Family • Tiliaceae - Muntingia calabura Linn. - CHERRY TREE
|Muntingia calabura Linn.|
Other vernacular names
|CAMBODIAN: Krakhob barang.|
|FRENCH: Bois Ramier|
|MALAY: Kerukup siam.|
|PORTUGUESE: Calabura, Páo De Seda.|
|SPANISH: Cacaniqua, Calabura, Calubur, Capulín Blanco, Capulin, Cereza.|
|THAI: Takhop farang.|
|VIETNAMESE: Trung ca mat sam.|
|Datiles (Tag., Bik.)|
|Zanitas (Ilk., Ibn.)|
|Calabur tree (Engl.)|
|Cherry tree (Engl.)|
|Panama berry (Engl.)|
|Silk wood (Engl.)|
Aratiles is a fast growing tree, 5 to 10 meters high, with spreading branches. Leaves are hairy, sticky, alternate, distichous, oblong-ovate to broadly oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 13 centimeters long, with toothed margins, pointed apex and inequilateral base, one side rounded and the other acute. Flowers are about 2 centimeters in diameter, white, extra-axillary, solitary or in pairs. Sepals are 5, green, reflexed, lanceolate, about 1 centimeter long. Petals are white, obovate, 1 centimeter long, deciduous and spreading. Fruit is a berry, rounded, about 1.5 centimeter in diameter, red on ripening, smooth, fleshy, sweet and many seeded.
– Naturalized, widely distributed, growing in and about towns.
– Introduced from tropical America.
– Also reported in Thailand and Java.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) In vitro Antibacterial Activity of Muntingia calabura extracts / Z A Zakaria, C A Fatimah, A M Mat Jais et al / Internation Journal of Pharmacology, 2 (45): 439-442, 2006
(4) Plant anticancer agents, XLVIII. New cytotoxic flavonoids from Muntingia calabura roots / Kaneda N, Pezzuto JM et al /
(5) Cytotoxic Constituents of Muntingia calabura Leaves and Stems Collected in Thailand / C M Nshimo et al /Summary Pharmaceutical Biology • 1993, Vol. 31, No. 1, Pages 77-81 / DOI 10.3109/13880209309082922
(6) Effects of Muntingia calabura L. on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction / Nivethetha M et al / Singapore Med J 2009; 50 (3) : 300
(7) The Antinociceptive Action of Aqueous Extract from Muntingia calabura Leaves: The Role of Opioid Receptors / Zainul Amiruddin Zakaria et al / Med Princ Pract 2007;16:130–136 / DOI: 10.1159/000098366
(8) In vitro antimicrobial activity of Muntingia calabura extracts and fractions / Z A Zakaria, A S Sufian, K Ramasamu et al / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4 (4), pp. 304-308, 18 February, 2010
(9) In Vitro Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Activities of the Extracts of Muntingia calabura Leaves / Zakaria ZA, Mohamed AM, Jamil NS, Rofiee MS, Hussain MK, Sulaiman MR, Teh LK, Salleh MZ. / Am J Chin Med. 2011;39(1):183-200
(10) Activation of Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway Mediates Hypotensive Effect of Muntingia calabura L. (Tiliaceae) Leaf Extract / Cheng-Dean Shih, Jih-Jung Chen and Hsinn-Hsing Lee / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine, Vol. 34, No. 5, 857–872
(11) Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved / M. H. Mohd. Sani, Z. A. Zakaria, and M. Z. Salleh / Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
Bark, leaves and flowers.
Antispasmodic and emollient.
– The ripe fruit is very popular among Filipino children.
– Flowers are antispasmodic. Decoction of flowers for abdominal cramps.
– Decoction used as emollient.
– Flowers used as antiseptic and to treat spasms.
– Also used to relieve colds and headaches.
– In the Antiles, used as antispasmodic.
– In Martinique, bark decoction is mucilaginous and used as emollient.
– Bark used for making rope.
– Wood is compact, fine-grained, moderately strong and light in weight and durable.
– Fast growing tree that makes for a favorable shade tree.
• Antibacterial Activity: The study concluded that M. calabura possesses a potential antibacterial property that is comparable to the standard antibiotics used. The study also suggests the presence of a more potent polar antibacterial compound.
• Antistaphylococcal Activity Study isolated fractions from the methanol extract of MC with anti-staphylococcal activity.
• Flavanone Constituents: The study isolated a flavanone as well as 24 known compounds, which were mainly flavanones and flavones.
• Antinociceptive / Anti-inflammatory / Antipyretic:The study concludes that M. calabura leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities, justifying the Peruvian folkloric medicinal use.
• Cytotoxic Flavonoids / Anticancer: Study isolated 12 new flavonoids were isolated (7 flavans, 3 flavones, two biflavans). Most of the isolates demonstrated cytotoxic activity and some exhibited selective activities when evaluated with a number of human cancer cell lines.
• Cytotoxic / Leaves and Stems : Study of leaves and stems of Muntingia calabura yielded cytotoxic flavonoids: chrysin, 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone and galangin 3, 7-dimethyl ether. The compounds were active against one or more panels of human and murine cell lines.
• Cardioprotective: Pretreatment with M calabura leaf extract efficiently protected the myocardium against isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. It brought about a significant decrease in cardiac marker enzyme activities probably due reduction in extent of myocardial damage and restriction of leakage of enzymes from the myocardium.
• Antinociceptive / Opioid Receptor Connect:Aqueous extract of Muntingia calibura showed significant antinociceptive activity against chemically and thermally induced noxious stimuli. The bioactive compounds responsible for the activity work partly through the opioid receptor system.
• Antioxidant: Study showed high levels of antioxidant activity in the fruit extracts. There was a correlation between antioxidant activity and phenolic flavonoid contents.
• Anticancer / Antiproliferative / Antoxidant: Study showed M. calabura leaves possess potential antiproliferative and antioxidant activities that could be attributed to high content of phenolic compounds.
• Hypotensive Effect: Study evaluated the cardiovascular effect of a methanol extract from the leaf of MC. A fractionated water-soluble extract elicited both a transient and delayed hypotensive effect via production of NO (nitric oxide). Activation of NO/sGC/cGMP signaling pathway may mediate the MC-induced hypotension.
• Antinociceptive / Leaves / Mechanisms: Study on a methanol extract of leaves showed antinociceptive activity involving activation of peripheral and central mechanisms, and partly, via modulation of opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway.