Family • Rutaceae - Citrus aurantium Linn. - SOUR ORANGE - Zhi shi
|Citrus aurantium Linn.|
|C. aurantium L. var. dulcis L.|
|C. longispina Wester|
|C. sinensis Osbeck|
|C. vulagaris Risso|
|Cajel (Bik., Ibn., Bis., Span.)|
|Talamisan (C. Bis.)|
|Tamamisan (C. Bis.)|
|Tamisan (C. Bis.)|
|Bitter orange (Engl.)|
|Coolie orange (Engl.)|
|Sour orange (Engl.)|
|Sweet orange (Engl.)|
|Zhi shi (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|ARABIC: Burtuqâl, Burtuqual, Burtuqân, Kabbâd, Naffâsh, Nâring.|
|CHINESE: Cheng, Dai dai hua, Suan cheng, Jin qiu, Lai mu.|
|CROATIAN: Gorka naranča.|
|DUTCH: Bittere sinaasappel, Oranjeappel.|
|FINNISH: Hapanappelsiini, Hunaja-appelsiini, Makea appelsiini, Pomeranssi.|
|FRENCH: Orange amère, Oranger amer, Oranger à fruits amers.|
|GERMAN: Bitterorangen, Bittere Orange, Bitterorange, Pomeranze, Pomeranzenbaum.|
|GREEK: Neratzi (fruit), Neratzia (tree).|
|HEBREW: Khushkhash, Tapuz marir.|
|HINDI: Khatta, Naarangii, Naaringii.|
|ITALIAN: Arancio amaro (tree), Arancia forte, Melangola (fruit), Melangolo (tree), Melarancio (tree), Melarancia (fruit), Cedrangola (fruit) , Cedrangolo (tree).|
|JAPANESE: Bitaa orenji, Sawaa orenji, Daidai.|
|MALAY: Jeruk manis.|
|NEPALESE: Kali jyamir.|
|POLISH: Pomaranćza gorzka.|
|PORTUGUESE: Laranja-azeda, Laranjeira azêda.|
|SPANISH: Naranja ácida, Naranja agria, Naranja amarga, Naranjo de fruta agria, Naranja mateca.|
|TAMIL: Kiccilippaḻam, Nārantai, Narantampaḻam, Tōṭaippaḻam.|
|THAI: Som kliang, Som.|
|VIETNAMESE: Cam chua, Cam đắng, Chanh đắng.|
Dalandan is a small, erect tree with smooth, greenish white shoots with spinescent thorns. Leaves are oblong to subelliptic, 10 centimeters long by about 4 centimeters wide. Petiole is narrowly winged. Flowers are white, bisexual, solitary or few clustered, smooth, and growing from the uppermost leaf axils. Fruit is nearly spherical, 5 to 9 centimeters in diameter, and mamillate or not, the skin is orange red and tight; partitioned inside with yellowish juice sacks. Taste is usually sweet, occasionally sour.
– Found throughout the Philippines, nearly always planted.
– Found in all warm countries.
– Native of the Old World.
• Citric acid, 0.29%; volatile oil-citral, 4%, geraniol, 12%, d-camphene, d-limonene, d-linalool, anthranilic acid methyl ester 0.3%, linalyl acetate 6.35%; indol; stachydrine (alkaloid); hesperidin; fatty oil; carotene; pectin, 6%; vitamins A, B, and C; enzymes; sugar.
• The flowers and rind of the fresh fruit contain neroli, a volatile oil, a fragrant yellowish liquid with a bitter and aromatic taste. It provides the peculiar odor to Eau de cologne or to Spiritus odoratus.
• Rind of the fruit yields a volatile oil, isomeric with oil of turpentine, gum-resin, a fixed oil, which consists of a terpene, dextro-rotatory limonene, three glucosides-herperidin, isoherperidin, aurantiamarin (a bitter crystalline principle), – tannin, and ash, 4 to 5 %.
•The leaves and young unripe fruit contain a volatile oil, the oil of orange leaf or “neroli petit” grain or essence de “pettitgrain.” The oil consists of limonene 20 percent, nerolo 30 percent, nerolyl-acetate 40 percent and geranio 3 percent.
• Limonoid compounds have highest concentration in the early stages of growth of the leaves and fruit and highest in seeds during fruit growth and maturation.
• Contains bergapten which sensitizes the skin to sunlight; used in tanning preparations for skin pigmentation.
• Contains umbelliferone, an antifungal.
• Contains citrantin which has antifertility activity and used in contraceptives.
