Gumamelang asul

Family • Malvaceae - Hibiscus syriacus Linn. - ROSE OF SHARON - Mu jin

Scientifric names

HIbiscus syriacus Linn.
HIbiscus chinensis auct.
HIbiscus rhombifolius Cavan.
HIbiscus acerifolius Salisb.
Ketmia syriaca Scopoli.
Ketmia arborea Moench..

Common names

Gumamelang asul (Tag.)
Rose of Althea (Engl.)
Rose mallow (Engl.)
Rose of Sharon (Engl.)
Shrubby althea (Engl.)
Syrian hibiscus (Engl.)
Mu jin (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

DANISH: Havehibiscus.
FRENCH: Ketmie des jardins, Mauve de Syrie.
GERMAN: Syrischer Rosen-Eibisch.
JAPANESE: Hachisu, Mokukinka, Mukuge.
KOREAN: Moo goong hwa.
POLISH: Ketmia syryjska.
PORTUGUESE: Hibisco (Brazil).
SPANISH: Rosa de Siria.
THAI: Chaba chin.
VIETNAMESE: Bông Bụp Trắng, Hồng Cận Biếc , Bụp Hồng Cận.

Gen info
Hibiscus syriacus is the national flower of South Korea.

Botany
Gumamelang-asul is a smooth and erect shrub growing to a height of 2 meters. Leaves are cuneiform-ovate, about 5 cm long, nearly or quite smooth, 3-lobed with toothed margins. Flowers are pale bluish-violet that do not open fully. Petals are obovate petals. Capsules are oblong, slightly hairy. Seeds are also hairy.

Gumamelang asul

Distribution
– Ornamental cultivation.
– Nowhere naturalized.
– Native of tropical or subtropical Asia.
– Now widely cultivated.

Constituents 
• Bark contains mucilage, carotenoids, sesquiterpenes, anthocyanidins.

Properties
• Considered anthelmintic, antiphlogistic, antipruritic, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, febrifuge,stomachic and styptic.
• Bark and roots are mucilaginous.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Hibiscus syriacus / Rose of Sharon / Plants For A Future

(2) Antioxidant Properties of Heat-treated Hibiscus syriacus / Sung Won Kwon et al / Biology Bulletin • Volume 30, Number 1 / January, 2003 / DOI 10.1023/A:1022055224858

(3) The extract of Hibiscus syriacus inducing apoptosis by activating p53 and AIF in human lung cancer cells./ Cheng Y L et al / Am J Chin Med. 2008;36(1):171-84.

(4) Biologically Active Compounds from the Genus Hibiscus. / Neeru Vasudeva and S K Sharma / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology • 2008, Vol. 46, No. 3, Pages 145-153 , DOI 10.1080/13880200701575320

(5) Two bioactive pentacyclic triterpene esters from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus. / Yun BS, Ryoo IJ, Lee IK et al / J Nat Prod. 1999 May;62(5):764-6.

(6) Coumarins with monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity and antioxidative coumarino-lignans from Hibiscus syriacus./ Yun BS, Lee IK, Ryoo IJ, Yoo ID / J Nat Prod. 2001 Sep;64(9):1238-40.

(7) Sorting Hibiscus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne

(8) Nonanoic Acid, an Antifungal Compound from Hibiscus syriacus Ggoma / Yun-Woo Jang, Jin-Young Jung, and Bong-Sik Yun / Mycobiology, 2012, June; 40(2): 145-146.

(9) EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF LEAVES OF HIBISCUS SYRIACUS / L. Sanjay Prahalad Umachigi*, Jayaveera K.N., Ashok kumar C.K2., T. Bharathi, G.S. Kumar / Pharmacologyonline 1: 51-65 (2008)

Gumamelang asul3
Gumamelang asul2

Parts used
Flowers, bark and roots.

Uses
Edibility
• Tea made from flowers and leaves.
•Young leaves, eaten raw or cooked. Used as salad ingredient.
• Root is edible, though fibrous, and lacking flavor.

Folkloric 
• In Malaya, infusion of dried flowers used as a diuretic. Also used for itches and other skin ailments.
• Decoction of flowers used for dizziness, bloody stools.
• Leaves are used as stomachic.
• In Indo-China, used for dysentery.
• Bark and roots are mucilaginous; used as demulcent, for diarrhea, dysentery and dysmenorrhea.
• Seeds used for headaches and colds: also used in combination with pig marrow as an application todischarging ulcers.
• Flowers sometimes used as substitute for tea.

Others 
• Stems yield a fiber, used for making paper and rope.
• Hair shampoo made from the leaves.
• Blue dye obtained from the flowers.

Study Findings
• Antioxidant: Study on the stems and roots of Hibiscus syriacus showed the extract of heat-treated HS was more effective than those of non-treated HS in reducing the stable free radical DPPH.
• Antiproliferative / Cytotoxicity: Study showed the acetone extract of HS exhibited better cytotoxic effect on lung cancer cells than the methanol and water extract. Results show HS-AE exerts significant dose-dependent anti-proliferative effect on cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
• Naphthalenes / Cytotoxicity / Anti-Lipid Peroxidation: Study isolated three naphthalenes from the root bark of Hibiscus syriacus – syriacusins A, B and C. The compounds exhibited lipid peroxidation and one showed cytotoxicity against some human cancer cell lines.
• Anthocyanidin Malonylglucosides: Methanolic formic acid extract of petals yielded 3-O-malonylglucosides of delphinidin, cyanidin, pentunidin, pelargonidin, peonidin and malvidin.
• Triterpene Esters / Lipid Peroxidation Inhibition / Anticancer: Root bark yielded two triterpene caffeates. Both compounds exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity and significant cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer lines.
• Coumarins / MAO Inhibitory Activity: Root bark yielded a coumarin, a new coumarin lignan, and known compounds scopoletin and cleomisconsins A, C, and D, The coumarin analogue and scopoletin inhibited MAO, while the coumarin lignan and cleomiscosin C exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity comparable to vitamin E.
• Nonanoic Acid / Mutant H. syriacus / Antifungal Activity: Study of a methanolic extract of roots of H. syriacus Ggoma, produced by mutation breeding. The extract exhibited four time higher antifungal activity than its parent type against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Spectroscopic analysis identified the antifungal substance as nonanoic acid.
• Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract and fractions of leaves for antioxidant activity in invitro and ex vivo models. Results showed the CMF of leaves to scavenge superoxide radical, nitric oxide radical, reducing power and inhibited lipid peroxidation. The antioxidant activity can be attributed to phenolic compounds such as delphinidin, petunidin, malvidin, and quercetin.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated.