Family • Euphorbiaceae - Tawa-tawa - Euphorbia hirta Linn. - ASTHMA WEED, SNAKE WEED - Fei-yang ts'ao

Scientific names

Euphorbia capitata Lam.
Euphorbi. pilulifera Linn.
Euphorbia hirta L. var. typica L.C. Wheel
Euphorbia hirta Linn.
Chamaesyce hirta (L.) Millsp.

Other vernacular names

ASSAMESE: Gakhirati bon.
ARABIC: Labeinah
BENGALI: Bara dudhe, Baro kherui, Baro kheruie.
CHINESE: Fei yang cao, Ru zi cao, Fei xiang cao.
FRENCH: Euphorbe hérisée, Malnommée.
GUJARATI: Dude, Lal-dudhi, Dhedi dudheli.
HINDI: Dudhi
KANNADA: Achchegida, Acchacche gida, Acche gida, Haaluni,Kempu nene akki.
MALAY : Gelang susu.
MALAYALAM : Nela-palai, Nelapalai, Nilappala.
MARATHI : Dudhi, Mothidudhi, Dudali, Dudnali, Govardhan, Mothidudhi, Motidoodhi.
ORIYA: Citaakuṭi, Chitaguti, Uthisi.
RUSSIAN: Molochai khirta.
SANSKRIT: Dugdhika, Pusitoa.
SINHALESE: Budakiriya, Dadakiriya, Kepunkiriya, Kirithala.
SPANISH: Golondrina, Hierba de boca, Lecherón chico, Lecherita, Pichoga, Yerba de sapo.
TAMIL: Amampatchaiarisi, Ammāṉ pachchaṟisi, Cittirappaalaatai, Pachchilai, Sitrilai pālāvi.
TELUGU : Bidarie, Reddinanabrolu.
URDU : Doodhiklan, Dudh khurd.

Common names

Bambanilag (If.)
Bobi (Bis.)
Bolobotonis (Pamp.)
Botobotonis (Tag.)
Botonis (Ilk.)
Bugayau (S.L. Bis.)
Butobutonisan (Tag.)
Golandrina (Tag.)
Magatas (Pamp.)
Malis-malis (Pamp.)
Mangagaw (Cebu)
Maragtas, marangatas (Ilk.)
Pansi-pansi (Bik.)
Patik-patik (Sul.)
Piliak (Sub.)
Saikan (Tag.)
Sisiohan (Pamp.)
Soro-soro (Bik.)
Tababa (Bis.)
Tairas (Iv.)
Tawa-tawa (TaG.)
Tauataua (P. Bis.)
Teta (Bon.)
Asthma plant (Engl.)
Australian asthma weed (Engl.)
Cat’s hair (Engl.)
Hairy spurge (Engl.)
Pill-bearing spurge (Engl.)
Snake weed (Engl.)
Fei-yang ts’ao (Chin.)

General info
Euphorbia is the largest genus of the family Euphorbiaceae with about 1600 species. All species of Euphorbia exude a milky juice when broken, and Euphorbia hirta’s local name “gatas-gatas” derives from this.


Gatas-gatas is a slender-stemmed, annual hairy plant with many branches from the base to the top, the branches simple or forked and ascending or spreading, up to 40 centimeters tall, reddish or purplish in color. Leaves are opposite, elliptic-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, distichous, 1 to 2.5 centimeters long, usually blotched with purple in the middle, toothed at the margin. Involucres are numerous, purplish to greenish in color, borne in dense, axillary, stalkless or short-stalked clusters or crowded cymes, about 1 millimeter in length. Capsules are broadly ovoid, hairy, three-angled, about 1.5 millimeters long.


– Abundant throughout the Philippines, in waste places, open grasslands, etc.
– Pantropic.