• The juice of the orange contains principally mucilage, sugar, citric acid, and inorganic salts.
• Flowers yield flavonoids as main constituents (naringin, hesperidin, and neohesperidin).
• Study of essential oil yielded 26 different chemicals. The major constituents were Linalool, (29.99%), Bergamot (14.94%), Farnesol (9.86%) and D-Limonene (8.42%).
• Aperitif, aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent, mildly carminative, cholagogue, antibacterial, antiemetic, antifungal, antispasmodic, antitussive, diaphoretic, digestive, emmenagogue, stimulant, vermifuge.
• Dried rind is considered aromatic, stomachic, tonic, astringent, and mildly carminative.
• Citrus flavonoids have potential antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-cancer, antiviral, anti-inflammatory activity, and cholesterol lowering potential.
Flowers, fruit and rind.
Nutrition / Culinary
– A good source of vitamin C.
– Rich in flavonoids.
– Dried flowers is a pleasant flavoring agent.
– Condiment, fruit, oil.
– Peel used for making marmalades and candies.
– Flowers used for scenting tea.
– Essential oil from the dried fruit used as food flavoring.
– Fruit rind used for baking flavors.
– In Iran, the orange peel used as flavoring for boiled rice and other vegetables.
– Fruit is used for making sauces, creams, jelly, honey, etc.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Citrus aurantium as a thermogenic, weight-reduction replacement for ephedra: an overview./ Preuss HG, DiFernandino D et al / J Med. 2002;33(1-4):247-64 /
(2) Behavioral effects of essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. inhalation in rats / Mariana P Leite et al / Rev. bras. farmacogn. vol.18 suppl.0 João Pessoa Dec. 2008 / doi: 10.1590/S0102-695X2008000500003
(3) Safety and efficacy of citrus aurantium for weight loss / Bent S, Padula A and Neuhaus J / Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE)
(4) The acute effects of citrus aurantium extract on blood pressure and heart rate / John Seifert, Aaron Nelson, Julia Devonish and Edmond Burke /
(5) Novel triterpenoid from Citrus aurantium L. possesses chemopreventive properties against human colon cancer cells / Jauyaprakasha GK, Mandadi KK et al / Bioorg Med Chem. 2008 Jun 1;16(11):5939-51. Epub 2008 Apr 27
(6) ANTHELMENTIC ACTIVITY OF CITRUS AURANTIUM LINN. / Bidkar J S, Bhujbal, Dama GY, Ghanwat DD / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, Vol 3, No 3, May 2011
(7) Flavonoids Isolated from Korea Citrus aurantium L. Induce G2/M Phase Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer AGS Cells / Do-Hoon Lee, Kwang-Il Park, Hyeon-Soo Park, Sang-Rim Kang, Arulkumar Nagappan, Jin-A Kim, Eun-Hee Kim, Won-Sup Lee, Young-Sool Hah, Hyon-Jong Chung, Su-Jin An, and Gon-Sup Kim / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/515901
(8) Sorting Citrus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9) Citrus aurantium, an ingredient of dietary supplements marketed for weight loss: current status of clinical and basic research. / Fugh-Berman A, Myers A. / Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 Sep;229(8):698-704.
