Family • Asteraceae - Ageratum conyzoides Linn. - BILLY GOAT WEED - Sheng hong ji
|Ageratum conyzoides Linn.|
|Ageratum latifolium Cav.|
|Ageratum cordifolium Roxb.|
|Ageratum album Hort.|
|Ageratum odoratum Bailly|
|Huo xiang ji (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|FRENCH: Eupatoria bleue|
|INDONESIA: Babadotan, wedusai, dus-bedusa.|
|MALAYSIA: Tahi anjing, rumput pereh jarang, rumput sekedok.|
|SPANISH: Erva de Sao Joao|
|THAI: Thiam mae hang, saapraeng saapkaa, ya saap raeng.|
|VIETNAM: C[aa]y b[oo]ng c[uws]t heo, c[aa]y b[oo]ng th[us]i.|
|Agas-moro (Ilk.)||Kulong-kogong babae (Bik.)|
|Asipukpuk (Pang.)||Pagpagai (Bon.)|
|Bahu-bahu (Sul.)||Singilan (Ilk.)|
|Bahug-bahug (P.Bis)||Tagulinaw (Tag.)|
|Budbuda (Ig.)||Tagulinai (Tag.)|
|Bulak-manok (Tag.)||Taindikaldi (Bon.)|
|Damong-pallas (Tag.)||Billy goat weed (Engl.)|
|Kakalding (Bon.)||Goat weed (Engl.)|
|Kamubuag (Iv.)||Tropical whiteweed (Engl.)|
|Kilokong-kabayo (Tag.)||Erva de Sao Joao (Span.)|
|Kolong-kugon (Bis.)||Sheng hong ji (Chin.)|
Bulak-manok is an erect, slender, branched perennial, hairy and aromatic herb, 15 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are stalked, alternate, ovate, 4 to 11 centimeters long, and 1 to 5 centimeters wide, with the tip and base somewhat pointed, and with round toothed margins, hispidly hairy. Flowering heads are numerous, small, about 5 millimeters across, and borne in dense terminal corymbs. Ray flowers are many, pale blue, purple or white. Disk flowers absent. Fruits (achenes) are black, with 5 pappus scales which are awned and often toothed or serrate below.
– A common weed flowering year-round throughout the Philippines from sea level to an altitude of 2,000 meters. The seeds are light, easily dispersed and disseminated by wind.
– Of American origin.
– Now pantropic.
• Leaves yield a volatile oil, 0.00054 percent, which contains sesquiterpene.
• Plant yields a vegetable proximate principle known as “coumarin,” also found in the allied genus, Eupatorium.
• Yields mono and sesquiterpenes, chromene, chromone benzofuran and coumarin, flavonoids, triterpene and sterols, and alkaloids.
• Essential oil from leaves and flowers yielded ageratochromene (precocene II, 25.89%), the sesquiterpene beta-caryophyllene (23.79%); demethoxyageratochromene (precocene I, 14.76%), and some monoterpene hydrocarbons (2-5.5%).
• Chemical profile analyses of leaf, stem, root and flower yielded phytochemicals: alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, resins, phenols; nutrients were proteins, carbohydrates, and reducing forms., essential and non-essential amino acids.
• Evaluation of leaf, stem, root, and flowers for chemical profile yielded alkaloids, flavonoids and some constituents of flavonoids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, resins, phenols while proteins, carbohydrate and its reducing forms were present as nutrients.
• Plant has a characteristic aromatic odor when crushed.
• Considered analgesic, antispasmodic, febrifuge, tonic, laxative, vulnerary.
• Considered antioxidant, anthelmintic, antibacterial, antiinflammatory.
Leaves, young stems and flowering tops.
– See study on toxicity of medicinal tea.
– In the Philippines, juice of fresh leaves is widely used as a vulnerary, pounded and mixed with salt.
– Stem, roots, and flowers of the plant are boiled, the resulting decoction used for stomach troubles.
