Amarillo

Family • Asteraceae - Tagetes patula L. - MARIGOLD - Xiao wan shou ju

Some compilations list Tagetes erecta and Tagetes patula as synonyms. Quisumbing’s and other compilations list them as separate species. Both share the common name marigold and amarillo.

Scientific names

Tagetes patula L.
Kong que cao (Chin.)

Common names

Amarillo (Span., Tag.)
Dwarf marigold (Engl.)
French marigold (Engl.)
Marigold (Engl.)
Xiao wan shou ju (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Hong huang cao, Xi fan ju, Chou ju hua, Duan zi hua
GERMAN: Studentenblume
SPANISH: Amapola amarilla, Copetes, Copetillo

amarillo

Botany
Amarillo is an erect, smooth, branched, rank-smelling herb, 0.3 to 0.8 meters high. Leaves are 4 to 7 centimeters long, deeply pinnatifid with linear-lanceolate segments. Heads are solitary, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, borne on long peduncles, which are thickened upward. Flowers are pale to deep yellow, sometimes red. Species is similar to ahito (Tagetes erecta) except that it is smaller, with finer leaves and smaller heads.

Marigold

Distribution
– Cultivated for ornamental purposes in the Philippines.
– Thoroughly naturalized in Lepanto and the Benguet Subprovinces, along gravel banks and streams, at altitudes of 1,200 to 1,500 meters.
– Native of Mexico.
– Now widely distributed in cultivation.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Tagetes patula – L. / Plants For A Future

(2) Chemical constituents of Tagetes Patula L / Husan Bano et al / Pak J Pharm Sci Jul 2002;15(2):1-12.

(3) Antibacterial and Antifungal Activities of Different Parts of Tagetes patula.: Preparation of Patuletin Derivatives / Shaheen Faizi, Humaira Siddiqi et al / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, No. 5 , Pages 309-320 (doi:10.1080/13880200801887476)

(4) Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: structure-activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae. / Faizi S, Fayyaz S, Bano S, Iqbal EY, Lubna, Siddiqi H, Naz A. / Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 08/2011; 59(17):9080-93. / DOI: 10.1021/jf201611b

(5) SESQUITERPENE RICH VOLATILE SEED OIL OF TAGETES PATULA L. FROM NORTHWEST IRAN / M. B. HASSANPOURAGHDAM1, F. SHEKARI2, J. EMARAT-PARDAZ3, M. SAFI SHALAMZARI4 / Journal of Central European Agriculture, 2011, 12(2), p.304-311

(6) CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Tagetes patula L. (ASTERACEAE) COLLECTED FROM THE VENEZUELA ANDES / MARÍA RONDÓN ET AL. / Rev. Latinoamer. Quím. 34/1-3 (2006)

(7) Antifungal Activity of Tagetes patula Extracts / D. Mares, B. Tosi, C. Romagnoli and F. Poli / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2002, Vol. 40, No. 5 , Pages 400-404

(8) A Preliminary Study Of The Antihyperglycemic And Antinociceptive Potential Of Tagetes Patula l. (Asteraceae) Stems / Islam Sathi, Sharmin; Rahman, Shiblur; Shoyeb, Abu; Debnath, Kallol; Haque, Ariful; Khatun, Zubaida; Hossain, Shakhawat; Rahman Shelley, Moshiur; Rahmatullah, Mohammed / Advances in Natural & Applied Sciences;2012, Vol. 6 Issue 8, p1515

(9) Effects of Flavonoids from French Marigold (Florets of Tagetes patula L.) on Acute Inflammation Model / Ken Yasukawa and Yoshimasa Kasahara / International Journal of Inflammation, Volume 2013 (2013) /
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/309493

(10) Evaluation of Membrane Stabilizing Activity, Total Phenolic Content, Brine Shrimp Lethality Bioassay, Thrombolytic and Antimicrobial Activities of Tagetes patula L. / Md. Ruhul Kuddus, Mirza Sonia Alam, Sharmin Reza Chowdhury, Farhana Rumi, Md. Al Amin Sikder, and Mohammad A. Rashid* / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol. 1 No. 4 2012

(11) Marigold Therapy (Tagetes Patula) for Chronic Fibrous Corns and Callus – A Case Study / Davies, Christopher S. and Murgatroyd, M. / Society of Chiropodists and Podiatrists International Conference, May 2001, Harrogate, UK. (Unpublished)

(12) Anti-Candida Activity in Vitro of Tagetes patula L. (Asteraceae) Extracts / FAS Politi 1, VYM Watanabe 1, GM Figueira 2, RCLR Pietro / Planta Med 2013; 79 – PD1 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1348567

amarillo-4

Constituents 
– Flowers yield a yellow crystalline substance, quercetagetine. The dye was found several shades browner than quercetin.
– Flowers contain volatile oil, 0.57%.
– Fruit contains phytomelan, 3.2%.
– Study of roots, leaves and flowers yielded thiophenes, steroidal and terpenoidal type constituents.

