Dilang-baka

Family • Cactaceae - Opuntia cochinillifera (Linn.) Mill. - WOOLY JOINT PRICKLY PEAR - Yan zhi zhang


Scientific names

Cactus cochinillifera Linn.
Opuntia cochinillifera (L.) P. Mill.
Cactus opuntia Blanco
Opuntia ficus-indica Usteri
Nopalea cochinellifera (Linn.) Salm-Dyck

Other vernacular names

AZTEC: Nopal nochetzli.
CHINESE: Yan zhi xian ren zhang, Xian ren zhang, Wu ci xian ren zhang, Rou zhang, Yan zhi zhang.
FRENCH: Cochenillier, Raquette Espagnole.
NORWEGIAN: Cochenillekaktus.
PORTUGUESE: Cacto-De-Cochonilha, Palma, Palma-De-Engorda, Palma-Doce, Palma-Miuda, Palmatória.
SPANISH: Nopal Chamacuero, Nopal De Cochinilla, Nopal De La Cochinilla.

Common names

Abakus (Bon.)
Dapal (Bis.)
Dila-dila (Ilk.)
Dilang-baka (Tag.)
Nopal (Bik.)
Palad (Bik.)
Cochineal cactus (Engl.)
Cochineal nopal cactus (Engl.)
Prickly pear (Engl.)
Velvet opuntia (Engl.)
Wooly joint prickly pear (Engl.)

 Botany
Dilang-baka is a cactaceous, fleshy, erect. branched, leafless plant, 1 to 3 meters high. Stems are stout, with thick joints, oblong-ovate, green, fleshy, compressed, 15 to 25 centimeters long, with small, scattered, white cushion-like bodies which are unarmed or may bear small spines. Calyx is green. fleshy, oblong-ovoid, 3 to 8.5 centimeters long. Corolla is red, about 2.5 centimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, about 3.5 centimeters long, fleshy and purplish.

Dilang-baka

Distribution
– Planted in the Philippines, here and there, for ornamental purposes.
– Naturalized in some regions subject to long dry seasons.
– Introduced from tropical America.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Comparative anti-hyperglycemic potentials of medicinal plants / Villaseñor IM, Lamadrid MR / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 104, Issues 1-2, 8 March 2006, Pages 129-131 / Epub 2005 Oct 25 /doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.067

(2) Ethnomedicines used in Trinidad and Tobago for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus / Cheryl A Lans / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006, 2:45doi:10.1186/1746-4269-2-45

(3) Opuntia cochenillifera / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / Botany.si.edu

(4) Ethnoveterinary medicines used for horses in Trinidad and in British Columbia, Canada / Cheryl Lans*, Nancy Turner, Gerhard Brauer, Grant Lourenco and Karla Georges / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine 2006, 2:31

(5) In vitro antimicrobial activity, total polyphenols and flavonoids contents of Nopalea cochenillifera (L.) Salm-Dyck (Cactaceae) / Raquel M. M. NECCHI*, Izabel A. ALVES, Sydney H. ALVES, Melânia P. MANFRON / Research in Pharmacy 2(3) : 01-07, 2012

(6) Ethnopharmacological field study of the plants used to treat type 2 diabetes among the Cakchiquels in Guatemala / Elda Carola Cruz, Adolfo Andrade-Cetto / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 159 (2015) 238–244

(7) Exploring the phytoremediation potential of cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm. Dyck.) cell cultures for textile dye degradation. / Adki VS, Jadhav JP, Bapat VA. / Int J Phytoremediation. 2012 Jul;14(6):554-69.

Dilang-baka3

Properties
– Tonic, refreshing, antihelmintic.
– Considered anti-inflammatory, analgesic, stomach-protective.

Parts used 
Joints.

Dilang-baka2

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
– Both fruit and pads are edible after removing the spines.
– Avoid the spine and any cactus part with white sap.
– Fruit can be eaten raw or cooked and has a raspberry like flavor.
– Thornless pads are peeled, eaten raw, cooked, or added to salads.
– Pads are rich in vitamin A

Folkloric
• In Mexico, joints applied as poultices to relieve articular rheumatism, erysipelas, earaches and toothaches.
• In India, used for pain and inflammation.
• Used for menopause and hot flashes.
• In Tobago and Trinidad, used for scorpion and snake bites, diabetes, hypertension, kidney and urinary problems.
• In Mexico, joints are applied as poultices for rheumatism, erysipelas, ophthalmia, earaches and toothaches.
• Split pads are emollient, used as poultices for rheumatism; backed for ulcers, gout and wounds. Also, used for warts, kidney problems, measles, and as vermifuge for gastrointestinal parasites.
• In the Guianas, stem “pads” are applied to treat fungal skin infections, fever, and as shampoo for fine, delicate hair. Roasted branches are sliced and applied as poultice to relieve pain, swelling, and localized burning from filaria. Sap used for baby’s colds and wheezing. Grated stems mixed with soft grease and corn meal warmed and applied externally for chest colds and fever associated with pneumonia. Leaves used for spleen problems.
• In Guatemala, leaf infusion used for treatment of diabetes.

Others 
• Veterinary: In Trinidad and Tobago, used in ethnoveterinary medicine for joint problems in horses, applied directly to the injured area. For anhydrosis, rachette joints are pounded up and put in water, and given to horses to drink to induce sweating and reduce the temperature. Rachette (N. cochenillifera) also used in combination with glycerine and Epsom salts to treat inflammation.
• New Age drink: In the unending search for longevity through the all-natural and herbal, post-Noni juice and post-Mangostan, the new drink in the herbal-block, ready to drink, thorn-free, spine-free – Sonoran Bloom Nopalea.

Study Findings
• Diabetes Studies / Increase Blood Glucose Effect: Studies have failed to find support for its traditional use in the treatment of diabetes. Moreover, in one study, there was even an increase in baseline blood glucose levels. An oral glucose tolerance test showed the stems of NC increased blood glucose in mice.
• Reproductive: Studies show limited support for use in reproductive problems.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study showed the cactus possesses antibiotic activity against C albicans, E coli and Salmonella enterica var typhimurium. The hexanic and chloroformic fractions of dried NC were more effective than fresh pads in inhibiting C albicans growth.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Nopalea cochenillifera. An ethanol extract showed good antibacterial activity and inhibitory activity against microorganisms tested viz., E. coli, S. typhi, Micrococcus, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, C. albicans, C. glabrata, among others. Total polyphenols and flavonoids were significant when compared to standards of gallic acid and rutin.
• Phytoremediation Potential: Cactaceae Nopalea cochenillifera cell cultures transform various toxic textile dyes, including Red HE7B into less phytotoxic, non-hazardous metabolites. The significant induction of various enzymes (laccase, tyrosinase, azoreductase) and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol reductase) indicated the involvement of these enzymes in the transformation pathways of Red HE7B.

Availability
Ornamental cultivation.
Seeds and plants in the cybermarket.