(10) Qualitative and quantitative study on essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. cultivated in north of Iran / Amin Gh; B Azadi; B Nickavar / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Volume 3, Supplement 2, Autumn 2004, Page 82-82
(11) Antispasmodic effects of Citrus aurantium flowers aqueous extract on uterus of non-pregnant rats / Akram Ahangarpour1 Ph.D., Ali Akbar Oroojan2 B.Sc., Ashraf Amirzargar2 M.Sc., Maryam Ghanavati3 B.Sc. / Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine Vol.9. No.4. pp: 289-294, Autumn 2011
(12) THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OILS CITRUS AURANTIUM PEELS ON HUMAN COLORECTAL CARCINOMA CELL LINE (LIM1863) / Fadi Odeh*, Abdulkader Rahmo, A. Samir Alnori, M. Eyad Chaty / Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences, 2012 : 1 (6) 1476-1487
(13) A 60day double-blind, placebo-controlled safety study involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract /
Gilbert R. Kaats Howard Miller Harry G. Preuss Sidney J. Stohs / Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2013, 55, 358-362
(14) Antimicrobial activity of Citrus rind oil isolated from Citrus aurantium / RAMACHANDRA YL*, ASHAJYOTHI C, SREEPADARAJA HJ, PADMALATHA RAI S / IJPWR VOL 4 ISSUE 1 (Jan-Mar) – 2013
(15) The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Citrus Flower on Pentylenetetrazole and Maximal Electroshock-Induced Seizures in Mice / Mahmoud Hosseini, Pardis Pkan, 3Hassan Rakhshandeh, Azita Aghaie, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia and Mahboobeh Ghasemzadeh Rahbardar / World Applied Sciences Journal 15 (8): 1104-1109, 2011
(16) Auricular Acupressure May Improve Absorption of Flavanones in the Extracts from Citrus aurantium L. in the Human Body / JUE ZHOU, Ph.D., FAN QU, Ph.D., XISHENG SANG, Ph.D., ELIZABETH BURROWS, and RUI NAN, M.D. / THE JOURNAL OF ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY MEDICINE Volume 14, Number 4, 2008, pp. 423–425
(17) A Review of the Human Clinical Studies Involving Citrus aurantium (Bitter Orange) Extract and its Primary Protoalkaloid p-Synephrine / Sidney J. Stohs,1 Harry G. Preuss,2, and Mohd Shara / Int J Med Sci. 2012; 9(7): 527–538 / doi: 10.7150/ijms.4446
(18) Citrus aurantium L. essential oil exhibits anxiolytic-like activity mediated by 5-HT1A-receptors and reduces cholesterol after repeated oral treatment / Celso A R A Costa, Thaís C Cury, Bruna O Cassettari, Regina K Takahira, Jorge C Flório and Mirtes Costa* / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:42 / doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-42
(19) Effects of Citrus Aurantium Herb Extract on Dipsogenesis is Dose-Dependent in Rats / Marlon Evaristo de Souza and Adriana Zapparoli* / Advanced Studies in Biology, Vol. 5, 2013, no. 9, 369 – 374 / http://dx.doi.org/10.12988/asb.2013.3625
(20) The Lebanese Citrus aurantium: A Promising Future in Medicinal Phytochemistry / Salim Makhoul, Youssef Bakkour, Hanna El-Nakat*, Fawaz El Omar / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol. 1 No. 4 2012
(21) Citrus aurantium Blossom and Preoperative Anxiety / Mahmood Akhlaghi, Gholamreza Shabanian, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Neda Parvin, Mitra Saadat, Mohsen Akhlaghi / Rev Bras Anestesiol, 2011; 61: 6: 702-712
(22) Effect of Citrus aurantium Linn., in paroxetine induced hyponatremia in albino mice / M. Sudha and P. Venkatalakshmi* / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(4):2043-2045
(23) Hesperetin 7-O-Glucoside and Prunin in Citrus Species (C. aurantium and C. paradisi). A Study of Their Quantitative Distribution in Immature Fruits and as Intermediate Precursors of Neohesperidin and Naringin in C. aurantium / Jlian Castillo, Oddulio Benavente and Jose A. del Rio / J. Agri. Food Chem, 1993, 41, 1920-1924
(24) Aromatherapy With Citrus Aurantium Oil and Anxiety During the First Stage of Labor / Masoumeh Namazi; Seddigheh Amir Ali Akbari,* Faraz Mojab; Atefe Talebi; Hamid Alavi Majd; Sharareh Jannesari/ Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014 June; 16(6): e18371. DOI: 10.5812/ircmj.18371/
(25) Safety Assessment of Citrus-Derived Ingredients as Used in Cosmetics / Scientific Literature Review for Public Comment / December 3, 2013
(26) Investigating the Effect of “Citrus Aurantium” Aroma on Sleep Quality of Patients Hospitalized in the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) / Reza Zeighami, Fariba Mohamadi hariry *, Shabnam Jalilolghadr , Mahmood alipour haidari / Complementary Medicine Journal of Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery—Arak University of Medical Sciences, Vol 4, No 1,; 6-2014
– Juice is a cooling drink, and used as food, particularly for the febrile and scorbutic.
– In the Philippines, the leaves, peel, and flowers are used as stomachic and antiscorbutic.
– Decoction of rind taken for gas pains. Decoction of peel also used as emmenagogue.
– Leaves are applied to reduce swelling in the legs. Also used as tonic, pectorals and in bronchitis.
– For nausea and fainting, squeeze rind near nostril for irritant inhalation.
– Dried flowers used as stimulant and preventive for dysentery. Flowers used as antispasmodic.
– Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.
– Dried rind is used as tonic dyspepsia and for general debility; also used to check vomiting.
