Family • Rutaceae - Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam. - WILD ORANGE TREE

Scientific names

Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam.
Toddalia aculeata Pers.
Toddalia ambigua  Turcz. ?
Toddalia effusa Turcz
Paullinia asiatica Linn.

Other vernacular names

AFRICAN: Ranklemoentjie.
CHINESE: XIiao jin teng, You po le, Hua mei tiao, San xue fei, Wen dan, Yi lei, Jian xue fei, Huang jiao gen, Xi jiao, Huang jiao gen, Ci mu teng, Huang rou shu, Da jiu jia, Niu ma le, Ji zhao le, Ru shin hu.
HINDI: Kanj, Jangli mirch.
KANNADA: Kaadumenasu, Inasingi.
SANSKRIT: Sauvarnitvak

Common names

Atangen (Ig.)
Bugkau, bugkaw (Ig.)
Bukau (Ig.)
Dawag (Tag.)
Dauag (Tag.)
Guiot, guyot (Ig.)
Kaboat (Tagb.)
Palina (Bon.)
Subit (Ig.)
Orange climber (Engl.)
Wild orange tree (Engl.)
Fei long zhang xue (Chin.)

Dawag is a rather large, spiny woody vine which is pungent in all its parts and provided with sharp, recurved prickles. Leaves are 3-foliate. Leaflets are stalkless, sessile, ovate-elliptic, obovate or obovate-oblong, 3 to 8 centimeters long, 5 to 25 millimeters wide, and rounded at the base, pointed at the apex. Flowers are small, greenish-white, 5 millimeters across, and borne on terminal cymes or from the upper leaf axils. Fruit is small, nearly spherical, less than 1 centimeter in diameter, borne in fairly large clusters, 3- to 5- grooved, and with as many cells, and orange-red when ripe. Seeds solitary in each cell.


– In thickets at low and medium altitudes, ascending to 1,700 meters, only in Benguet, Bontoc, Rizal, Laguna, and Nueva Viscaya Provinces in Luzon; and in Palawan.
– Also reported in India to southern China and Malaya.


– Volatile oil, 0.08% – toddalolactone, citronella, linalool.
– Stem bark – aculeatin; aculeatin hydrate; colorless substance, m.p.239.
– Yields 0.08% oil by steam distillation, largely linalool. Oil has an odor suggesting a mixture of camphor and lemon grass.
– Study of twigs yielded two newgeranyloxycoumarins.
– Various extracts of stems yielded sugar, protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols, coumarins, and glycoside.
– Stems yielded four new triterpene acids: 2α,3α, 19α-trihydroxy-11-oxo-urs-12-en-28-oic acid, 2α,3α, 11α, 19α-tetrahydroxy-urs12-en-28-oic acid, 2α, 3α-dihydroxy-19-oxo-18, 19-seco-urs-11, 13-dien-28-oic acid, and 2α, 3β, 19α-trihydroxyolean-11, 13-dien-28-olic acid, along with the known compounds euscaphic acid, arjunic acid, toddaculin, toddalolactone and β-sitosterol.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa / Orwa J A et al / Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2008, vol. 115, no2, pp. 257-262

(2) Antimicrobial activity of some ethnomedicinal plants used by Paliyar tribe from Tamil Nadu, India / Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan et al / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006, 6:35doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-35

(3) A study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica / Hao X Y et al / Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. 2004 Nov;2(6):450-2.

(4) New geranyloxycoumarins from Toddalia asiatica / Fei Wang et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 11, Issue 8 August 2009 , pages 752 – 756 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020903048975

(5) Tumor-selective cytotoxicity of benzo[c]phenanthridine derivatives from Toddalia asiatica Lam. / Hironori Iwasaki et al / Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, Volume 65, Number 4 / March, 2010 / DOI 10.1007/s00280-009-1077-7

(6) Antimicrobial activity of Ulopterol isolated from Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam.: a traditional medicinal plant. /
Karunai Raj M, Balachandran C, Duraipandiyan V, Agastian P, Ignacimuthu S. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 Mar 6;140(1):161-5. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.005. Epub 2012 Jan 14.

(7) Study on Determination of Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging Capacity of Toddalia Asiatica Polysaccharides by Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method / TIAN Chun-Lian. / FOOD SCIENCE, 2013, 34(13): 0-0.

(8) Antinocieptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) root extract in Swiss albino mice / Hellen Nyambura Kariuki, &, Titus Ikusya Kanui, Abiy Yenesew, Nilesh Patel, Paul Mungai Mbugua / The Pan African Medical Journal. 2013;14:133 / doi:10.11604/pamj.2013.14.133.2130

(9) Triterpene Acids from Toddalia asiatica / HUANG Ping, Karagianis Gloria, WEI Shan-xin, WATERMAN Peter / NATURAL PRODUCT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, Volume 17, Issue 04, 2005

(10) Larvicidal efficacy of Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam against two mosquito vectors Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus / Borah R.*, Kalita M. C., Kar A. and Talukdar A. K. / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(16), pp. 2527-2530, 19 April, 2010


(12) Antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. leaves in Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats / Santiagu Stephen Irudayaraj, Christudas Sunil, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu /
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol. 143, No. 2. (September 2012), pp. 515-523, / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2012.07.006


– Bitter-tasting, minty, warming-natured.
– Activates blood, dissipates contusions.
– Considered antiphlogistic, analgesic.
– Root bark considered antimalarial, antiperiodic, antipyretic, tonic and carminative.
– Volatile oil from the leaves have a pleasant odor resembling verbena of basilicum.

