Family • Rutaceae - Clausena excavata Burm. f . - CLAUSENA - Jia juang pi

Scientific names

Clausena excavata Burm. f .
Clausena lanulata Hayata
Clausena moningerae Merr.
Clausena tetramera Hayata

Common names

Buriñgit (Tagb.)
Clausena (Engl.)
Jia juang pi (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Jia huang pi, Ye huang pi.
JAPANESE: Kurausena ekisukyabata, Kurausena ekisukavata, Kurauzena ekisukyabata.
MALAY: Bagal tikus, Chamar, Daun sicerek, Pokok cherek, Pokok kemantu, Semeru, Sicherek, Tikusan.
THAI: Chamat, Hatsa khun, Hatsa khun khok, Khi phueng, Ma lui, Mi, Mo noi, Mui yai, Oi chang, Phia fan, Rui, Saen so, Sam rui, Sam sok, Sam suea, Samat bai yai, San sok, Si som, Ya sap hin, Yom.

Buriñgit is a small tree, covered with soft hairs all over. Leaves are 15 to 30 centimeters long, fetid when crushed, with 15 to 30 leaflets which are 5 to 9 centimeters long. Flowers are 4-parted, shortly stalked, and white, borne on pyramidal panicles 10 to 30 centimeters in length. Fruit is broadly oblong, about 2 centimeters long.


– In thickets and old clearing at low altitudes in Mindoro, Culion, Palawan, and the Sulu Archipelgo.
– Also occurs in India to Indo-China and Malaya.


– Study of leaves isolated 10 new furanone-coumarins – clauslactones A-J. together with known carbazole, clauszoline M, and a coumarin, umbelliferone.
– Study of an acetone extract of root bark yielded 10 new carbazole alkaloids, clausine M-V and clausenatine-A, together with 39 known compounds.
– Study of roots yielded six coumarins and twelve alkaloids.

Parts used
Bark, roots, leaves.

– Tamils reported to use it as a potherb.

– For bowel problems, especially coli, the Malays drink a decoction of roots.
– Pounded root used as poultice for sores, including ulcerations of the nose.
– Poultice of leaves of pounded leaves applied to the head for headaches.
– In Kelantan, roots used for yaws.
– Ulcerations of the nose treated by fumigation from burning leaves and bark.
– Decoction of flowers and leaves used for colic.
– Decoction of roots used for abdominal colic.
– Decoction of leaves given after childbirth.
– In Java, plant juice used for coughs; also, as vermifuge.
– Malays used it for treatment of abdominal pain, snakebites, and for detoxification.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Immunomodulatory activities of Clausena excavata Burm. f. wood extracts / A Manosroi, A Saraphanchotiwitthaya and J Manosroi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 89, Issue 1, November 2003, Pages 155-160 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(03)00278-2

(2) Insecticidal activities of leaf and twig essential oils from Clausena excavata against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae / Sen-Sung Cheng, Hui-Ting Chang, Chun-Ya Lin et al / Pest Management Science, Volume 65, Issue 3, pages 339–343, March 2009 / DOI: 10.1002/ps.1693

(3) Chemical Constituents of Clausena excavata:  Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Novel Furanone-Coumarins with Inhibitory Effects for Tumor-Promotion / Chihiro Ito, Masataka Itogawa et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2000, 63 (9), pp 1218–1224 / DOI: 10.1021/np990619i

(4) Fungicidal properties of Clausena excavata aqueous extracts / Bryan Brunner, G Serrano Rodriguez et al /

(5) Clausena excavata exhibits anti-Hepatitis B virus activity and cytotoxicity against multi-drug resistant cancer cells / Chung-Ren Su, Sheau Farn Yeh, Chih Miem Liu et al / Bioorg Med Chem. 2009 Aug 15;17(16):6137-43. Epub 2008 Dec 13. PMID: 19635670

(6) Alkaloidal and other constituents from the root bark of Clausena excavata / Tian-Shung Wu, Shiow-Chyn Huang et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 52, No 3, Oct 1999, Pp 523-527 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(99)00220-4

(7) A New Cytotoxic Carbazole Alkaloid from Clausena excavata / Y H Taufiq-Yap, T H Peh,G C L Ee et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 21, No 9, 2007 / DOI:10.1080/14786410701258875

(8) Clausena excavata Burm. f. (Rutaceae): A review of its traditional uses, pharmacological and phytochemical
 / Ismail Adam Arbab*, Ahmad Bustamam Abdul, Mohamed Aspollah, Rasedee Abdullah, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Syam Mohan and A. H. A. Abdelmageed / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(33), pp. 7177-7184, 31 December, 2011 / DOI: 10.5897/JMPR11.013

(9) Sorting Clausea names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(10) Acute and Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Studies of Clausena excavata Extract in Rats / Kunanusorn Puongtip, Panthong Ampai, Nuntasaen Narong, Pittayanurak Prapadsorn, Reutrakul Vichai / JPBMS, 2011, 12

(11) Antioxidative and Cytotoxic Properties of the Leaf Extracts and Oil of Clausena Excavata / Wan-Nor I’zzah W M Z, Asmah R, Fauziah OI and Taufiq-Yap Y H / Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Seminar, 2008, Kuala Lumpur

(12) Dentatin Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells via Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, Survivin Downregulation, Caspase-9, -3/7 Activation, and NF-κB Inhibition / Ismail Adam Arbab, Chung Yeng Looi, Ahmad Bustamam Abdul, Foo Kit Cheah, Won Fen Wong, Mohd Aspollah Sukari, Rasedee Abdullah, Syam Mohan, Suvitha Syam, Aditya Arya, Manal Mohamed Elhassan Taha, Bushra Muharram, Mohd Rais Mustafa, and Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) /

(13) Chemical Constituents from the Roots of Clausena excavata and Their Cytotoxicity / Tawanun Sripisut, Sarot Cheenpracha, Thunwadee Ritthiwigrom, Uma Prawat and Surat Laphookhieo* / Rec. Nat. Prod. 6:4 (2012) 386-389

buriñgit3Study Findings
• Immunomodulatory: Study investigated the invitro immunomodulatory activities of the extracts of C. excavata on mouse immune system. Results revealed immunomodulating activity which could explain the traditional use of the plant in Thailand.
• Clauslactones / Inhibitory Effects for Tumor-Promotion: Study isolated 10 new furanone-coumarins named clauslactones A-J, together with known carbazole, clauszoline M and the coumarin, umbelliferone. The furanone-coumarins were founds to exhibit inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in Raju cells.
• Antiproliferative / Anti-Cancer: Study investigated clausine B, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark of Clausenas excavata for antiproliferative activities against human cancer cell lines. Results showed activity against non-hormone-dependent breast cancer, cervical cancer, ovarian cancer and hepatic cancer. The activity was attributed possibly to the phenolic group in clausine-B.
• Mosquitocidal: Study investigated the mosquito larvicidal activities of leaf and twig essential oils from CE and its constituents against Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus larvae. Results suggested the essential oils may be explored as a potential natural larvicide.
buriñgit4• Antiviral / Anti-HSV2: Study evaluated 35 extracts from the leaves of five plants, including C excavata, for antiviral activity against HSV-2 strains and HSV-2 isolates. Results showed 20 extracts from the 5 plants inhibited plaque formation by HSV-2 by inactivation activity.
• Antinociceptive: Study of ethanolic extract of C excavata leaves showed significant antinociceptive activity on acetic acid-induced writhing in mice.
• Coumarin / Inhibitory Effects for Tumor-Promotion: Study of leaves yielded furanone-coumarins found to exhibit inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in Raji cells.
• Flavonoids / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the major flavonoid compounds and predominant essential oils in C. excavata and its antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer activities. Methanolic extract of leaves was high inphenolic content, rutin and naringin. Terpinolene was the main component in the leaf oil. There was weak DPPH scavenging activity. Antioxidant activity of flavonoids was associated with anticancer properties. Fruit oil showed better cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cells and showed potential as a good source for breast cancer treatment.
• Fungicidal: Root extracts of C. excavata showed significant inhibition of pathogenic plant fungi C. gloeosporioides growth. Results suggest CE should be investigated further as potential biologic control for C. gleoesporioides.
• Anti- HBV / Cytotoxicity against MDR Cancer Cells: Study yielded four natural pyranocoumarins – clausenidin, nordentatin, clausarin and xanthoxyletin. Compounds 1 and 2 suppressed HBV surface antigen in HepA2 cells; 1 and 3 showed cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines. Others compounds showed significant activity against multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines.
• Anti-HIV-1 / Limonoid: Study isolated a limonoid, clausenolide-1-ethyl ether and two coumarins, dentatin and nor-dentatin. Limonoid 1 from the crude ethanol extract of rhizomes and roots exhibited HIV-1 inhibitory activity.
• Cytotoxic Carbazole: An ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark isolated a new carbazole alkaloid, clausine-TY, together with two known carbazole alkaloids, clausine-H and clausine-B. Clausine-TY showed significant cytotoxicity against CEM-SS cell line.
• Toxicity Study: Study in rats evaluated the safety of a methanol extract of stems. In a repeated dose 90-day toxicity study, no signs of toxicity and death were observed at levels of 200 mg/kg/day.
• Antioxidative / Cytotoxic: Study showed a methanol extract to exhibit the most potent antioxidant activity in the DPPH and ß-carotene bleaching assays. The methanol extract inhibited 50% of cervial (HeLa) cancer cell proliferation. Results suggest the antioxidative properties of C. excavata may be one of the mechanisms of its cytotoxic properties against cancer cells.
• Dentatin / Prostate Cancer Cells Apoptosis: Study investigated the antiproliferative potential of dentatin, a natural coumarin isolated from C. excavata. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth of prostatic cancer cell lines, with less cytotoxic effects on normal prostate epithelial cell line. The inhibitory effect was due to induction of apoptosis.
• Roots / Coumarins and Alkaloids / Cytotoxicity: Study of roots yielded sx coumarins and twelve alkaloids. Compounds 4, 11, and 18 exhibited highest cytotoxicity against KB (oral cavity cancer), MCF7 (breast cancer), and NCI-H187 ( small cell lung cancer).