– Fresh rind is rubbed on the face for acne or eczema.
– Juice used with salt as a ringworm remedy.
– Water distilled from the orange flowers used as stimulant, and as a refreshing drink in nervousness and hysterical cases.
– Used as a stimulant and appetite suppressant
– In traditional Chinese medicine, Zhi shi, the immature dried fruit of citrus aurantium, has been used to treat chest congestion and stimulate gastrointestinal functions. Peel of immature fruit used for indigestion, abdominal pains, constipation, and dysenteric diarrhea.
– Bitter orange seeds or pips, first torrefied to remove the husks, taken as a stimulating remedy.
– Oil from the rind is used internally and externally, as a stimulating liniment, for gout and rheumatism.
– In Mexico and South America, leaf used as tonic, laxative, sedative; peel used for stomach aches and high blood pressure.
– Basque in Europe used the leaves for stomachaches, insomnia and palpitations.
– In India, neroli oil, mixed with vaseline, for leech prevention.
– In recent years, Citrus aurantium supplements has been promoted for appetite control.
– Perfumery: Oil distilled from flowers used in perfumery.
– Orange peel is an ingredient in the preparation of tincture of cinchona and tincture of gentian.
• Thermogenic / Weight Reducing: Since the withdrawal of ephedrine in weight loss formulations, C. aurantium has gained entry as a substitute, and has been reported to aid in weight loss in two studies and increase thermogenesis in three studies. Three studies reported increased metabolic rates when ingesting C. aurantium products, presenting a thermogenic substitute for ephedra.
• Antioxidant: Study of a methanolic extract of the CA peel showed good antioxdant activity.
• Behavioral Effects: The orange essential oil has been attributed sedative and relaxing properties. In the study in rats, the decrease in level of emotionality in animals suggest a possible central action, in agreement with its phytochemical oil yield of limonene and myrcene components with known CNS depressant activity.
• Safety and Efficacy As Weight Loss Supplement: A study on the safety and efficacy of the herbal remedy citrus aurantium for weight loss concludes that there was no evidence it is effective for weight loss.
• Cardiovascular Effects: A study investigating the cardiovascular effects of CA ingestion, in an herbal blend, on mildly overweight individuals showed that acute ingestion did not lead to increased cardiovascular stress and that fat oxidation increased in certain populations.
• Chemopreventive / Isolimonic Acid / Ichanexic Acid: A study isolated two bioactive compounds – isolimonic acid and a novel compound, ichanexic acid. Both showed varying degrees of inhibitory activity against cancer cells in vitro. Neither showed any apparent cytostatic effects on non-cancerous COS-1 fibroblast cells. Results suggest a potential role for lead structures for the development of cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents.
• Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of fresh juice of Citrus aurantium against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. All dilutions showed dose-dependent anthelmintic activity.
• Flavonoids / Apoptosis in Human Gastric Cancer Cells: Study evaluated the anticancer effects of flavonoids isolated from C. aurantium against human gastric cancer AGS cells. The flavonoids induced G2/M phase arrest through modulation of cell cycle related proteins and apoptosis through activation caspase. Results suggest a potential agent for chemoprevention of gastric cancer.
• Synephrine / Other Ingredients Concerns: Study reports on concerns regarding C. aurantium ingredients in dietary supplements. C. aurantium is marketed as a safe alternative to ephedra in herbal weight loss products. C. aurantium also contains synephrine (oxedrine), structurally similar to epinephrine, which may increase blood pressure. It also contains 6′,7′-dihydroxybergamottin and bergapten, inhibitors of cytochrome P450-3A, that can increase serum levels of many drugs.
• Essential Oils: Leaf oil of C. aurantium yielded 14 components, the major ones linalool 39%, linalyl acetate 39%, and alpha-terpineol 7%. Peel oil yielded 20 compounds, the major ones being limonene 91%, beta-myrcene 3% and linalool 1%.
• Safety of Citrus aurantium and p-Synephrine: While the potential inherent dangers associated with use of products containing C. aurantium extracts are frequently touted, millions of people consume various juice and food products from Citrus species containing p-synephrine. This review summarizes information on safety of C. aurantium, and that based on current knowledge, the use of bitter orange extract and p-synephrine appears to be exceedingly safe.
• Antispasmodic / Flower Extract: Study investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of flowers on uterine contraction in Wistar rats. Study showed cumulative concentrations of the extract dose-dependently decreased KCl, oxytocin and barium chloride induced uterine contractions. The extract induced antispasmodic effect mainly via calcium influx blockade. Results suggest a potential use of the flowers in the treatment of dysmenorrhea and other uterine spasmodic disorders.
