Family - Euphorbiaceae - Aleurites trisperma Blanco - PHILIPPINE TUNG TREE

Scientific names

Aleurites trisperma Blanco
Aleurites saponaria Blanco

Common names

Bagilumbang (Tag.) Kalumban (Tag.)
Balukanag (Ilk., Bis., Tag.) Lumbang-gubat (Tag.)
Banukalad (Tag.) Lumbang tree (Engl.)
Banunkalag (Tag.) Otaheite walnut (Engl.)
Balokanad (Tag.) Philippine tung tree (Engl.)
Lumbang (Bik.) Soft lumbang (Engl.)
Lumbang-banukalad (Tag.)


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Bagilumbang or soft lumbang (Aleurites trisperma) oil / G. S. Jamieson and R. S. McKinney / JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN OIL CHEMISTS’ SOCIETY, Volume 12, Number 7, 146-148, DOI: 10.1007/BF02636731 / A Paper Presented at the 26th Annual Meeting of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, at Memphis, Tenn., May 23�24, 1935.

(2) Evaluation of radical scavenging activity of certain plant extracts using cell free assays / R.M. Samarth* and Vivek Krishna / Pharmacologyonline 1: 125-137 (2007)

(3) Studies conducted at University of Matanzas on oil and gas recently published / Ol and Gas / Energy Business Journal

Bagilumbang is a tree growing to a height of 10 to 15 meters or more. It does not have hairs, except for the inflorescences. Leaves are suborbicular to broadly ovate,10 to 20 centimeters long, entire, with a broadly cordate base. Flowers are 10 to 12 millimeters in diameter, the petals obovate, densely hairy without, borne on panicles about 15 centimeters long. Fruit is somewhat rounded and angled, 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter, opening later along the angles, usually 3-celled and each containing a single seed. Seed is somewhat circular, flattened, rather smooth, with numerous small ridges, with a hard brittle shell about 0.5 millimeter thick. Within the shell is a white, oily, fleshy kernel with a very think embryo surrounded by a large endosperm. Kernel is covered by a thin, white, paperlike seed coat.

– Widely scattered in forests at low and medium altitudes in La Union, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Quezon, Rizal, and Camarines Provinces in Luzon; in Negros; and in Mindanao.
– Sometimes, planted.
– In India, commercially cultivated for its tung oil.
– Planted in tropical and subtropical areas.
– In Taiwan, planted as a garden or shade tree.

– The seeds, like other Aleurites species, yield a high percentage of oil.
– Constants are similar to tung oil.
– Kernel yields as high as 56 % of oil.
– In the genus Aleurites, plant is a significant source of conjugated fatty acid, eleostearic acid (38%).

– More suitable for varnish making than tung oil; although with very poor keeping qualities.
– Seed is purgative.
– Fresh kernels have a nutty flavor but causes a burning sensation in the mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach. Even a small part of the nut can cause violent vomiting within half an hour, or a terrible diarrhea, a few hours after eating and lasting 12 to 24 hours.

Parts used
Seed, bark sap.

– Seed is a strong purgative.
– Bark sap is used as a cure for scurf (dandruff).
– Insecticide: Oil for the seeds is an effective insecticide.
– Soap: Seed from oil is a natural soap with weak cleaning function.

Study Findings
– Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated methanolic extracts of 35 plants for radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays. Aleurites trisperma was one of four that showed very strong radical scavenging activity in both assays.
– Oil Yield / Biodiesel Potential: Study evaluated the suitability of various non-edible oil seeds (jatropha, neem, moringa, trisperma, castor beans and candlenut) for integral utilization of fractions for production of biodiesel and other products. The highest oil content (62% w/w) was found in trisperma seeds. However, use of the oil for biodiesel production was restricted by its high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
– Seeds / Allergenic Properties: Contact dermatitis has been reported from the foliage of all species of Aleurites. Ingestion can cause a whole range of gastrointestinal symptoms: burning in the throat and mouth, nausea, vomiting, cramps, diarrhea, dehydration. Ingestion of seeds has been reported to cause poisoning and death in livestock.