Agoago

Family • Loranthaceae - Loranthus pentandrus Linn. - MALAYAN MISTLETOE - Wu rui ji sheng

Scientific names

Loranthus pentandrus Linn. Dendrophthoe farinosus Mart.
Loranthus crassus Hook. f. Dendrophthoe luscobotrya Miq.
Loranthus farinosus Desv.. Dendrophthoe venosus Mart.
Loranthus venosus Bl. Dendrophthoe pentandra Miq.
Loranthus flavus Bl. Scurrula venosa G. Don.
Loranthus rigidus DC. Scurrula pentandra G. Don.
Loranthus shawianus Elm. Elytranthe rigida G. Don.
Loranthus zimmermanni Warb. Elytranthe farinosa G. Don.

Common names

Agoago (Tagb.)
Bogto (Tagb.)
Malayan mistletoe (Engl.)
Wu rui ji sheng (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Wu lan ji sheng.
INDONESIA: Benalu, Benalu kepel, Kedondong, Benalu Srikaya, Benalu teh.
THAI: Kaafak ma muang.

ago-ago

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Antihypertensive effect of Loranthus pentandrus L. in renovascular hypertensive rats. / Kukongviriyapan, U., V. Kukongviriyapan, and O. Pasurivong / Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 72:P134, 1994.

(2) Chemical and Pharmacological Studies on the Constituents of Loranthus pentandrus / Chantarasomboon Prakongsiri, Yoshihira Kunitoshi et al / The Japanese journal of pharmacognosy 28(1), 7-14, 1974-06-20

(3) Isolation and Identification of Active Antioxidant Compound from Star Fruit (Averrhoa carambola) Mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.) Ethanol Extract / Nina Artanti, Yelli Ma`arifa and Muhammad Hanafi / Journal of Applied Sciences, 6: 1659-1663./ DOI: 10.3923/jas.2006.1659.1663

Botany
Agoago is a strong and gray parasitic plant with terete branches. Leaves are rarely opposite, petioled, elliptic-oblong or lanceolate, rarely obovate, 5 to 20 centimeters long, 2.5 to 12 centimeters wide, with a pointed or nearly obtuse apex. Flowers are densely crowded, scurfy, axillary with very short racemes, about 1.5 centimeters long. Bracts are capsular. Calyx tube is cylindrical to urceolate, 1.5 to 2 millimeters long, with a 5-toothed calyx-limb. Corolla is straight, with the tube dilated below and equally 5-cleft at the middle, with linear and pointed lobes. Fruid is oblong-ovoid, 10 millimeters long, 6 millimeters wide.

Distribution
– Found on trees at low and medium altitudes in Zambales Province, Luzon; and in Palawan.
– Also occurs from India, Thailand, Vietnam, to southern China and southward to Sumatra, Java and Borneo.

Constituents
• Stem contains a glucoside, quercitrine.
• Wax, on saponification, yields mellissyl alcohol.
• Leaf extracts yield large amount of quercitrin, besides hydrocarbons and fats.

Properties
• Considered antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive.

Parts utilized
Bark, leaves.

Uses
Folkloric
• Poultice of pounded leaves used for small sores and ulcers.
• In Perak decoction of leaves used after childbirth as protective medicine.
• In Thailand, leaves or infusion of dried whole plant used for hypertension.
• In Indonesia, used for hypertension, cough, ulcers, skin infections, post-partum treatments, cancer, ulcers and small pox.

Study Findings
• Antihypertensive: Study of an aqueous extract of Loranthus pentandrus in 15 Sprague-Dawley ratswith induced-hypertension showed an antihypertensive effect. One possible mechanism of its effect was
a negative cardiac chronotropic effect.
• Ileum Contracting / Spasmolytic / Smooth Muscle Contracting Effect: Leaf Methanol extract fraction showed ileum contracting activity. An ether soluble fraction showed papaverine-like spasmolytic effect. Fraction subfractionation showed smooth muscle contracting ability.
• Antioxidant / Antidiabetic / a-glucosidase Inhibition / Toxicity Study: Study using DPPH free radical scavenging assay showed the methanol extract with significant activity. Both methanol and water extracts of D. pentandra leaves showed significant a-glucosidase inhibition activity. All the mistletoe extracts tested showed no toxicity and showed significanyt antidiabetes activity. Results suggest D. pentandra is a potential source of antidiabetes and antioxidant compounds.
• Antioxidant: Study of leaf extract of mistletoe (Dendrophthoe pentandra) grown on star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) isolated a flavonol glycoside, quercitrin (quercetrin-3-O-rhamnoside, an active antioxidant with an IC50 value of 5.19 ug mL.

Availability
Wild-crafted.