– The whole plant has been used as a decoction for cough, colds, fever, skin disease, and high blood pressure. Also for bleeding due to external wounds; furuncle, eczema, carbuncle.
– Poultices for headaches.
– Squeezed juice from fresh material when dropped inside the ears treats otitis media.
– Leaves sometimes cooked in coconut oil, and the medicated oil applied to wounds.
– Used for fever, cough and colds; hepatitis, dysentery; neurasthenia, snake bites, dizziness.
In Brazil, used as stimulant, tonic, emmenagogue, diuretic and carminative. Leaf infusion used for colic, fever, diarrhea, rheumatism, spasms.
In Africa, used for fever, headache, rheumatism, pneumonia, and healing of burn wounds.
In India, used for leprosy and oil lotion for purulent ophthalmia.
In Vietnam, used for gynecologic disease.
In Congo and Cameroon, used for fever, rheumatism, headache and colic.
In Togoland, used for fevers.
Among Hindus, popular as an external application for agues.
In Java, paste of roots rubbed on the body for fever.
Juice applied as remedy for anal prolapse.
In the Gold Coast Colony, juice from squeezed leaves used as lotion for the eyes.
In Sierra Leone, leaves used as remedy for craw-craw; also used for chronic ulcers, and intravaginally, for uterine troubles. Also, crushed in water and given as an emetic.
In Trinidad used as abortifacient, depurative, decoagulant; for cough, cystitis, diabetes flu.
In Siberia, extract of leaves are rubbed on the chest for pneumonia in children.
In Java, paste of leaves, mixed with chalk, used for wounds.
In Nigeria leaf decoction used for STDs. In North Africa, root decoction used for STDs such as syphilis; also used for cystitis, urethral pain, leucorrhea. In Togo, leaves used for the same.
Poultice of leaves applied to boils; also, applied to wounds to prevent tetanus.
In South Cameroons, leaves are pounded with Ocimum and macerated in water with “bush pepper” as a purgative enema preparation.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Ageratum conyzoides L.: A review on its phytochemical and pharmacological profile
IJGP: 2008 / Volume : 2 / Issue : 2 / Page : 59-68
(2) Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of Ageratum conyzoides in rats / Phytotherapy Research / Volume 11 Issue 3, Pages 183 – 188
(3) ENHANCEMENT OF CUTANEOUS WOUND HEALING BY METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF AGERATUM CONYZOIDES IN THE WISTAR RAT. / Oladejo O W et al / African Journal of Biomedical Research, Vol. 6 (1); 27 – 31 (2003)
(4) BLOOD GLUCOSE LOWERING EFFECT OF AQUEOUS LEAF EXTRACTS OF AGERATUM CONYZOIDES IN RATS / N Nyunai et al / Afr. J. Trad. CAM (2006) 3 (3): 76 – 79
(5) A fungistatic chromene fromAgeratum conyzoides / M C M Iqbal et al / Phytoparasitica • Volume 32, Number 2 / April, 2004 / DOI 10.1007/BF0297977
(6) Antiinflammatory and chronic toxicity study of the leaves of ageratum conyzoides L. in rats./ SHORT COMMUNICATION) / A.C.A.; Silva, E.L.F.; Fraga, M.C.A et al / International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology:January 1, 2005
(7) Anticancer and antiradical scavenging activity of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) / A H Adebayo et al | Phcog Mag | Year : 2010 | Volume : 6 | Issue : 21 | Page : 62-66
(8) Hypoglycaemic and Antihyperglycaemic Activity of Ageratum Conyzoides L. in Rats / Nyemb Hyunai et al / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. 2009; 6(2): 123–130.
