Apostola

Family • Leguminosae - Cassia nodosa Buch.- Ham. ex Roxb. - PALAWAN CHERRY - Zhao wa jue ming

Philippine compilations list Cassia javanica (appleblossom shower, tindalo) as a separate species from Cassia nodosa (apostola, pink-and-white shower). Some compilations list them as synonymous species, with a sharing of common names. The botanical demarcations seem unclear.
Cassia nodosa is very similar to Cassia javanica, differing mostly from the latter in the absence of spines on the trunk and branches.

Scientific names

Cassia nodosa Buch.-Ham. ex Roxb.
Cassia bacillus Gaertn.

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Jie guo juo ming, Fen hua shan bian dou.
THAI: Chaiya phruek, Kanla phruek, Kanlapa phruek.

Common names

Ankohan (Tag.)
Apostola (Tag.)
Palawan cherry (Engl.)
Pink shower (Engl.)
Pink-and-white shower (Engl.)
Zhao wa jue ming (Chin.)

apostola

Botany
Apostola is an unarmed tree, attaining a height of 10 meters or taller. Leaves are about 30 centimeters long, divided into 5 to 12 pairs of oblong to elliptic-ovate leaflets, with acute tip. Leaves shed before flowering starts. Flowers are clustered, pale pink at first, become bright pink, fading to white with age. Fruit is cylindrical, 40 to 60 centimeters long, 0.5 to 1 centimeter wide, green when young, becoming black as it ripens. Seeds are numerous along the entire length of the fruit.

Cassia nodosa is very similar to Cassia javanica, differing mostly from the latter in the absence of spines on the trunk and branches.

Distribution
– Introduced.
– Garden cultivation.
– Indigenous in the Eastern Himalayas to the Malay Peninsula.

Constituents
– In a study for primary metabolites, pods yielded the highest amount of soluble sugars, lipids, phenols, DNA, and chlorophyll; the leaves, ascorbic acid, proteins, RNA and carotenoids; and in stems, starch.
– Leaves yielded a new chromone, 5,4′-dihydroxy-7-methyl 3-benzyl chromone, along with three known flavonoid compounds as unsubstituted flavone, kaempferol-3-o-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-o-arabinoside.

Properties
– Hypoglycemic, antifertility.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Cassia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(2) Evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of Cassia nodosa leaves in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Kumavat, Urmila C.; Shimpi, Shraddha N.; Jagdale, Sandesh P. / nternational Journal of Green Pharmacy;Jan-Mar2012, Vol. 6 Issue 1, p9

(3) CHEMICAL AND SPECTRAL STUDIES OF NODOSOSIDE A NEW ANTHRAQUINONE GLYCOSIDE FROM THE FLOWERS OF CASSIA NODOSA / S. A. I. Rizvi, P. C. Gupta, R. K. Kau / Planta Med 1971; 19(1): 222-233 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1099635l

(4) Antifertility activity of kaempferol-7-O-glucoside isolate from Cassia nodosa Bunch. / Daulat Singh; K. sharma, S.; Shekhawat, M. S.; Yadav, K. K.; Sharma, R. A.; Yadav, R. K. / Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2012 Vol. 11 No. 5 pp. 477-492

(5) Isolation and Quantification of Kaempferol-7-O-Glucoside and their Antimicrobial Screening of Cassia nodosa Bunch / Daulat Singh, Santosh K. Sharma, H.C.Gupta & Ram Avatar Sharma / Asian Journal of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Research, Issue 3 (Vol. 1) 2011

(6) Antimicrobial activity of sequential extracts from leaves of Cassia nodosa Buch / Sharma, R. A.*, Richa Bhardwaj and Pallavi Sharma / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Vol. 7(27), pp. 1876-1879, 22 July, 2013 / DOI 10.5897/AJPP09.292

(7) STUDIES ON SOME PRIMARY METABOLITE’S EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION IN DIFFERENT PLANT PARTS OF SELECTED CASSIA SPECIES / B. L. SHARMA, DAULAT SINGH, SANTOSH K. SHARMA*, AFZAL HASHMI, ARJUN SINGH, ANIL BANSAL /Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 6, Suppl 2, 2013, 309-314

(8) Phytochemical Screening and Antimicrobial Activity of Anthraquinones Isolated from Different Parts of Cassia nodosa / Ankita Yadav, Richa Bhardwaj and R A Sharma / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 2013 / DO!: 10.3923/rjmp.2013

Uses 
Folkloric
– No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
– Closely related and/or considered synonymous to Tindalo (Cassia javanica), folkloric uses are shared.

Study Findings
• Hypoglycemic: Study investigated the hypoglycemic effect of C. nodosa leaves on normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats. Unlike acute, subacute treatment showed highly significant reduction of blood glucose (40.29%) compared to standard drug gibenclamide (63.51%).
• Nodososide: Study isolated a new anthraquinone glycoside, nodososide, from the alcoholic extract. Hydrolysis of the compound yielded d-glucose and an aglycone, nodosin.
• Antifertility / Kaempferol-7-O-glucoside: Study isolated flavonoids from C. nodosa and evaluated it for antifertility activity. Study yielded a new flavonoid kaempferol-7-O-glucoside which when fed to rats reduced fertility in male rats by 95%, with significant reduction of sperm concentration of testes and epididymides, with reduced motility of cauda epididymal sperm.
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the methanolic extracts of leaves of seven Egyptian Cassia species using the DPPH scavenging activity method. Cassia nodosa was 3rd in antioxidant potency.
• Antimicrobial / Kaempferol-7-O-Glucoside: Study isolated flavonoids from different parts of C. nodosa and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Flowers yielded the highest levels of flavonoids, with higher levels of total quercetin and kaempferol(F+B) and kaempferol-7-O-glucoside. Quercetin was highly effective against E. coli, A. flavus, A. niger. F. moniliforme and R. bataticola.
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of sequential extracts of leaves of Cassia nodosa against S. aureus, S. typhi, E. coli, P aeruginosa and fungi including A. flavus, A. niger, F monilliformae and R bataticola. Results showed most of the extracts were effective against all the test organisms.
• Study on Primary Metabolites of Cassia Sp: In a study of Cassia species for primary metabolites, it was found that C. nodosa leaves had higher levels of starch, lipids, chlorophylls and nucleic acid. Phenol content was also high in the leaves of C. nodosa.
• Anthraquinones / Emodin and Rhein / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of isolated anthraquinones from different parts of C. nodosa against various bacterial and fungal strains.Phytochemical screening yielded Emodin and Rhein. Emodin showed maximum activity against F. moniliforme, while Rhein was more active against A. flavus.

Availability
Wild-crafted.