– Studies have isolated gallic acid, quercetin, triacontane, cetyl alcohol, phytosterol, phytosterolin (phytosterol glucoside); jambulol, melissic, and a mixture of acids consisting chiefly of palmitic, oleic, and linoleic acid.
– Phytochemicals screenings have yielded alkaloids, essential oil, phenols, sterol, flavones and fatty acids.
– Yields flavonoids: euphorbianin, leucocyanidol, camphol, quercitrin and quercitrol.
– Study has suggested that some of the constituents of the plant are similar to those of the jambul (Syzygium cumini) seeds.
– Dried leaves yielded a moisture content of 9.70%, protein 13.5% ±0.15, fat 1.13% ±0.06, ash 3.13% ±0.06, crude fiber 3.57% ±0.06, and carbohydrate 69.5% ±0.20. Vitamin content showed ascorbic acid 26.1 mg/100g, thiamine 0.60, riboflavin 1.20, and niacin 0.70.


– Considered anti-asthmatic, antibacterial, antidote, antifertility, antifungal, antimalarial, anti-spasmodic, anthelmintic, antidysenteric, diuretic, expectorant, pectoral, hemostatic, sedative, soporific.

Parts used and preparation
Entire plant.

– Called gatas-gatas because of the healing property of the milky juice.
– In the Philippines, leaves are mixed with Datura metel leaves and flowers in the preparation of “asthma-cigarettes.”
– Latex is prescribed for asthma.
– Entire plant prescribed as an antidote; considered hemostatic, sedative, and soporific.
– Decoction used to allay the dyspnea of asthmatics.
– Fluid extract of tincture is used in asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema, also in pulmonary cardiac disease and angina pectoris.
– Used for acute and chronic dysentery.
– Tincture is used as anthelmintic. Also used for ringworm.
– Juice used for colics.
– Juice used as ophthalmic drops for conjunctivitis or ulceration of the cornea. Stem sap used in the treatment of styes.
– Leaf poultice used for swellings and boils.
– Infusion or tea of the plant, 4 glasses daily, for bronchitis and labored breathing, asthma, chronic dysentery.
– Used for boils and wounds.
– Decoction of dry plant used for skin disease.
– Decoction of fresh plant used as gargle for the treatment of thrush.
– Decoction of the root used to allay vomiting, chronic diarrheas, and fevers.
– Root decoction also beneficial for nursing mothers deficient in milk: 4-5 glasses of tea.
– The same root decoction as an enema for constipation.
– Root used for snake bites.
– Used in sores, wounds, boils. As ear drop for pustular swellings in the ear.
– Leaves are mixed with Datura metel leaves and flowers to make the “asthma-cigarette.”
– Latex also prescribed for asthma.
– Superficial bleeding: Crush leaves and apply on affected part, as local hemostatic.
– In Australia and elsewhere, used for asthma and pectoral complains.
– In Brazil, decoction used for gonorrhea and asthma.
– In Africa and Australia, used to treat hypertension and edema.
– In India, used for treatment of syphilis; sap applied to warts. Also for affections of children, especially bowel and chest complaints. The milky juice is dropped into eyes for conjunctivitis and corneal ulcerations.
– Plant decoction: 25 gms of the whole plant to a pint of boiling water; boil for 3-4 minutes; drink 3-5 glasses a day. Externally as needed.
– In traditional Indian medicinal systems, leaves used in the treatment of coryza, cough, asthma, bronchial infections, bowel complaints, helminthic infestations, wounds, kidney stones and abscesses.
– Santals use the root to allay vomiting; also, used by nursing mothers with deficient milk supply.
– In the Gold Coast, ground and mixed with water and used as an enema for constipation.
– In La Reunion, used as astringent in chronic diarrheas and dysentery.
– Roots used for intermittent fevers.
Recent interests from the folk medicine grapevine
– Dengue
– Dengue and anecdotal reports of “cures” from the use of tawa-tawa has created a flurry of queries, web blogs, and sustained media interest.
– Tea Making Procedure:
– Take 5 to 6 full whole Tawa Tawa plants
– Cut off the roots
– Wash and clean
– Fill a boiling pot with clean water
– Boil the Tawa Tawa for 1 (one) minute in a slow rolling boil
– Cool
– Let the dengue fever victim drink only the Tawa Tawa water for 24 hours
– Sip 1 to 1.5 glasses of Tawa Tawa water every hour.
– Another Decoction Preparation: Cut roots off 5 to 6 gatas-gatas plants. Rinse. Put the tawa-tawa into a pot of boiling water for one minute. Cool. Drink the decoction, 1 to 1 1/2 glasses, every hour for 24 hours. (Also see: Papaya)

