Family • Ulmaceae - Hanadiong - Trema orientalis Blume - PIGEON WOOD - Yi se shan huang ma

Anabiong is a local name shared by (1) Artocarpus rubrovenia, kalulot, and (2) Tremna orientalis, hanadiong.

Scientific names

Celtis orientalis Linn.
Celtis lima Blanco
Sponia amboinensis Deene.
Sponia velutina Planch,
Trema amboinensis F.-Vill.
Trema orientalis Blume

Other vernacular names

BEMBA: Mutumpu.
BENGALI: Chickan, Chikan, Jiban, Jibon
INDONESIAN: Aanggerung, Kuray ,Lenggung.
JAVANESE: Anggerung.
KHMER: Srô:l.
LAO: Po, Hu.
MALAY: Menarong, Mengkirai, Randagong.
SANSKRIT: Jivanti.
SWAHILI: Mgendagenda, Mpesi, Msasa, Mzunguzungu.
TAMIL: Ambaratthi, Chenkolam, Oma, Oman.
THAI: Padang Po-haek, Takhai.
TONGAN: Mululwe.
VIETNAMESE: Hu dai, Hu l[as] nh[or], Hu las nhor.
YORUBA: Afefe,

Common names

Agandang (Ibn.) Indai luging (Lan.)
Alindagon (Sul.) Inugdon (Tag., Bis.)
Anabiong (Bis., Tag.) Lagod (Tag.)
Anadung (Bon.) Lamai (Ilk.)
Anagdung (P. Bis.) Langong (Sub.)
Anagum (Bik.) Malarurung (Tag.)
Anariong (Iv.) Malarurang (Tag.)
Anadung (Bon.) Malasiking durong (Pamp.)
Anarong (Sbl.) Mandalogon (Bag.)
Anaduiong (Buk.) Nagdon (P. Bis.)
Arandon (Ilk.) Pangarandongen (Ilk.)
Du-ung (Sul.) Pañgaranduñgin (Ilk.)
Hagod (Tag.) Pitidan (Ig.)
Hanadiong (Tag.) Pitikan (Ig.)
Hanadgong (Bik., S. L. Bis.) Tatagtag (P. Bis.)
Hanagdon (Tag.) Gunpowder tree (Engl.)
Hanagdong (Tag.) Indian charcoal tree (Engl.)
Hanarion (Tag.) Indian nettle tree (Engl.)
Hinagdung (Tag.) Pigeon wood (Engl.)
Hinlalaong (Pamp.) Oriental trema (Engl.)
Hubulos (Bon.) Yi se shan huang ma (Chin.)
Inandong (Tag.)


Anabiong is a small tree, 5 to 8 meters high, with elongated branches. Leaves are distichous, the upper surface rough; the lower, pale and covered with soft dense hairs, oblong-ovate to lanceolate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, with the base frequently unequal, broad and heart-shaped, and the apex long and thinly pointed, and prominently 3-nerved with finely toothed margins. Cymes are dense, hairy, 1 to 2.5 centimeters long. White flowers are numerous, about 3 millimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, about 3.5 centimeters long.

– In deserted clearings, thickets, and second-growth forests, often abundant, and found throughout the Philippines, at low and medium altitudes, in some places ascending to 2,000 meters.
– Also occurs in India to southern China and southward to northeastern Australia and Polynesia.

– Bark contains a little tannin.
– Study isolated three new compounds (dihydrophenanthrenes and phenyldihydroisocoumarin) from the extracts of trunk bark and root bark.
– Study yielded the presence of tannins and phenolic compounds, fixed oils, fats, phytosterols, and flavonoids.
– Study yielded 8 compounds: ampelopsin F, (-) epicatechin, (+)-catechin, (+) syringaresinol, cinnamic acid among others.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Xanthones and Other Constituents of Trema orientalis / D. Noungou Tchamo et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology • 2001, Vol. 39, No. 3, Pages 202-205

(2) New Dihydrophenanthrene and Phenyldihydroisocoumarin Constituents of Trema orientalis / M. Genevieve Dijoux-Franca, Diderot Noungoue Tchamo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2001, 64 (6), pp 832–835
DOI: 10.1021/np000275s

(3) Chromium and nickel tolerance of Trema orientalis (Blume) L. in tissue culture / Sanghamitra Samantaray, Gyana Ranjan Rout, Premananda Das / Acta Physiologiae Plantarum1999, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 27-35

(4) Antibacterial Efficacy of Bark extracts of an Ethnomedicinal plant Trema orientalis Blume / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 31 Oct 2012, Vol 6 No4.