• Cytotoxicity / Human Colorectal Cancer Cell Line / Essential Oil: Study investigated the cytotoxic effect of essential oils of Citrus aurantium L. subspamara peels on a colorectal cancer cell line (Lim1863). Results showed limonene and myrcene to be the main components. The essential oil decreased the viability of Lim cell by over 80%. Results suggest a good potential for antitumor effects.(17)
• 60-day Double-blind Placebo-Controlled Safety Study: Study assessed the safety of bitter orange extract (approximately 49 mg p-synephrine) alone and in combination with naringin and hesperidine in a DB PC protocol. There were no significant changes in systolic or diastolic blood pressures, blood chemistries or cells counts in control or p-synephrine group. On measured parameters, the bitter orange extract and p-synephrine showed no adverse effects at a dose up to 98mg daily for 60 days.
• Antimicrobial / Citrus Rind Oil: Study evaluated essential oil of C. aurantium for antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi. The essential showed significant antimicrobial activity, but the test microorganisms showed different sensitivities, with significant activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella paratyphi.
• Anticonvulsant / Flowers: Study evaluated the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of Citrus flowers on PTZ and maximal electroshock-induced seizures models in mice. Results showed an anticonvulsant effect in PTZ and MES induced seizure models. Effect was attributed to ingredients or synergistic effects of its constituents.
• Auricular Acupressure Increase Absorption of Flavanones: Auricular acupressure at specific acupoints can significantly improve the absorption of naringenin and hesperetin.
• Protoalkaloid p-synephrine: Review summarizes published and unpublished studies on C. aurantium and its primary protoalkaloids p-synephrine. p-synephrine alone or in combination with other herbals did not produce adverse events in heart rate, changes in EKG,BP, serum chemistry and urinalysis; it showed increase resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure, and modest increases in weight loss.
• Anxiolytic-like Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the biologic activity underlying the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of C. aurantium essential oil. Results showed the anxioytic activity to be mediated by the serotonergic system (5-HT1A receptors).
• Dipsogenesis: Study showed C. aurantium can affect the thirst mechanism in rats with effects that are dose-dependent. Further studies on the association of cell signaling pathway related to leptin and Ang II hypothalamic receptors and pharmacology are needed to evaluate its potential in overweight treatment.
• Nephroprotective: Study of C. aurantium against gentamicin induced renal damage showed a nephroprotective role which may be due to its flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties.
• Blossoms on Preoperative Anxiety: Study assessed the anxiolytic effect of C. aurantium blossom on preoperative anxiety. Results showed CABd may reduce preoperative anxiety in outpatient surgery. The study results open a window towards introducing herbal medicine for premedication.
• Effect on Paroxetine Induced Hyponatremia: Study evaluated the effect of Citrus aurantium juice in paroxetine induced hyponatremia in albino mice. Paroxetine induced alterations in serum protein, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, sodium and potassium were brought back to normal.
• Precursors of Naringin and Neohesperidin: Study showed the capacity of glucosyltransferase from cell-free extracts of C. aurantium tissues to glucosylate naringenin and hesperetin, suggesting the prunin and hesperetin 7-O-glucoside are direct precursors of naringin and neohesperidine.
• Aromatherapy with Oil in First Stage Labor: Aromatherapy is the use of fragrant essential oils to stimulate the olfactory system and can create a state of calmness and help in alleviate anxiety. Study showed that aromatherapy with C. aurantium blossom oil is a simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and effective intervention to reduce anxiety during labor.
• Aromatherapy Improved Sleep Quality in Heart Patients: In a study on Coronary Care Unit patients, aromatherapy with C. aurantium had a meaningful effect on the initiating time of sleep, the sleep longevity, and sleep again after a period of being awake. Results suggest the essence of C aurantium can be used as a sleep remedy for sleep disorders in heart patients.
• Herbal Weight Loss Ingredient / Ephedra Substitute / Synephrine / Risks: Since the banning of ephedra-containing weight loss products, products containing C. aurantium have surfaced. C. aurantium contains flavonoids and can increase blood levels of drugs (cyclosporine, felodipine, indinavir) with potential drug interactions and attendant side effects. Some extracts and/ or supplements contain high levels of synephrine which may cause increased heart rate and other signs and symptoms associated with increased metabolism.
Extracts and ingredient of weight loss supplements in the cybermarket.