Family • Rubiaceae - Guettarda speciosa Linn. - BEACH GARDENIA
|Guettarda speciosa Linn.|
|Guettarda vermicularis Blanco|
|Nyctanthes hirsuta Linn.|
Other vernacular names
|MICRONESIA: Belau (Pl-Mad), Balaaw, Bl’ow (Yap), Iuth (Ulithi), Outh (Fais), Ut (Woleai), Ot, Wut, Wutu (Ifaluk), Wut (F:83-Eu), Mvester (Lamotrek), Mwoosor, Mwéwúkkay (Chuuk), Mwohor (Pulusuk), Mohor (NN), Mosor (NM, NW), Mwoosor (Etal), Mosér (Namonuito), Ihd (Pohnpei), Pua (Nukuoro), Utilomar (Marshall), Te uri, Te uri rara (Kiribati) (7)|
|Bagaolan (Tag.)||Malasurut (Bik.)|
|Balañgigan (Bis.)||Tabon-tabon (Tag.)|
|Balibagan (Bis.)||Tabug (Sul.)|
|Banaro (Tag.)||Tambon (P. Bis.)|
|Kalumpañgin (Tag.)||Tulatalisai (Bik.)|
|Kapagan (Ilk.)||Beach gardenia (Engl.)|
|Lagbangan (C. Bis.)||Zebra wood (Engl.)|
|Lambon (P. Bis.)|
Banaro is a tree, 5 to 15 meters high, with a rounded sprawling crown. Leaves are hairy beneath, obovate, 10 to 25 centimeters long, 7.5 to 20 centimeters wide, small at the tip, rounded or heart-shaped at the base. Flowers are white, fragrant, about 3 centimeters across, with a yellow corolla-tube 2.5 to 5 cm long, borne in axillary inflorescences in terminal clusters, 3 to 11 centimeters long. Fruit is without a stalk, green but later whitish, rounded but rather flattened, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide, faintly and closely ribbed, with 4 to 6 cells, each cavity having one seed.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) EFFECT OF GUETTARDA SPECIOSA EXTRACTS ON BIOGENIC AMINES CONCENTRATIONS IN RAT BRAIN AFTER INDUCTION OF SEIZURE / A Saravana Kumar and R Gandhimathi / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 1, Suppl 1, Nov.-Dec. 2009
(2) Study on the Antiseizure Activities of Inner Bark of Guettarda Speciosa (L.) / S. ARUMUGAM, A. PALANIVELU, G. RETNASAMY and D. RAMAIYAN / Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 8: 73-76, 2009
(3) Effect of Guettarda speciosa extracts on antioxidant enzymes levels in rat brain after induction of seizures by MES and PTZ / A. Saravana Kumar, R. Gandhimathi, /Journal of Natural Products, Vol. 3(2010):80-85
(4) Utilomar / Traditional Medicine of the Marshall Islands: The Women, the Plants, the …/ Irene J. Taafaki, Maria Kabua Fowler, Randolph R. Thama / Google EBook
(5) Guettarda speciosa-Rubiaceae / People and Plants of Micronesia
– Scattered along the seashore throughout the Philippines.
– Pantropic, always occurring along the seashore, sea cliffs, beach thickets, and low land forests.
– Widely distributed from East Africa to India and through Malaysia to the South Pacific.
– Phytochemical analysis identified alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, tannins, phenols, gums and mucilage.
– Bark reported to yield loganic acid and secologanin.
– Flowers are very fragrant, open in the evening, fall before dawn.
– Considered febrifugal, antidiarrheic, anticholinergic, vulnerary
– In the Dutch Indies, bark is use to cure chronic dysentery.
– In Indo-China, applied to wounds and abscesses.
– In India, the inner bark traditionally used to treat epilepsy; also used in diarrhea. Decoction of leaves are used to treat cough, colds and sore throats. The inner bark traditionally used in epilepsy.
– Inner bark used in the treatment of conjunctivitis.
– Leaves used as poultices.
– In the Marshall Islands, flowers are pounded and mixed with mother’s milk for weakness and lethargy in newborn babies. Juice of flowers squeezed into the vagina as a douche. Infusion of flower juice drank for postpartum internal bleeding. Also used for treating hemorrhoids and headaches. Fruit mixed with coconut is considered a fast-acting antidote for fish poisoning.
– In Kiribati, skin of fruit mixed with a part of root of Scaevola, used for treating venereal diseases.
– In Tonga, tea made from the inner bark used to treat epilepsy.
– In Tahiti, used as antidiarrheic, febrifugal, and anticholinergic.
– In New Guinea, bark preparation used for dysentery.
• Flowers: Because of their fragrance, girls in the Pacific wear them in their hair. The Fijians and Samoans string them into necklaces.
• Herbal Baths / Ritual Use: In the Marshall Islands, flowers buds are used in the preparation of deodorizing herbal baths. Ritual Use: Flowers are pounded and rubbed over the body while bathing. As part of a ritual use, flower buds, crushed and pounded, made into an “O,” and mixed with a teaspoon of mother’s milk, and given to newborn baby.
• Essential Oil: In India, it is reported that some kind of attar is prepared from the flowers.
• Antidiarrheal / Inner Bark: Study of the ethanol extract of the inner bark of Guerttarda speciosa for anti-diarrheal effects showed marked reduction in the number of diarrhea stools and reduction in the weight and volume of the intestinal contents, as well as reduction of in intestinal transit.
• Anti-Seizure / Effect on Biogenic Amines on Rat Brain: Study of ethanol extract of GS to examine biogenic amines concentrations in rat brain after induction of seizures suggests G speciosa increased the monoamines on rat brain which may decrease the susceptibility to maximum electroshock of pentylenetetrazole induced seizure in rats.
• Anti-Seizure / Bark: Study of inner bark sowed significant antiseizure activity against various models of epilepsy.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study showed both the chloroform and ethanolic extract exhibited potent antifungal and antibacterial activity.
• Antiepileptic / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanolic extract of GS on antioxidant enzymes in rat brain after induction of seizures by MES and PTZ. Anticonvulsant activity was dose-dependent and may be attributed to the antioxidant properties and the delay in the generation of free radical in MES and PTZ induced epilepsy.