Leea guineense (Leeaceae) yielded three hydrophilic flavonoids, viz., quercetin-3′-sulphate-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3,3′-disulphate, and a new flavonoid sulphate, together with kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.
– Leaves have yielded quercetin, kaempferol, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate.
– Proximate analysis of seeds showed crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38 ±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%. Study also showed it to be a good source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesum, manganese and copper.

Properties
Considered vulnerary, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive.

Parts used
Roots, branches, leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
– Decoction of roots, branches and leaves used for wound healing.
– In Thailand, root used for diarrhea and hallucination.
– In southern Western Ghats, leaf juice of the plant is mixed with coconut milk, given three times daily for treatment of dysentery with blood discharge.
– Leea guineense popularly used for treating hypertension.
– In West Africa and Guinea-Bissau, plant used for epilepsy.
– Used for treatment of enlarged spleen in children, pregnancy detection, toothache, gonorrhea, diarrhea, dysentery. Also used as diuretic.

Common names

Abang-abang (Tag.) Mali-mali (Tag., Pamp.)
Alumamani (Ilk.) Taliantan (Tag.)
Amamali (Pang., P. Bis.) Tumbosut (P. Bis.)
Ayaman kilat (Sbl.) Ulumamani (Pang.)
Garadat (Bik.) Vodadin (Iv.)
Himamalak (P. Bis.) Hawaiian holly (Engl.)
Imamangal (Tagb.) Red leea (Engl.)
Kalakal (Ig.) Red tree vine (Engl.)
Kaliantan (Tag.) West indian holly (Engl.)
Kulatai (Tagb.) Huo tong shu (Chin.)

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Ethnomedicinal Plants used by Kani tribes of Agasthiyarmalai biosphere reserve, southern Western Ghats / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge • Vol 7 (3), July 2008, pp 410-413

(2) Leea manillensis Walp. is a synonym of Leea guineense G.Don / The Plant List

(3) Antioxidant flavonoids and phenolic acids from leaves of Leea guineense G Don (Leeaceae). / Philippe Op de Beck, Gilbert Cartier, Bruno David, Marie-Geneviève Dijoux-Franca, Anne-Marie Mariotte / Phytotherapy Research, 05/2003; 17(4):345-7 / DOI:10.1002/ptr.1141

(4) IN VIVO ANTIOXIDANT AND POTENTIAL ANTITUMOR ACTIVITY EXTRACT OF LEEA GUINEENSIS ROYEN EX. L. (LEEACEAE) ON CARCINOMATOUS CELLS / C.A.PIEME*, V. N. PENLAP, B. NKEGOUM, C. L. TAZIEBOU, J. NGOGANG / Pharmacologyonline 1 : 538-547 (2008)

(5) Leea guineensis / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(6) Anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Leea guineensis G. Don (Family: Leeaceae) / E. Woode, D.A. Alagpulinsa, W.K.M. Abotsi / African journal of pharmacy and pharmacology (Impact Factor: 0.84). 01/2011; 5:1132-1144.

(7) Chemical Composition And Nutritional Evaluation Of Leea Guineensis Seed. / Ajiboye B.O, et al / Journal of Physical and Chemical Sciences, Ajiboye B.O, et al(2014) V1I1. DOI: 10.15297/JPCS.V1I1.06

Study Findings
• Anti-Hypertensive: In a study of the potential antihypertensive activity of Brazilian plants, Leea rubra was one of five plants (C brasiliense, C fruticosum, P roebelinii and T catappa) that showed significant angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.
• Antioxidant Flavonoids / Phenolic Acids / Leaves: Leaves of Leea guineense (Leeaceae) yielded three hydrophilic flavonoids, viz., quercetin-3′-sulphate-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin-3,3′-disulphate, and a new flavonoid sulphate, quercetin-3,3′,4′-trisulphate, together with kaempferol, quercetin, quercitrin, mearnsitrin, gallic acid and ethyl gallate. The free radical scavenging effect was evaluated in the DPPH assay.
• Anticonvulsant / Neurobehavioral Effects: Study of an aqueous extract of leaves of Leea guineensis showed anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, antinociceptive effects through central mechanisms. The extract also caused concentration-dependent contractions on isolated toad rectus abdominis muscle similar to ACh and did not impair motor coordination and balance.
• Antitumor / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the subacute toxicity, in vivo antioxidant and antitumor activity of an aqueous methanol extract of Leea guineensis on rats bearing carcinomatous cells. Results showed the extract is non toxic and exhibits significant antioxidant and antitumor effects.
• Anti-Edematogenic / Antiinflammatory: Using the carrageenan-induced paw edema method, study of an aqueous extract showed dose-depended anti-edematogenic activity. Results support its use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions.
• Anti-Nociceptive / Anxiolytic / Anticonvulsant: Study of aqueous extract of L. guineensis showed anti-nociceptive, anti-anxiety, and anticonvulsant effects in murine models of pain (formalin test), anxiety (elevated plus-mazes and light/dark box tests) and convulsion (pentylenetetrazole- picrotoxin- and MES-induced seizure tests).
• Proximate Analysis / Seeds: Proximate analysis of seeds showed crude protein of 22.30 ±0.45%, crude fiber of 14.38 ±1.20% and ash of 6.96 ±0.16%. Study also showed it to be a good source of dietary minerals especially potassium, phosphorus, magnesum, manganese and copper. Fatty acid profile showed essential amino acids thereonine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, and histidine. (see constituents above)

Availability
Seasonal fruiting and ubiquitous market produce.