Family • Coriariaceae - Coriaria intermedia Matsum. - JAPANESE FALSE BLUEBERRY
|Coriaria intermedia Matsum.|
|Coriaria japonica subsp. intermedia (Matsum) T. C. Huanh|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Tai wan ma sang|
|Japanese false blueberry (Ig.)|
|Ma sang ye (Chin.)|
Additional Sources and Coriaria intermedia Matsum. Suggested Readings
(1) Coriaria intermedia Matsum. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2) Studies on the Components of Coriaria japonica A. GRAY. XIV. Two New Compounds isolated from Old Stem and Seed / Okuda Takuo / Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 9(3), 178-181, 1961-03-25
(3) Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae) / Saeldeh Momtzaz, Namrita Lall et al / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2010, Vol 6, No 21, Page : 34-41
(4) The isolation and structure elucidation of a new sesquiterpene lactone from the poisonous plant Coriaria japonica (Coriariaceae). / Takeshi Kinoshita, Nao Itaki, Maho Hikita, Yutaka Aoyagi, Yukio Hitotsuyanagi, Koichi Takeya / CHEMICAL & PHARMACEUTICAL BULLETIN 09/2005; 53(8):1040-2. / DOI:10.1248/cpb.53.1040
Baket is a shrub that grows from 1 to 3 meters high. Young branches are four-angled, reddish or pinkish. Leaves are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 4 to 8.5 centimeters in length, 2 to 4 centimeters in width, blunt or rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers are small, about 2 millimeters long, greenish to reddish, borne on simple racemes 6 to 15 centimeters long. Fruit is composed of five very small cocci surrounded by fleshy, persistent petals and sepals of a bluish-black color, giving it a berrylike appearance.
– Found in ravines, at an altitude of 1,400 to 2000 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto and Benguet in the Mountain Province.
– Also reported in Taiwan.
– Poisonous glucoside isolated from the leaves and fruit.
– Study yields coriamyrtin 0.176 % in the fruit, 0.009% in the leaves and 0.041 % in the stems.
– Coriamyrtin is the same toxin found in high concentration in the berries of Coriaria myrtifolia, recognized as one of the most neurotoxic plants in the western Mediterranean area.
– Seeds of C. japonica yielded coriarin, a sesquiterpene lactone, together with tutin, dihydrotutin, and coriarin.
– No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
– Igorots reported to be acquainted with the toxicity of the plant.
– In Taiwan, used as folk medicine for gastrointestinal and uterine cancer.
– Decoction of leaves and fruits known to be deadly poisonous.
– Common in pasture in the Mountain Province, has caused the death of cattle.
Coriamytrin: Coriamyrtin is the same toxin found in high concentration in the berries Coriaria myrtifolia, recognized as one of the most neurotoxic plants in the western Mediterranean area – a few berries may induce digestive and neurologic manifestations including seizures, coma and apnea.
Coriatin: Coriatin, isolated from the fruit juice is considered to be an analog of coriamyrtin.
Tutin: Several studies have reported tutin as a major neurotoxin in the New Zealand shrubs of the genus Coriaria. Tutin has been isolated from the acetone extracts of achenes from the Coriaria japonica berries.
• Phytochemicals: Study yielded phytosterols, ellagic acid 3,3′-dimethyl ether, coriamyrtin, b-tutin, naringenin, ursolic acid and a new triterpenoic acid, 20-epibryonolic acid. Further studies of roots and fruits yielded corianin, 7-hydroxycoumarin, ursolic acid, coriamyrtin, tutin, angustiloin, quercetin and kaempferol.
• Toxic Principle / Coriatin: Coriatin, isolated from the fruit juice, was considered to be an analog of coriamyrtin. The relationship between coriatin and coriamyrtin is considered to be analogous to that between picrotin and picrotoxinin.
• Sesquiterpene Lactone / Coriarin: A sesquiterpene lactone, coriarin, was isolated from the achenes (seeds) of Coriaria japonica, along with known constituents tutin, dihydrotutin, and coriarin.