Family • Sterculiaceae - Guazuma tomentosa Kunth - BASTARD CEDAR
|Guazuma tomentosa Kunth|
|Guazuma tomentosa HBK|
|Guazuma guazuma (L.) Cockerell|
|Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.|
|Theobroma tomentosa (HBK) Gomez|
|Bastard cedar (Engl.)|
|Musket tree (Engl.)|
|Pigeon wood (Engl.)|
Other vernacular names
|FRENCH : Bois de hêtre, Bois d´orme, Bois d’homme, Hêtre gris, Hêtre orme (Eastern Caribbean), Hêtre vert, Mahot-baba (Eastern Caribbean), Mahot-hêtre (Eastern Caribbean), Mahot-hetre, Orme d’amérique.|
|GUJARATI: Bhadraksha, Khoto rudraksha.|
|JAPANESE: Guazuma, Guazuma urumiforia, Nireba guazuma, Teoburaama guazuma.|
|PORTUGUESE: Araticum-bravo, Buxuma, Cabeça-de-negro, Camacan, Cambá-aça, Embira (Brazil), Embireira, Embiru, Enveira du campo, Fruta-de-macaco, Guaxima-macho, Guaxima-torcida, Mutamba, Mutamba, Mutamba-verdadeira, Mutambo, Mutambu, Pau-de-bicho, Pau-de-montanha, Pau-de-pomba, Periquiteira, Piriquiteira, Pojó.|
|SPANISH: Guacima, Ajilla, Ajya, Aquiche, Bacedar, Bolaina, Bolaina negra, Cabeza de Negro, Cablote, Caca de mico, Cambo-aca, Caulote, Chicharron, Coco, Contamal, Cualote, Guacima, Guácima, Guácimo blanco, Guácimo cimarrón, Guácimo de ternero, Guácimo dulce, Guazima, Guazuma, Majagua de toro, Nocuana-yana, Papayillo, Parandesicua, Tablote, Tapaculo, Vácima, Yaco granidillo, Yaco de venado..|
|TAMIL: Rudrasam, Tenbachai, Thenmaram, Tubakki, Tuppakki maram.|
|TELUGU: Bhadraksha, Rudraksha.|
Guazuma is a tree growing to a height of 10 or more meters. Leaves are oblong to broadly ovate, 4 to 16 centimeters long, with pointed tip, rounded to heart-shaped base, and toothed margins. Flowers are small, yellowish-green or whitish, sweet-scented, and borne in axillary cymes. Fruit is a woody capsule, nearly spherical or oval, 2 to 4 centimeters long, covered with black tubercles resembling those of a mulberry, and imperfectly 5-valvate at the apex. Seeds are numerous in each cell.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) The aerial parts of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. protect against NSAID-induced gastric lesions / Bereguer B, Trabadela C et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2007 Nov 1;114(2):153-60. Epub 2007 Jul 22.
(2) Hypotensive and vasorelaxant effects of the procyanidin fraction from Guazuma ulmifolia bark in normotensive and hypertensive rats / Magos GA, Mateos JC ET AL / J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Apr 17;117(1):58-68. Epub 2008 Jan 20.
(3) A new biscoumarin and other constituents from Guazuma tomentosa ROOTS / O. P. Agarwal, U. Saxena, S. C. Jain and R. Jain / CHEMISTRY OF NATURAL COMPOUNDS, Volume 46, Number 5, 713-715, DOI: 10.1007/s10600-010-9722-2
(4) Sorting Guazuma names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.
– Study yielded proanthocyanidins.
– Roots yielded a new dicoumarol, 3,3′-methylenebis(4,6-dihydroxycoumarin) along with known metabolites β-sitosteryl stearate, n-tetracosanoic acid, friedelin, friedel-1-en-3-one, β-sitosterol, 29-norcycloartanol, oleanolic acid, 3-O-acetyloleanolic acid, 6-methoxy-7,8-methylenedioxy coumarin, and methyl-3-acetyloleanolate.
– Bark is considered emollient, sudorific and astringent.
– Fruit is considered pectorant.
Bark, fruit and other plant parts.
– Seeds are edible, fresh or cooked.
– In some parts of India, capsules reportedly eaten as famine food.
– Bark and other plant parts used for malaria,cutaneous and syphilitic affections, elephantiasis, afflictions of the chest and leprosy.
– In Martinique, infusion of the old bark is considered sudorific and used for chest and cutaneous diseases.
– In the West Indies, the inner bark is used for elephantiasis; also as a sudorific.
– In the Antilles, the bark is mucilaginous and used for astringent applications.
– Fruit is considered pectorant and used for bronchitis.
– Beverage of crushed seeds soaked in water used for diarrhea, dysentery, cold, coughs, contusions and venereal disease. Also, used as diuretic.
– Used as topical remedy for hair loss and baldness.
– Reported use by Latino healers in NYC for uterine fibroids.
Fodder: In many countries, an important source of livestock fodder.
Wood: Used for posts, general carpentry, light construction and charcoal.
Rope: Tough, fibrous bark and young stems used for making rope and twine.
• Anti-Diabetes: In a study in hyperglycemic rabbits of 28 medicinal plants, eight – including Guazuma ulmifolia – significantly decreased the hyperglycemic peak and/or the area under the glucose tolerancecurve.
• Radical Scavenging / Anti-Inflammatory / Gastroprotective: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effects of an aqueous suspension of an ethanolic extract of leaves and flowers of G ulmifolia in a diclofenac-induced acute gastric ulcer model. Pretreatment with GU or omeprazole decreased the ulcerated area in a dose-dependent manner. Results conclude the aerial parts of GU protect gastric mucosa from the injurious effects of NSAIDS mainly by anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging mechanisms.
• Antibacterial: A study evaluated 21 extracts from 7 herbal drugs, including G ulmifolia bar, for their antibacterial properties against E coli, P aeruginosa, S aureus and E faecalis. Almost all the extracts were able to inhibit growth of one or more bacterial strains, except that of E faecalis.
• Proanthocyanidins: Proanthocyanidins from the bark has been shown to inhibit the activity of cholera toxin.
• Hypotensive / Vasorelaxant: Study investigated the in vivo and in vitro cardiovascular activity of a procyanidin fraction (PCF) from the acetone extract of G ulmifolia. Results conclude that G ulmifolia bark possesses long-lasting antihypertensive and vaso-relaxing properties linked to endothelium-related factors where nitric oxide is involved.
Seeds, powders, teas, tinctures in the cybermarket.