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Inhibition of early and late phase allergic reactions by Euphorbia hirta L / Singh G D et al / PTR. Phytotherapy research / 2006, vol. 20, no4, pp. 316-321

(2) Euphorbia hirta reverses chronic stress-induced anxiety and mediates its action through the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine / H Anuradha et al / Journal of Neural Transmission • Volume 115, Number 1 / January, 2008 / DOI 10.1007/s00702-007-0821-6

(3) Behavioral and neurotropic effects of aequeous extract of E. hirta / Lanhers Marie-Claire et al / Medicaments et aliments / Actes du Colloque Européen d’Ethnophmacologie et de la 1 le Conférence internationale d’Ethnomédecine, Heidelberg, 24-27 mars 1993.

(4) Antidiarrhoeic activity of Euphorbia hirta extract and isolation of an active flavonoid constituent. / Galvez J et al / Planta Med. 1993 Aug;59(4):333-6.

(5) Antimalarial Flavonol Glycosides from Euphorbia hirta / Y Liu et al / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology, 2007, Vol. 45, No. 4, Pages 278-281 / DOI 10.1080/13880200701214748

(6) REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA LINN./ Sandeep Patil, Nilofar S Naikwade et al / JPRHC,July 2009, Vol. 1, No.1, Pp 113-133

(7) Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of Euphobia hirta Linn. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice / Sunil Kumar, Rashmi and D Kumar / Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources, Vol 12, June 2010, pp 200-203.

(8) PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ANTIBACTERIAL STUDIES OF DIFFERENT EXTRACTS OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA L. / Bhuvaneshwar Upadhyay, K.P. Singh and Ashwani Kumar / Journal of Phytology 2010, 2(6): 55–60 Pharmacology

(9) AN IN VITRO STUDY OF CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF EUPHORBIA HIRTA ON HEP­2 CELLS OF HUMAN EPITHELIOMA OF LARYNX / Raja Sidambaram R, Dinesh M G and Jayalakshmi E T / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 3, 2011

(10) A study on the Mechanism of Platelet Increasing Activity of the Decoction and Ethanolic Extraction of Euphorbia hirta L. (Euphorbiaceae) as treatment for dengue / Anne Natividad, Hazel Lopez, Toni Ann Marie Luna, Rachelle Manalo, Jeriz Natividad and Clarisse Ngo

(11) The effect of water extracts of Euphorbia hirta on cartilage degeneration in arthritic rats / Kah Heng LEE, Yu Sui CHEN, John Paul JUDSON et al / Malaysian J Pathol 2008; 30(2) : 95 – 102

(12) A molecular pharmacology study into the atory actions of Euphorbia hirta L. on the LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells through selective iNOS protein inhibition. / Shih NF, Cheng YD et al / J Nat Med. 2010 Jul;64(3):330-5.

(13) Phytochemical investigation and antitumour activity of Euphorbia hirta Linn / Sandeep B Patil and Chandrakant S Magdum / European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 1 (1): 51-56

(14) Euphorbia hirta: Its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities / Sunil Kumar, Rashmi Malhotra, Dinesh Kumar / Pharmacocnosy Review, 2010, Vol 4, No 7, Pp 58-61

(15) Antiviral activities of extracts of Euphorbia hirta L. against HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIVmac251. / Gyuris A, Szlávik L, Minárovits J, Vasas A, Molnár J, Hohmann J. / In Vivo. 2009 May-Jun;23(3):429-32.