(9) Chemical composition of the essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides L. occurring in South China / A J Sundufu, S S Huang / 2004, Volume: 19, Issue: 1, Pages: 6-8 / DOI: 10.1002/ffj.1198
(10) Ageratum conyzoides / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(11) Acute and Sub-chronic (28-day) Oral Toxicity Studies of Hydroalcohol Leaf Extract of Ageratum conyzoides L (Asteraceae) / Aboudoulatif Diallo, Kwashie Eklu-Gadegkeku, Amegnona Agbonon, Kodjo Aklikokou, Edmond E Creppy, Messanvi Gbeassor / Trop J Pharm Res, October 2010; 9 (5): 463
(12) Simple Evaluation of Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Formulation of Roots of Ageratum conyzoides Linn / Jain Sachin*, Jain Neetesh, Tiwari A, Balekar N and Jain D K / Asian J. Research Chem. 2(2): April.-June, 2009
(13) Antioxidant potential of aqueous leaf extract of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. in diabetic rats / Nyunaï Nyemb, Manguelle-Dicoum Biyong Adèle, Njifutié Njikam, Abdennebi El Hassane / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy 01/2009; 1:041-046.
(14) A comparative study of the wound healing properties of honey and Ageratum conyzoides. / Oladejo OW, Imosemi IO, Osuagwu FC, Oyedele OO, Oluwadara OO, Ekpo OE, Aiku A, Adewoyin O, Akang EE. / Afr J Med Med Sci. 2003 Jun;32(2):193-6.
(15) Diuretic activity of Ageratum conyzoides extract in rats / Kakjing Dadul Falang*, Noel Nenman Wannang, Iliya Hosea Azi, Chukwurah Chiago Joy / Phytopharmacology 2012, 3(1) 145-149
(16) The antiprotozoal activity of methylated flavonoids from Ageratum conyzoides L. / Nour AM, Khalid SA, Kaiser M, Brun R, Abdalla WE, Schmidt TJ. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May 4;129(1):127-30. Epub 2010 Feb 26
(17) Psychopharmacological investigations on the benefits of Ageratum conyzoides in the modulation of neurodegenerative disorder of Alzheimer’s type / Biradar SM, Joshi HK. / Int J Green Pharm 2011;5:205-11
(18) Protective Effects of Ethanolic Extract of Ageratum conyzoides on Experimental Induced Inflammatory Bowel Disease / S.M. Biradar, B.J. Aswathanarayana, V.H. Kulkarni, P.V. Kulkarni, D.M. Smita and K.C. Tarak / Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2011, Vol: 6, No: 8, pp No 664-678 / DOI: 10.3923/jpt.2011.664.678
(19) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal tea of Ageratum conyzoides / Cristiane F. BosiI; Daniela W. RosaI; Raphael GrougnetII; Nikolaos LemonakisIII; Maria HalabalakiIII; Alexios Leandros SkaltsounisIII; Maique W. BiavattiI / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.23 no.3 Curitiba May/June 2013 Epub Mar 26, 2013 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2013005000028
(20) Studies on the Toxicity of Ageratum conyzoides / Igboasoiyi, A. C.; Eseyin, O. A.; Ezenwa, N. K.; Oladimeji, H. O. / Journal of Pharmacology & Toxicology;2008, Vol. 2 Issue 8, p743
(21) Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Ageratum conyzoides L. Fractions in Normoglycemic and Diabetic Male Wistar Rats / Nyemb Nyunaï1, * Adèle Manguelle-Dicoum, Njikam Njifutié, El Hassane Abdennebi, Cros Gérard / International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4 (1), 38-42 © 2010
(22) Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Ageratum conyzoides stems / Fatema Nasrin / Nasrin, International Current Pharmaceutical Journal, January 2013, 2(2): 33-37
(23) Hepatoprotective Effects of Ageratum conyzoides L. on Biochemical Indices Induced by Acetaminophen Toxicity in Wistar rats / Pawan K Verma, M Sultana, R Raina, S Prawez, S Pandita, Neha Jamwal and Arshad H Mir / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 3 (4 Suppl 1), pp. S23-S27 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.34.S4
(24) The In Vitro Effects of Aqueous and Ethanolic Extracts of the Leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) on Three Life Cycle Stages of the Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides bakeri (Nematoda: Heligmosomatidae) / J. Wabo Poné, Olivia Fossi Tankoua, Jeannette Yondo, Marie Claire Komtangi, Mpoame Mbida, and C. F. Bilong Bilong / Veterinary Medicine International, Volume 2011 (2011) / http://dx.doi.org/10.4061/2011/140293
(25) Schistosomicidal Activity of the Essential Oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae) against Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms / Nathalya I. de Melo, Lizandra G. Magalhaes, Carlos E. de Carvalho, Kamila A. L. Wakabayashi, Gabriela de P. Aguiar, Rafael C. Ramos, Andre L. L. Mantovani, Izabel C. C. Turatti, Vanderlei Rodrigues, Milton Groppo, Wilson R. Cunha, Rodrigo C. S. Veneziani and Antônio E. M. Crotti* / Molecules 2011, 16, 762-773; doi:10.3390/molecules16010762
• Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Phytochemical testing of dried leaves yielded resins, alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids while dried stems showed resins, saponins, tannins, glycosides and flavonoids. In vitro studies of AC extracts activity against S aureus, Y enterocolitica, S gallinarum, and E coli, suggesting a potential source for development of new antibacterials.
