Botoncillo

Family • Amaranthaceae - Gomphrena globosa L. - GLOBE AMARANTHUS - Qian ri hong


Scientific names

Amaranthoides globosa Maza
Gomphrena eriopoda Gillies ex Moq.
Gomphrena globosa L.
Gomphrena rubra Moq.
Gomphrena tumida Seidl ex Opiz
Xeraea globosa Kuntze

Other vernacular names

BENGALI: Botam phul, Gulmakhamal, Golkamal.
FRENCH: Immortelle pourpre.
HINDI: Gul-e-makhmal.
MALAYALAM: Vadamalli.
MANIPURI: Chengkruk.

Common names

Bokingon (Tag.)
Botbotones (Ilk.)
Botoncillo (Sp.)
Botones-botonesan (Tag.)
Bukingan (Tag.)
Bulah (Bag.)
Butingan (S.L.Bis.)
Bachelor’s button (Engl.)
Globe amaranth (Engl.)
Gomphrena (Engl.)
Thousand day red (Engl.)

Boto-botonesan or phonetic variations are shared by four plants of different species: (1) Mutha (Cyperus rotundus) Boto-botones (2) Gatas-gatas (Euphorbia hirta) botobotonis, botbotonis, botonis (3) Botoncillo(Gomphrena globosa) botbotonis, botones-botonesan, and (4) Botonesan (Hyptis capitata): bababañga, liñga-liñgahan.

botoncillo

Botany
Botoncillo is an erect, branched, pubescent annual, the branches more or less thickened and often purplish at the nodes. Leaves are opposite, petioled, oblong acute or obtuse, 7 to 11 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, densely crowded in globose heads, the heads are white, pink or purple, solitary, peduncled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, subtended by 2 bracts. Bracteoles are 8 to 10 millimeters long, enclosing the flowers, lateral, keeled. Sepals, pubescent, 5, lanceolate, cleft at the tip, usually without staminodes. Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled; style short or long, stigmas 2. Fruits are utricles, compressed, and indehiscent.

Distribution
– In settled areas throughout the Philippines.

Constituents
– Plant yield flavones and flavonoid glycosides, gomphrenol.
– Flower yields ß-cyanins, gomphrenin I, II, and III.
– Leaves yield methylenedioxyflavonol-gomphrenol.
– Study yielded a triterpenoid saponin (gomphrenoside-1), an new hopane derivative along with known compounds.
– Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars and coumarins.
– Phytochemical evaluation of aerial parts yielded one new triterpenoid saponin (gomphrenoside) and one new hopane derivative (hopan-7ß-ol) along with known compounds, ß-sitosterol-ß-D-glucoside and 1-triacontanol.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Rapid Identification of Betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus / Yi-Zhong Cai, Jie Xing, Mei Sun, and Harold Corke

(2) Phytochemical investigation of Gomphrena globosa aerial parts / Indian journal of chemistry/ 2004, vol. 43, no10, pp. 2223-2227

(3) Gomphrena globosa L. is an accepted name / The Plant List

(4) Gomphrena / Common names / Flowers of India

(5) Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / Botany.si.edu

(6) Phytochemical screening and evaluation of cytotoxic, antimicrobial and cardiovascular effects of Gomphrena globosa L.(Amaranthaceae) / Daniel Dias Arcanjo et al / Journal of medicinal plant research (Impact Factor: 0.59). 04/2011; 5(10):2006-2010.

(7) Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Gomphrena globosa (L.) / Md. Hamiduzzaman and A.T.M. Zafrul Azam / Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Journal 15(2): 183-185, 2012

(8) Significant Hypoglycemic Activity from Gomphrena globosa (Amaranthaceae) in Mice Model / Hamiduzzaman Md. / Universal Journal of Pharmacy, 2013, 2(5): pp 68-72

(9) INVITRO STUDIES ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF EXTRACTS FROM THE FLOWERS OF GOMPHRENA GLOBOSA / SHILPA SHARMA AND RAVNEET K GREWAL* / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, July; 5(3): (P) 457 – 465

botoncillo2Properties
– Sweet tasting.
– Antitussive, antiasthmatic.

Parts utilized
· Flowers.
· Collect the head inflorescence during May to October, during the flowering season.
· Sun-dry.

botoncillo3

Uses
Edibility
– Flowers mixed with various kinds of tea or steeped alone.
– Knob petals can be eaten as vegetable.

botoncillo4Folkloric
– Decoction of dried material or 10 inflorescences used for bronchial asthma, acute and chronic bronchitis, whooping cough.
– Decoction of fresh plant used to wash sores.
– Flower decoction used for inflammation of the eyes, difficulty urinating, headaches, and dysentery.
– In Trinidad and Tobago, used for diabetes and for high blood pressure, jaundice, oliguria and other kidney problems and as heart tonic.
– In Myanmar, decoction of plant used for cough.
– In the Guianas, whole plant infusion of the white-flowered variant used as diabetes remedy. Warm infusion of leaf used as sudorific.

Study Findings
• Betacyanins: Rapid Identification of Betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus: Natural betacyanins are studied for its potential as food colorants and antioxidants. Fourteen free and acetylated betacyanins were identified.
• Antihypertensive / Low Cytotoxicity: Study of ethanol extract of leaves showed low cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp bioassay and no antimicrobial activity. It promoted a hypotensive effect by significant reduction in arterial blood pressure without change in heart rate.
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Crude methanol extract of G. globosa showed significant free radical scavenging activity. Its hexane soluble fraction showed highest activity. On brine shrimp lethality assay, the chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanol extract showed highest lethality.
• Hypoglycemic / Cytotoxicity: In a study of various fractions, an n-hexane soluble fraction showed significant lowering of blood glucose level in a mice model. Glibenclammide was used as standard drug.
• Antioxidant / Flowers: In a study of various extracts of flowers, a methanol extract showed a high content of phenols and flavonoids. It showed potent free radical scavenging activity in the H2O2 and DPPH assays.
• Wound Healing / Cytotoxicity: Crude m

Availability
Wild-crafted.