(17) Sorting Euphorbia names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(18) Acute and Subchronic Toxicity Study of Euphorbia hirta L. Methanol Extract in Rats / Kwan Yuet Ping, Ibrahim Darah, Yeng Chen, Subramaniam Sreeramanan, and Sreenivasan Sasidharan / BioMed Research International, Volume 2013 (2013) /

(19) Assessment of the safety of tawa-tawa (Euphorbia hirta L.) decoction as alternativefolkloric medicine / Sharon Rose M. Tabugo, Rolliebert B. Rampola, Edgar Vasallo Jr., Ma. Reina Suzette B.Madam / Global Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 1(2): 177-183, 2013

(20) Screening of Phytochemical and In vitro activity of Euphorbia hirta L. / Chitra M *; Muga V; Sasikumar Dhanarasu; Awdah Masoud Al-hazimi / J. Chem. Pharm. Res., 2011, 3(6):110-114

(21) Antimicrobial activity of fresh latex, juice and extract of Euphorbia hirta and Euphorbia thymifolia – an in vitro comparative study / Musaddique Hussain et al. / Int J Pharma Sci. 2014, 4(3): 546-553

(22) Antifungal activity of Euphorbia hirta L. inflorescence extract against Aspergillus flavus A mode of action study / A. Gayathri and K.Vijaya Ramesh* / Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci (2013) 2(4):31-37

(23) Efficacy of euphorbia hirta latex as plant derived molluscicides against freshwater snails / Ram P. YadavI; Ajay SinghII / Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo vol.53 no.2 São Paulo Mar./Apr. 2011 /

(24) Green synthesis of silver nanoparticle using Euphorbia hirta L and their antifungal activities / EK. Elumalai, T.N.V.K.V.Prasad, Venkata Kambala, P.C.Nagajyothi, E David* / Archives of Applied Science Research, 2010, 2 (6): 76-81

/ Rathnakumar.K, Ranbir Verma, Jaikumar.S and Sengottuvelu.S * / International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences (IJPBCS), JUL-SEPT 2013, VOLUME 2, ISSUE 3, pp 16-20

(26) Assessment of immunomodulatory activity of Euphorbia hirta L. / K Vijaya Ramesh, K Padmavathi / Indian J Pharm Sci 2010;72:621-5

(27) Proximate Composition and Vitamin Levels of Seven Medicinal Plants / Olayiwola Olajumoke Abidemi / International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, Volume 2, Issue 5, May. 2013, pp .47-50

(28) Herbal Remedy of Dengue Fever: Euphorbia hirta Plant (Mangagaw plant) / Biotech Articles

(29) Immunosuppressive effects of Euphorbia hirta in experimental animals / Sheikh Fayaz Ahmad • Beenish Khan • Sarang Bani • Anpurna Kaul • Phalisteen Sultan • Sheikh Abid Ali • N. K. Satti • Saleh A. Bakheet • Sabry M. Attia • Khairy M. A. Zoheir • Adel R. A. Abd-Allah / Inflammopharmaoc, 19 June 2012 / DOI 10.1007/s10787-012-0144-6

(30) Chemical analysis, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm eradication potential of Euphorbia hirta L. against clinical isolates and standard strains / Shanmugapriya Perumal, Roziahanim Mahmud / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, December 2013, 13:346

(31) Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity assessment of Euphorbia hirta in MCF-7 cell line model using comet assay / Kwan Yuet Ping, Ibrahim Darah, Yeng Chen, Sreenivasan Sasidharan* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2013; 3(9): 692-696