• Antiulcerogenic / Gastroprotective: Study documents the beneficial cytoprotective effects of the plant extract against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats.
• Analgesic / Antiinflammatory: Study results suggested that AC extract exhibited antinociceptive effect and inhibition of inflammatory reactions induced by neutrophil mobilizing stimuli.
• Antimicrobial: Crude extract studies demonstrated antimicrobial properties on S aureus and Methicillin-resistant S aureus and possible usefulness in skin and wound infections.
• Hemostatic: Study yielded tannins, saponins and flavonoids and confirmed the hemostatic activity of the leaf extract through vasoconstriction and formation of an “artificial clot” to arrest the small vessel bleeding.
• Radioprotective: Study of AC extract showed it to be non-toxic at its highest dose and exhibiting a radioprotective activity in part attributed to the scavenging of reactive oxygen species induced by ionizing radiation.
• Wound Healing: Extract study showed wound healing effect better than normal saline treated controls, an effect attributed to the antimicrobial properties of AC.
• Blood Glucose Lowering / Leaves: Study of aqueous extracts of leaves of Ageratum conyzoides in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels.
Study of aqueous extracts of leaves of Ageratum conyzoides in normoglycemic and STZ-induced diabetic rats confirmed the hypoglycemic properties of the leaves of A conyzoides.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Toxicity Study: Study confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of A conyzoides with no apparent hepatotoxicity.
• Anti-Cancer / Radical Scavenging Activity: Various extracts of A conyzoides were screened in some cancer lines including Human non-small cell lung CA, human colon adenocarcinoma, human gastric CA, and human breast CA among others. Results showed A conyzoides possessed anticancer and antiradical properties.
• Toxicity Study: A 28-day study evaluated the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of A. conyzoides leaves in Wistar rats. Results showed the hydroalcoholic extract is relatively safe when administered orally to rats.
• Comparative Study / Wound Healing / Polyherbal Formulation / Roots: Study in rats of root extract showed wound healing activity, with accelerated healing processes and increased breaking strength. The wound healing of a polyherbal formulation, Ageratum conyzoides with Ficus religiosa, C. longa and T. indica showed better results, attributed to the synergistic action of the plant constituents.
• Chemical Profiles of Leaf, Stem, Root, and Flower: In a study evaluating the chemical profile of plant parts, the leaf showed the most concentration of chemicals, followed by the flower.
• Antioxidant / Leaf / Improved Glycemia: The antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Acin the serum of male diabetic rats was evaluated. Results showed lowering of lipid hydroperoxides. Ac had a positive effect on the oxidation-reduction system on STZ-induced diabetic rats, together with improved glycemia.
• Wound Healing Comparative Study / Vs Honey: Study in Wistar rats investigated the wound healing properties of methanolic extracts of Ac compared to honey. Histologically, the day-10 Ageratum sections showed fewer inflammatory cells compared with honey and controls. Also, healed scar sections of wounds dressed with herb extract showed more fibrosis. Healed wounds from Ac group showed significantly fewer fibroblasts.
