Family • Compositae - Cichorium endivia Linn . - ENDIVE - Ku ju

Scientific names

Cichorium endivia Willd.
Cichorium casnia C. B. Clarke
Cichorium crispum Mill.
Cichorium esculentum Salisb.

Common names

Endiba (Tag.)
Endive (Engl.)
Ku ju (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

ARABIC: Hindiba, Kasiniyah.
DANISH: Endivie.
ESTONIAN: Endiiviasigur.
FINNISH: Endiivi.
FRENCH: Chicorée blanche, Petite endive, Scarole..
GERMAN: Endivienwegwarte, Endivien, Endivie, Escariol.
ITALIAN: Indivia.
JAPANESE: Kiku jisha.
NEPALESE: Kassinii..
MALAY: Andewi.
POLISH: Endywia.
RUSSIAN: Endivij.
TURKISH: Hindiba, Yaban marulu..


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Cichorium names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(2) Hepatoprotective Activity of Cichorium endivia L. Extract and Its Chemical Constituents / Chao-Jie Chen , An-Jun Deng , Chang Liu, Rui Shi, Hai-Lin Qin, and Ai-Ping Wang / Molecules 2011, 16(11), 9049-9066; doi:10.3390/molecules16119049

(3) Molecular and biochemical evaluation of anti- proliferative effect of (Cichorium endivia, L.) phenolic extracts on breast cancer cell line: MCF7 / Ali Alshehri* and Hafez E. Elsayed / E3 Journal of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical Research Vol. 3(4), pp. 74-82, June 2012

Endive is a cultivated plant consisting of a dense rosette of curly leaves arising from the base. Leaves are brittle, oblong, and lobed or cut. Flowers are purple, the upper ones passing into leafy bracts.

– Cultivated around Manila and other large towns.
– Cultivated from imported seeds.
– Grows best in the Baguio area.
– Native of the Mediterranean region.

– Excellent source of calcium and iron.
– Leaves contain inosit, a bitter principle, ceryl alcohol, d- and B-lactucerol and traces of urea.

– Considered resolvent and cooling.
– Roots considered tonic, demulcent, stimulant, and febrifuge.

Parts used



– Used for salads, like lettuce.
– Much valued by the Hakims as a resolvent and cooling medicine and prescribed in bilious complaints.
– Roots used for dyspepsia and fever, as a tonic and demulcent.
– Root considered warm stimulating, and febrifuge.
– Fruit is a cooling remedy for fevers, headaches and jaundice.

Study Findings
• Phytochemicals: Study of the roots isolated twelve known sesquiterpene lactones and a new gualanolid 10b-methoxy-1a,11b,13-tetrahydrolactucin with three known phenolic esters.
• Photoprotection: Application of a root extract on the skin prior to UVB irradiation totally prevented erythema. Study suggests C. endivia extracts might possess sun-protective qualities that make them potentially useful as sunscreens.
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo hepatoprotective properties of C. endivia extract. Results showed CEE significantly blocked oxidative stress and cytotoxicity induced by t-BPH in HepG2 cells. Phytochemical screening yielded five compounds: 2-furanmethanol-(5’→11)-1,3-cyclopentadiene-[5,4-c]-1H-cinnoline, 2-phenylethyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside, kaempferol, and adenosine. Results suggest CEE may be a valid safe remedy to cure liver disease.
• Antiproliferative / Breast Cancer:The anticancer activity of root extract was examined on a breast cancer line MFC7 and compared with anticancer 5FU (5-fluorouracil). The expression of DNA markers was high both in cells treated with 5FU and root extract. Results show C. endivia contains a combination of phenolic compounds and presents as anticancer especially for breast cancer.
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an aqueous suspension of CE leaves powder in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated the role of oxidative stress in diabetes induction and showed a protective and/or ameliorative effect of CE, similar to glibenclamide.