Properties
– Flowers considered carminative.
– Considered aromatic, digestive, diuretic and sedative.

Parts utilized
Flower.

Uses
Edibility
– Flowers used in refreshing drinks.
– Leaves and essential oil used as food flavoring.

Folkloric
– Flowers considered carminative and refreshing. Decoction of flowers used to relieve flatulence.
– Used for treatment of indigestion, colic, severe constipation, coughs, dysentery.
– Externally, used for sore eyes and rheumatism.
– In Bangladesh, used for treatment of pain, inflammation, wounds and cuts, and for lowering blood sugar.

Others
– Dye: Dried flowers used as adulterant of saffron, used for coloring foods yellow. Also used for coloring textiles.
– Insecticidal: Secretion from roots have an insecticidal effect on the soil, against nematodes and keeled slugs.
– Repellent: Repels insects (whiteflies).

Study Findings
• Larvicidal: Study of T patula essential oil on fourth instar larvae of mosquito species showed greatest activity against A aegypti, followed by An. stephansi and C quinquefasciatus. Results were compared to synthetic insecticide, malathion.
• Nematicidal: Extract of yellow flowers was studied to identify phytochemicals lethal to economically important cyst nematode Heterodera zeae. Phytochemical analysis yielded phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids). Results showed crude extracts to have promising nematicidal activity. Commercially obtained α-terthienyl and gallic and linoleic acids showed 100% mortality at concentrations of 0.125% after 24 h.
• Antibacterial / Patuletin: Study showed the methanol extract of the flower to possess antimicrobial activity against a number of bacteria. Study isolated a flavonoid patuletin as the active antibacterial principle.
• Antimicrobial: Study of various extracts evaluated the antimicrobial activity of T. erecta and T. pistula flowers. Results showed the extracts of both species possess potential broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
• Hypotensive / Hypertensive Effects: Study of methanolic extract of roots of Tagetes patula isolated well known citric and malic acid as hypotensive, and pyridine hydrochloride as a hypertensive constituent.
• Sesquiterpene Rich Volatile Seed Oil: Study of hydrodistilled volatile seed oil yielded forty constituents, comprising 94% of the total oil. The constituents of the volatile oil were (E)-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, (Z)-ß-ocimene and limonene. The chemical composition was characterized as sesquiterpene and a-terthienyl rich with appreciable biocidal (insecticidal and nematicidal) and pharmacological potential.
• Essential Oil / Aerial Parts / Antibacterial: Essential oil of aerial parts yielded major constituents of piperitone (33.77 %), trans-β-ocymene (14.83 %), terpinolene (13.87 %) and β-caryophyllene (9.56 %). The essential oil showed strong antibacterial activity against important human pathogenic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria.
• Antifungal: Methanol extracts from 10 cultivars of T. patula were assayed on two phytopathogenic fungi: Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium moniliforme. B. cinerea showed high dose-dependent inhibition. Results suggest Tagetes patula could be a potential source of antifungal substances and that thiophene activity is strongly increased by UV-A radiation.
• Antihyperglycemic / Antinociceptive / Stems: Study of methanol extract of stems in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice showed significant and dose-dependent reduction of blood sugar, comparable to glibenclamide. In antinociceptive testing with intraperitoneal acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice, there was dose-dependent reduction in number of writhings in mice.
• Flavonoids / Anti-Inflammatory: Patuletin and patulitrin, major components isolated from florets of Tagetes patula, were found to inhibit acute inflammation in mice. Oral administration suppressed hind-paw edema induced by carrageenin and histamine, while topical administration inhibited ear edema induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and arachidonic acid.
• Membrane Stabilizing Activity / Cytotoxicity / Antioxidant / Antimicrobial: Extractives of T. patula significantly protected lysis of mice erythrocyte membrane induced by hypotonic solution and heat. A hexane soluble fraction and crude methanolic extract exhibited moderate antioxidant activity. In brine shrimp lethality assay, crude methanolic extract showed strong cytotoxic activity. Extractives also showed moderate antimicrobial activity against test organisms.
• Fibrous Corns and Callus: Study reports on the local use of T. patula for reduction of pain, permitting a deeper callus reduction and more complete enucleation of the corn.
• Anti-Candida Activity: Study evaluated T. patula extracts against strains of Candida glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis. Results showed excellent activity of ethanolic and methanolic extracts aganst C. glabrata. All samples were ineffective against the other three strains of Candida.

Availability
Ornamental cultivation.
Wild-crafted.
Extracts and other products in the cybermarket.