• Diuretic Activity: Study of aqueous extract of leaves of Ac in albino Wistar rats showed significant diuretic activity. similar to Acetzolamide. at 600 mg/KBW, there was significant increase in concentrations of Na, K, and Cl ions suggesting benefits for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.
• Lactation Effect: Study evaluated the effect of Ac leaf extract on the histological structures of non-lactating mammary gland of wistar white female albino rats. After 14 days of treatment, female rat mammary gland showed more secretory activity indicating lactation.
• Methoxylated Flavonoids / Antiprotozoal: The dichlormethane extract from aerial parts have shown prominent activity against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the etiologic agent of East African Sleeping Sickness. Study isolated five highly methoxylated flavonoids along with the chromene derivative encecalol methyl ether. The flavonoids showed activity against protozoan pathogens.
• Haemostatic Effects: Study of methanolic leaf extract in albino rats exhibited haemostatic effects. Results showed significant dose-dependent decreases in the bleeding time, prothrombin time, and clotting time, with a significant increase in plasma fibrinogen concentration. Results suggest haemostatic activity in both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways.
• Psychopharmacologic Effects / Memory / Ach: In a study in mice, Ac produced dose-dependent improvement in learning capacity and retention memory of both young and aged mice. It also reversed scopolamine and natural ageing-induced amnesia in young and old mice, while also indirectly increasing the acetylcholine by reducing the whole brain anticholinesterase activity.
• Inflammatory Bowel Disease / Protective Effects: In a study of acetic acid-induced colitis and indomethacin-induced enterocolitis models in rats, pretreatment with an ethanolic extract produced significant attenuation in biochemical and histopath parameters. Results suggest a possible benefit for use in inflammatory bowel disease.
• Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids in Medicinal Tea: Asteraceae is described as containing toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of Ageratum conyzoides detected pyrrozilidine alkaloids lycopsamine, dihydrolycopsamine, and acetyl-lycopsamine and their N-oxides. Lycopsamine and its N-oxide are known hepatotoxins and tumorigens. At the time of the report, there are no established safety guidelines on pyrrozilidine alkaloids-containing plants, and their use in Brazil.
• Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the mean lethal dose of an ethanolic extract of Ageratum conyzoides at a daily dose of 500 and 1000 mg kg of extract for 28 days. Results showed no toxic effects in rates, with an LD50 of 10,000 mg kg. Results suggest AC s safe for use in ethnomedicine.
• Antihyperglycemic: Study of crude extracts of leaves and fractions of A. conyzoides in rats showed important antihyperglycemic potential. Result suggest more than one antihyperglycemic compound with different chemical characteristics and mechanisms of action.
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxic: Study evaluating a methanolic extract of A. conyzoides stems for antioxidant activity using a DPPH scavenging assay showed dose dependent scavenging of free radicals. Cytotoxicity evaluation using brine shrimp lethality assay exhibited promising cytotoxicity, comparing with LC50 values of vincristine sulphate.
• Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen Toxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of acetone and n-hexane extracts of A. conyzoides in wistar rats following acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity. Results showed restoration of enzyme levels as indication of stabilization of plasma membrane as well as repair of hepatic tissue damages induced by APAP.
• Ovicidal / Larvicidal / Parasitic Nematode Heligmosomoides Bakeri: Study showed aqueous and ethanolic extracts of A. conyzoides have potent anthelmintic activity. The ovicidal activity could be due to penetration of egg shells, segmentation of blastomeres, or paralyses of larvae inside embryonated eggs.
• Anthelmintic / Schistosomicidal / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the schistosomicidal effects of the essential oil of A. conyzoides against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. Ac-EO showed activity, although less effective than the positive control, praziquantel (PZQ). Ac-EO caused dose-dependent reduction in the number of eggs. Precocene I and (E)-caryophyllene were identified as two major constituents.
Seeds, tinctures and extracts in the cybermarket.