Study Findings
• Anti-Diabetic / Lipid Effect: Study of ethanolic extracts of leaf, flower and stem on streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice showed significant reduction in blood glucose levels. Biochemical effects showed significant decreases in serum cholesterol with elevation of HDL. Results showed EH has antidiabetic action and suggests further study for isolation of responsible compound.
• Antibacterial: Antibacterial Activities And Toxicological Potentials Of Crude Ethanolic Extracts Of Euphorbia hirta: The study showed the ethanolic extract to inhibit the growth of test isolates except Salmonella typhi. The antibacterial effect was attributed to the presence of alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids which have been shown to have antibacterial properties. The results support its use in traditional medicine.
• Antibacterial: Study on the antibacterial effect of compounds extracted from C sinensis and the methanol extract of E hirta against dysentery causing Shigella spp showed the extracts to be non-cytotoxic and effective antibacterial agents.
• Antibacterial: Methanolic extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and B. subtilis. Phytochemical screening yielded terpenes, tannins, alkaloids and flavonoids.
• Diuretic: Euphorbia hirta leaf extracts increase urine output and electrolytes in rats: Study suggests that the active components in the water extract of E. hirta leaf had similar diuretic effect as that of acetazolamide. The results validate its traditional use as a diuretic by the Swahilis and Sukumas.
• Anti-Allergic: Inhibition of early and late phase allergic reactions by Euphorbia hirta L: Study demonstrated that E. hirta possessed significant activity to prevent early and late phase allergic reactions.
• Anthelmintic: Anthelmintic efficacy of the aqueous crude extract of Euphorbia hirta Linn in Nigerian dogs: Extract of E. hirta Study reduced the fecal egg count of the helminths and suggests a potential as an anthelmintic agent.
• Antihypertensive / ACE Inhibition: Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibiting and anti-dipsogenic activities of Euphorbia hirta extracts: Study showed the extract from leaves and stems inhibited the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
• Anxiolytic / Sedative: Euphorbia hirta showed an activity profile different from that of benzodiazepines. Study showed a central depressant and sedating effect with no hypnotic or neuroleptic effects.
• Anxiolytic / Sedative: Study validated the traditional use of E. hirta as a sedative with anxiolytic properties.
• Antidiarrheal: Study investigated the antidiarrheal activity of Euphorbia hirta extract. An active flavonoid constituent, quercitin, was isolated and showed anti-diarrheic activity.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal: The ethanol extract was analyzed for antimicrobial activity against S aureus, B cereus, S typhi, K pneumonia, P aeruginosa and fungus species A niger, A fumigatus, A flavus and R oryzae. Study of leaves isolated tannins, flavonoids, alklaloids, glycosides, proteins, sterols and saponins. Antimicrobial activity was attributed to one of these constituents. Leaves collected from August to December showed more significant antimicrobial activity.
• Galactogenic: E hirta study in female guinea pigs increased the development of mammary glands and induced secretion.
• Antifertility: E hirta has been shown to decrease sperm motility, density of cauda epididymal and testis sperm suspension with 100% infertility.
• Anti-Malarial / Flavonol Glycosides: Study of aerial parts isolated flavonol glycosides afzelin, quercitin and myricitrin. The three compounds showed inhibition of proliferation of Plasmodium falcifarum.
• Anticancer / Antiproliferative: Studies of extracts of E hirta have shown selective cytotoxicity against several cancer line. Extracts screened showed anti-proliferative activities against normal mouse fibroblast cells. Study of a methanol extract of leaves of E. hirta on Hep-2 cells from human epithelioma of larynx showed anti-proliferative activity.
• Antioxidant: Study of various extracts of leaves showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity. Total antioxidant activity was higher in an acetone extract compared to alcohol extract. Studies of methanol and water extracts showed antioxidant activities comparable to that of green and black teas.
• Anti-Inflammatory: n-hexane extract of aerial parts and its main triterpene constituents showed significant and dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity.
• Anti-Inflammatory / iNOS Protein Inhibition: An extract of Euphorbia hirta and its component beta-amyrin are able to block most of the iNOS protein functions and NO induction, and presents a potential as a new selective NO inhibitor for the treatment of arthritis inflammation.
• Platelet Effect / Dengue Treatment: Study of decoction of tawa-tawa leaves on Sprague-Dawley rats showed an increase in platelet counts without notable effects on RBC and WBC counts. The increase was attributed to stimulation of platelet production in the bone marrow.