Parts utilized
· Root bark, roots, leaves, fruits.
· May be collected the whole year round.
· Rinse, cut into sections, sun-dry.

· In the Philippines, decoction of root used as antidiarrhetic and dynamogenic during convalescence from fevers.
· Infusion of root bark used as bitter stomachic, tonic and febrifuge.
· Leaves chewed for stomach disorders.
· Used for rheumatic arthritis, sprains, contusions, intercostal neuralgia, cough, malaria, dysentery and gastralgia.
· Used for poisonous snakebites, nausea, bronchitis, wounds, contaminated ulcers, epilepsy, gonorrhea and general debility.
· Root bark used as antimalarial, antiperiodic and antipyretic. Fresh root bark, as infusion or fluid extract, used as stimulating tonic and carminative.
· Pounded fresh leaves applied as poultice on furuncles.
· Dosage: 6 to 9 gms dried material in decoction. Pounded fresh leaves or bark may be used as poultices over afflicted areas.
· In East Africa, used most often for stomach problems. Also used for malaria, cough, chest pains, food poisoning and sore throat.
· In India, used in treatment of various ailments: cough, malaria, indigestion, influenza, rheumatic fever cholera, diarrhea, and stomach ailments.
· In East Africa, used in treatment of pain and inflammatory conditions

· Perfume: Oil used in making low-grade perfume.

Study Findings
• Antiplasmodial: A new antiplasmodial coumarin was isolated from Toddalia asiatica roots – 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(3′-hydroxy-3’methyl-1’butene)-coumarin. The finding supports the traditional use of the plant for treatment of malaria.
• Antiviral: More than 200 Chinese medicinal herbs for antiviral activity against influenza A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus. Results suggest T. asiatica extract can be a candidate for anti-H1Ni virus agent for treatment of influenza.
• Antimicrobial: Antimicrobial activity of the hexane and methanol extracts of collected ethnomedicinal plants: Methanol and hexane extracts of Toddalia asiatica showed antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from the leaves were most active against E. coli, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. •Antimicrobial: In a study of 18 ethnomedicinal plants for antimicrobial activity, T asiatica was one of the six that showed most activity against nine bacterial strains: B subtilis, S aureus, S epidermis, E faecalis, E coli, K pneumonia, P aeruginosa, Ervinia sp,, P vulgaris.
• Antibacterial / Chemical Composition: A. marmelos, T. asiatica and Z. budrunga were hydrolyzed for its essential oils. The essential oils exhibited antibacterial activity against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli, P. aeruginosa. Todalia asiatica showed strongest activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa. Results suggest a potential for large scale production and development of a medicinal essential oil industry.
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the crude alklaloids of T asiactica. Furthermore, there was no long-term effects to the liver.
• Tumor Selective Cytotoxicity: Study isolated three benzo[c]phenanthridine derivative: DHN (dihydronitidine) NTD (nitidine), and DMN (demthylnitidine). NTD and DHN selectively reduced the growth of murine and human lung adenocarcinoma in vitro.
• Larvicidal / Smoke Repellency Effect Against Dengue Vector, A Aegypti: The LC50 of T asiatica was 47.893, 50.992, 54.461 and 61.278 on first to fourth instars. Smoked exposed gravid females hatched a lower percentage of eggs compared to unexposed females.
• Antioxidant: Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of Toddalia asiatica exhibited significant in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activity.
• Larvicidal: Hexane extract of fruits of T. asiatica showed highest larvicidal activity against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Results show TA as a promising larvicide against both targeted mosquitoes.
• Ulopterol / Antimicrobial: Study of various extracts of leaves isolated a coumarin, ulopterol, besides Flindersine, a major active antimicrobial principle. Ulopterol showed activity against bacteria viz. S. epidermis, E. aerogenes, S. flexneri, K. pneumonia, E coli and fungi viz. A. flavus, C. krusei and B. cinerea.
• Radical Scavenging Activity / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity through inhibition of hydroxyl radical of Toddalia asiatica polysaccharides. Results showed that TA polysaccharides hydroxyl radical scavenging was positively correlated with its concentration. TA is a promising natural source of antioxidants.
• Antinociceptive / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects using the carrageenin-induced paw edema and formalin-induced pain tests, and supports the anecdotal use for painful and inflammatory conditions.
• Larvicidal Against Two Mosquito Vectors: Study of various extracts of mature fruits and leaves was studied for bio-control potentiality against fourth instars larvae of Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti and Filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. Hexane, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves showed potency against Aa and Cq. Results were promising for T. asiatica as larvicide against both targeted mosquitoes.
• Anti-Malarial: An ethyl acetate extract of fruits was active against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falcifarum as well as Plasmodium berghei. Studies suggest the potential of TA for further testing for a prototype antimalarial medicine.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: In a study of various plant extracts, Todavia asiatica stem bark methanol extract showed the highest activity against Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and an ethyl acetate extract against Microsporum gypseum.
• Anti-Diabetic / Antioxidant: Study of ethyl acetate extract of leaves showed significant antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Histopathology of pancreas in the treated group showed regeneration of ß-cells.
• Larvicidal / Anopheles gambiae: Study evaluated extracts of T. asiactica and Ekebergia capensis for potential larvicidal activity. Extracts showed larvicidal activity. Fractionation isolated several compounds. Sibricin from T. asiatica showed the highest level of larvicidal activity.