Granadilla

Family • Passifloraceae - Passiflora quadrangularis Linn. - PASSION FLOWER - Da guo xi fan ilan

Scientific names

Passiflora quadrangularis Linn.

Common names

Granadilla (Span., Tag.)
Granada (Pang.)
Kasaflora (Ilk.)
Parola (Ilk.)
Giant granadilla (Engl.)
Square-stemmede passion flower (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Ri ben zhao, Da zhuan xin lian, Da xin fan lian.
DANISH: Kaempepassionsblomst.
DUTCH: Djari markoesa (Surinam), Groote markoesa (Surinam), Vierhoekige passiebloem.
FRENCH: Barbadine, Grenadille géante, Passiflore quadrangulaire.
GERMAN: Melonengranadille, Riesengranadilla.
ITALIAN: Passiflora quadrangolare.
MALAY: Buah mankisa, Manesa, Marquesa, Markiza, Markeesa, Markiza, Markoesa, Mentimun , Timun belanda.
PORTUGUESE: Maracujá-assú, Maracujá de caiena, Maracujá-grande, Maracujá-mamao, Maracujá-suspiro, Martírio quadrangular.
SPANISH : Badea, Corvejo (Colombia), Granadilla de fresco, Granadilla grande, Granadilla para refrescos (El Salvador), Granadilla real, Parcha granadina, Parcha de Guinea, Sandia de pasión (Bolivia), Tambo, Tumbo (Ecuador).
THAI: Su khon tharot.
VIETNAMESE: Dua gan tay.

Botany
Granadilla is a stout, smooth, herbaceous vine, reaching a length of 10 to 15 meters. Stems are four-angled and narrowly winged. Leaves are entire, ovate to elliptic, 10 to 15 centimeters long, with pointed tip and broadly rounded base. Stalks bear scattered glands. Flower is large, solitary and fragrant; petals are reddish, the corona-filaments are violet. Fruit is large, fleshy, edible, ellipsoid, 15 to 20 centimeters long.

Granadilla

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Passiflora names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE

(2) Cholesterol-dependent hemolytic activity of Passiflora quadrangularis leaves / L N Yuldasheva, E B Carvalho et al / Braz J Med Biol Res, July 2005, Volume 38(7) 1061-1070 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-879X2005000700009

(3) Medical Attributes of Passiflora sp. – Passionflower / Stephen Bortz / Wilkes University, Wilkes-Barre, PA, July, 2001

(4) Snakebites and ethnobotany in the northwest region of Colombia. Part III: neutralization of the haemorrhagic effect of Bothrops atrox venom. / Otero R, Núñez V, Barona J, Fonnegra R, Jiménez SL, Osorio RG, Saldarriaga M, Díaz A. / J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Nov;73(1-2):233-41.

(5) Non-experimental validation of plants used in Trinidad and Tobago for diabetes and urinary problems / Biomedcentral.com

DCF 1.0
Distribution
– Cultivated in the Philippines for its fruit and as an ornamental vine.
– Introduced from tropical America.
– Now pantropic.

Constituents 
– Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, glycosides, and flavonoids.
– Leaves produce hydrocyanic acid, 0.009 – 0.20 %, therefore poisonous.
– Contains flavonoids, essential oil in trace amounts, gynocardin (a cyanogenic glycoside), ß-carboline alkaloids, and a tri-substituted benzoflavone.
– Fruit and unripe seeds also contain hydrocyanic acid.
– Whole plant reported to contain norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytryptamine; the leaves, a cyclopropane triterpene glycoside, quadranguloside. Also, an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and aldose reductase enzyme inhibitory.

Properties
– Passion fruit is considered antispasmodic, sedative, narcotic.
– Considered analgesic, antiscorbutic, antispasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, hypnotic, narcotic, sedative, and vasodilating.
– Root thought to be narcotic.
– Leaves considered poisonous because of its hydrocyanic acid.

Granadilla3
Granadilla4

Parts used 
Roots, bark, flowers, fruit.

Uses
Edibility / Nutrition
– Eaten green as boiled vegetable; ripe, iced and sugared.
– Fruit contains vitamin C, citric and malic acids.
– High in niacin.
– Flowers cooked as a vegetable or made into syrup.
– Fruit wall is often candied.

Folkloric
– Skin of the fruit , bark of root, used for intestinal tapeworms and parasites.
– Used by traditional healers for snakebites.
– Root used for narcotic properties.
– In Mauritius, used as diuretic and emetic.
– In Guiana, used as vomitive and taeniacide.
– Indigenous tribes in the Amazon have long used the leaves for its sedative and pain-relieving properties; also, as a heart tonic and for coughs.
– In Brazil, several species of genus Passiflora (maracuja) have widespread use as sedative and anxiolytic.
Homeopathic medicine
– Used for treatment of insomnia, epilepsy, tetanus and muscle spasms.

Studies
• Hemolysin / Leaves: Hemolysins and cytolysins found in some plants are potential sources of bactericidal and anticancer drugs. Study demonstrated for the first time the presence of hemolysin in the leaves of P quadrangularis. The hemolysin was heat stable, resistant to trypsin, with dose-dependent hemolysin activity. Passiflora hemolysin is a saponin, with cholesterol-dependent membrane susceptibility, forming a stable complex with cholesterol, with rapid erythrocyte lysis kinetics. (3)
• Induction of Flavonoid Production by UV-B Radiation:Study evaluated the possible role of UV-B irradiation and elicitation on production of glycosyl flavonoids (orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, isovitexin) in Passiflora species (P. edulis, P. incarnata, and P. quadrangularis) in callus cultures. Among them, P quadrangularis showed a faster growth rate and more friable texture, and chosen for testing with elicitors. Callus-treated cultures showed more enhanced flavonoid production and higher antioxidant activity compared to untreated calluses.
• Anxiolytic Effect: Study evaluated aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of P. quadrangularis for anxiolytic activity in rats using the elevated plus-maze, opend filed and holeboard tests. Results on the hydroalcoholic extract suggested anxiolytic activity. No positive results were seen with the aqueous extract.
• Venom Neutralization: In a study of plants for neutralization of Bothrops atrox venom, Passiflora quadrangularis (leaves and branches) was one of 19 species, which in mixture, showed moderate neutralization (21-72%). When the extracts were independently administered by oral, IV or IP route, either before of after an i.d. venom injection, neutralization dropped below 25% for all extracts.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated for its fruit and ornamental vine.
In the cybermarket: teas, infusions, tinctures and extracts.