• Anti-Arthritic: Euphorbia hirta possibly affects cartilage degeneration through matrix metalloproteinases(MMP-13) pathways and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) pathways, displaying dose-dependent effects on their levels. Results suggest a viable alternative to treatment of arthritis.
• Anti-Tumor: The antitumor activity of the aerial part of E. hirta was evaluated against EL-4 cell line (S.C.) in Swiss albino mice. There was a significant enhancement of mean survival time and reduction of solid tumor mass of EF-treated tumor bearing mice.
• Antiviral / Anti-HIV1 / Anti-HIV2 / SIV: Antiretroviral activities of extracts of E. hirta were investigated in vitro on MT4 human T lymphocyte cell line. A dose-dependent inhibition of RT activity was observed for all three viruses. A 50% methanolic extract exhibited a higher antiretroviral effect than an aqueous extract. Study concludes that tannins are probably responsible for the high antiretroviral activity.
• Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the acute toxicity of Euphorbia hirta plant material in Swiss mice. Results showed no toxicity at a dose of 10 g/kbw. E. hirta was found safe, with no delayed toxic signs in all experimental groups.
• Sub-Chronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the in vivo toxicity of methanolic extracts of E. hirta in Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed long-term oral administration of E. hirta extract for 90 days did not cause sub-chronic toxicity.
• Safety of Tawa-tawa Decoction: Study evaluated the safety and antibacterial activity of the traditional decoction preparation of tawa-tawa. Results were negative for any antibacterial potential, and suggests that tawa-tawa decoction for oral intake is safe for oral use without risk of altering the normal flora of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract.
• Comparative Antimicrobial Activity / Latex: Study showed antimicrobial activity varies with species and plant material used, and E. hirta possess stronger antibacterial activity than E. thymifolia. Most of the organisms used in the study were causative agents of diarrhea and dysentery, for which both plants can be used as treatment.
• Antifungal / Inflorescence: Study showed an ethyl acetate extract of inflorescence of E. hirta possessed possible antifungal activity targeting cell membrane leakage of cellular proteins caused by Aspergillus flavus.
• Molluscicidal / Latex: Study evaluated the toxic effects of binary and tertiary combinations of EH latex powder with other plant molluscicidal compounds against freshwater snails Lymnaea acuminata and Indoplanorbis exustus in pond. The combinations showed significant time and dose dependent effect against both snails. At higher doses, they were also lethal to freshwater fish Channa punctatus.
• Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles / Antifungal: Study presents the cost effective and environment friendly synthesis from 1mM AgNO3 through the leaf extract of E. hirta as reducing and capping agent. Green synthesized silver nanoparticles showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans, C. kefyr, and A. niger.
• Anti-Ulcer Activity: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of E. hirta aerial parts for anti-ulcer activity in various gastric ulcer models like pylorus-ligation, indomethacin, HCl/EtOH induced ulcerated rats. Findings suggest gastroprotective potential, partly related to anti-secretory action and gastric mucus secretion.
• Immunomodulatory: Study showed an ethanol extract to inhibit polysorbate 80 induced degranulation of isolated peritoneal mast cells in vitro, indicative of mast cell stabilizing activity. Therefore, the anti-inflammatory activity may be attributed to its ability to stabilize mast cell membrane, inhibiting the release of inflammatory mediators.
• Proximate Composition and Vitamin Content: In a study of dried leaves of various plants for proximate composition and vitamin level, E. hirta showed a moisture content of 9.70%, protein 13.5% ±0.15, fat 1.13% ±0.06, ash 3.13% ±0.06, crude fiber 3.57% ±0.06, and carbohydrate 69.5% ±0.20. Vitamin content showed ascorbic acid 26.1 mg/100g, thiamine 0.60, riboflavin 1.20, and niacin 0.70.
• Platelet Effect: Study evaluated the thrombogenic or platelet increasing property of E. hirta orally administering the extract to mice (4 control, 4 subject). Results showed no significant difference in platelet counts.
• Immunosuppressive Effect: Euphorbia hirta showed a decrease of delayed hypersensitivity (DTH) response and dose-related decrease in primary antibody response. Results suggest EH is a potent and non-toxic immunosuppressor, with potential for development of potent immunosuppressor.
• Anti-Biofilm Property: Crude methanol extract of E. hirta showed interesting and potential anti-biofilm inhibition and eradication activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Results suggest promising anti-infective phytotherapeutical and pharmaceutical industry applications.
• Cytotoxicity / Genotoxicity: Study evaluated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of E. hirta in MCF-7 cell line model. The extract showed significant cytotoxicity in the brine shrimp lethality assay, and exhibited genotoxicity effects against MCF-7 DNA in a time-dependent manner.

Tea, candied or capsules in the local market.