(6) IRON CHELATING AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITY OF KAYU MANIK LEAVES (Trema orientalis) / Salprima Yudha S.*, Eka Angasa1, Sri Ningsih, Syalfinaf Manaf, Suli Anggria Murni, and Fatan Umbara / Indo. J. Chem., 2011, 11 (2), 196 – 199


(8) Anti Sickle Erythrocytes Haemolysis Properties and Inhibitory Effect of Anthocyanins Extracts of Trema orientalis (Ulmaceae) on the Aggregation of Human Deoxyhemoglobin S in vitro / P.T. Mpiana, K.N. Ngbolua, V. Mudogo, D.S.T. Tshibangu, E.K. Atibu, D.D. Tshilanda and N.M. Misengabu / Journal of Medical Sciences, 2011, Vol 11, Issue: 3, pp 129-137DOI: 10.3923/jms.2011.129.137

(9) Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria. / Hong CE, Lyu SY. / J Toxicol Sci. 2011 Jan;36(1): pp 87-93.

Parts used
Bark, wood.

• Young leaves eaten as spinach by the Zulus.
• In the Philippines, juice obtained from macerating the soft wood is used for poulticing swellings.
• Fruit, leaves, bark, stems, twigs and seeds are used in traditional East and West Africa, Tanzania and Madagascar medicine.
• In India, plant is used in epilepsy.
• In Cote-d’Ivoire, leaf decoction used for hypertension.
• Zulus use the roots and bark as traditional medicine. the Philippines

– Rope: The bast used in making string or rope.
– Craft: The wood which is soft is used in making wooden shoes. Light wood used for making fruit boxes.
– Dye: The bark tannin used in roughening and coloring fishing lines.

Study Findings
• Phytochemicals:Study of extracts of trunk and root barks isolated 16 compounds, among them Methylswertianin, decussatin, glycosides of decussatin, sweroside, scopoletin, (-)- epicatechin, lupeol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy- benzoic acid, adian-5-en-3-one, 2a, 3a, 23-trihydroxyurs- 12-en-28-oic acid, 2a, 3b-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, b-sitosterol, 3-O-b-glucopyranosyl-b-sitosterol and hexa- cosanoic acid.
• Triterpenoid Alcohol: Study isolated from stem-bark of TO a new pentacyclic triterpenoid alcohol, trematol.
• Ethnobotanical Study / Blood Pressure Lowering: Trema orientalis was one of 33 species of plants used for treatment of hypertension. Used as a leaf decoction, its effect was attributed to polyphenols, potassium retention and the promotion of diuresis.
• Anti-Convulsive Effect: Study of a methanol extract from dried leaves showed anticonvulsive activity on tonic flexion and tonic extension.
• Glucose-Lowering: Study was done on the glucose-lowering effect of the aqueous stem bark extract in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed T. orientalis stem bark extract significantly reduces blood glucose in STZ-induced diabetic rats by a mechanism different from the of sulfonylurea agents.
• Chromium and Nickel Tolerance: Callus from contaminated and uncontaminated sources of Trema orientalis were tested in vitro for tolerance to chromium and nickel. Results showed seeds from contaminated sites were tolerant to chromium and nickel, suggesting a potential for use in sustainable revegetation programmes on chromiferous mine wastes.
• Antibacterial / Bark Extracts: Study evaluated the antibacterial efficacy of aqueous bark extracts of T. orientalis on six selected bacterial strains. Results showed the selected bacterial strains were highly susceptible to the test materials, and corroborates its application in traditional medicine.
• Reinforcement of Jute Pulp with Trema Orientalis Pulp: The addition of jute fiber pulp to the T. orientalis pulp increased tear strength. The pulp blends showed increased sheet density. Tensile index and burst index of blended pulp increased with beating degree and proportion of T. orientalis increased.
• Iron Chelating / Antiradical Activity / Leaves: A methanol soluble fraction extracted from leaves showed antiradical activity of 69.73% on a DPPH assay, almost similar to ascorbic acid. Iron chelating activity was 40.74%. The results suggest a potential for processing industries and a good source for an iron chelator.
• Black Powder for Blasting and Fireworks Purposes: Study of generated flames exhibited characteristics of black powder used for blasting purposes. The flames from ignition of black powder of Trema orientalis were comparable to that of foreign black powder. Results showed a potential for use of T. orientalis black powder for blasting in dimensional stone quarries, sporting and fireworks uses.
• Anti-Sickling Powder for Blasting and Fireworks Purposes: Study evaluated the effect of anthocyanins extracts from T. orientalis on sickle cells. The anthocyanin extracts exhibited antisickling activity, possible through interference with intracellular polymerization of HbS or scavenging of free radicals preventing erythrocyte sickling or hemolysis.
• Safety / Genotoxicity Testing: Study evaluated the safety of five plants widely distributed in Africa. Using bacterial reverse mutation, T. orientalis was one of four that showed negative results, suggesting potential safety of the plants for use as supplements in high doses.