Family • Asteraceae - Centipeda minima (Linn.) A. Br. & Asch. - SNEEZE WEED, SNEEZE WORT - Qiu zi cao

Scientific names

Artemisia minima L.
Centipeda minima (Linn.) A. Br. & Asch.
Centipeda minuta C.B. Clarke.
Centipeda orbicularis Lour.
Cotula minima (L.) Willd.
Cotula orbicularis (Lour.)
Shi hu sui (Chin.)

Common names

Harangan (Tag., Bis.)
Pisik (Bis.)
Sneeze weed (Engl.)
Sneeze wort (Engl.)
Qiu zi cao (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

JAPANESE: To-kin sou.
SANSKRIT: Chikkika, tikshna, ghrandukhahda, chhikkani, kashvakrit, mecheta.
THAILAND: Krataai chan, yaa krachaam, mueat lot.
VIETNAM: C[us]c m[awr]n, c[os]c m[awr]n, c[or] the.

Harañgan is a prostrate or ascending, slender, leafy herb, somewhat wooly or nearly smooth, with numerous branches spreading from the root, and 8 to 20 centimeters long. Leaves are oblong-obovate to oblanceolate, 1 centimeter long or less, and with few coarse teeth on the margins. Heads are stalkless, rounded, 3 to 4 millimeters in diameter, many flowered, and borne singly in the axils of the leaves. Achenes are about 1 millimeter long, tipped with the persistent style, and bristly on the angles.


– In open waste places, rice paddies, etc. at low and medium altitudes.
– In Cagayan, Nueva Viscaya, Pampanga, Rizal and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; in Lanao, Mindanao.
– Also reported from eastern Asia to China through Malaya to tropical Australia.

• Yields an amorphous volatile oil and a bitter principle, myriogynin.
• Contains an alkaloid, a glucoside and traces of saponin.
• Study yielded three antibacterial sesquiterpene lactones.
• Study yielded two monoterpedoids together with five known thymol derivatives. (Link)
• Study isolated ten compounds, (-)-cis-chrysanthenol-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, methy 3,5-dicaffeoylquinate, 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinicacid, tricin, 2-amino-4-methyl-pentanoicacid, 2-amino-3-phenyl-propionic acid, 4-amino-4-carboxychroman-2-one, brevilin-A, arnicolide C, arnicolide D.
• Study for volatile constituents yielded forty-one compounds. Major constituents were: trans-chrysanthenyl acetate (42.18%), 4,4-trimethyl -bicyclo [3.2.0] hept-6-en-2-ol (6.85%), caryophyllene oxide (4.42%), 2-(2-furanylmethyl)-5 -methyl-furan (3.76%), hexadecanoic acid (3.55%), 2-methyl-5-(1-methylethyl)-phenol (3.53%), propanoic acid 2,3,7-trimethyl -2,6-octadienyl ester (2.97%), 3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (2.93%), thymol (2.88%) and α-humulene (2.29%).

• Considered anodyne, antiphlogistic, anticontusion, antitussive, diuretic, depurative, antiinfectious, antirheumatic.
• Pungent-warming, clears out nose, ear cavity, invigorates blood circulation, relieves gastrointestinal disorders

Parts utilized
Entire plant.
Collect from February to July.
Rinse and sun-dry.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Antibacterial constituents of the Nepalese medicinal herb, Centipeda minima

(2) Histopathological study on allergic rhinitis treated with Centipeda minima / Liu ZG, Yu HM, Wen SL, Liu YL. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Feb;30(4):292-4 /

(3) Effects of the volatile oil of Centipeda minima on acute pleural effusion in rats induced by an intrapleural injection of car / Qin RA, Mei X, Wan L, Shi JL, Shen YJ. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2005 Aug;30(15):1192-4.

(4) Antiprotozoal activities of Centipeda minima / H. W. Yu et al / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 8 Issue 7, Pages 436 – 438 / (DOI) 10.1002/ptr.2650080713

(5) 2B-(Isobutyryloxy)florilenalin, a Sesquiterpene Lactone Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Centipeda minima, Induces Apoptosis in Human Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma CNE Cells / Miaoxian Su et al / Molecules 2009, 14(6), 2135-2146; doi:10.3390/molecules1406213

(6) Study on the Antiasthmatic Effects of Essential Oil from Centipeda minima / Chen Qiang, Zhou Chunquan et al / Chinese Journal of Modern Applied Pharmacy, 2010-06 / DOI: CNKI:SUN:XDYD.0.2010-06-004

(7) Preliminary study on molluscicidal effect of active components from Centipeda minima / Ni H1, Ma AN, Zhang Y, Geng P. / Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009 Aug;27(4):377-8

(8) Chemical constituents from Centipeda minima / Pu S, Guo Y, Gao W. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2009 Jun;34(12):1520-2.

(9) Antiproliferative effects of volatile oils from Centipeda minima on human nasopharyngeal cancer CNE cells /
Su M, Wu P, Li Y, Chung HY. / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Jan;5(1):151-6.

(10) Centipeda minima (L.) A. Br. & Asch. / Vernacular names / GLOBin MED

(11) STUDY ON THE VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF CENTIPEDA MINIMA FROM ZHEJIANG / Journal of South China Normal University (Natural 2011, Vol. 0 Issue (2) / journal.scnu.edu.cn:8080/jwk_xbzrb/EN/

(12) Two new sesquiterpene lactones from the supercritical fluid extract of Centipeda minima / Journal of Asian natural products research / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10286020.2012.670222

(13) Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Aqueous Extract of Centipeda minima. / Shyh-Shyun Huang; Chuan-Sung Chiu; Tsung-Hui Lin; Min-Min Lee; Chao-Ying Lee; Shu-Jen Chang; Wen-Chi Hou; Guan-Jhong Huang; Jeng-Shyan Deng / Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2013 Mar

(14) Small compound 6‑O‑angeloylplenolin induces caspase‑dependent apoptosis in human multiple myeloma cells / Ying Liu, Ying Dong, Bo Zhang, Yong‑Xian Cheng / Oncology Letters / DOI: 10.3892/ol.2013.1370


• In the Philippines, squeezed between the fingers and inhaled, clearing the head by provoking sneezing.
• Used for rheumatic lumbar and leg pains.
• Powdered herb and minute seeds used as sternutatory.
• Infusion of plant used for purulent ophthalmia.
• Used as hot and dry medicine for paralysis, joint pains and worms.
• Rhinitis: Ointment made dried pulverized material with camphor or yerba buena (Mentha arvensis) to make a 10% valenine ointment) applied to the nose for rhinitis.
• Sprains, bone fractures, poisonous snake bites, furuncle.
• Dosage: use 3 to 9 gms dried material or 9 to 15 gms fresh material in decoction.
• Poultice used for sprains, contusions and snake bites.
• In India, used as snuff for treatment of head colds.
• The Mundas of Chota Nagpur sniff the crushed plant for fevers and colds. In Punjab, herb is boiled to a pasted and applied to the cheeks for toothache.
• In Nepal, used to treat sinus infections.
• In China, used for nasopharyngeal cancers. Also, the plant used as a kind of snuff for ophthalmia, causing the eyes to water.


Study Findings
• Antibacterial:Antibacterial constituents of the Nepalese medicinal herb, Centipeda minima: Study yielded three antibacterial sesquiterpene lactones which showed activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staph aureus.
• Antibacterial / Thymol:Study isolated two new monoterpenoids with five known thymol derivatives. All the agents tested exhibited antibacterial effects against all the bacteria investigated. Thymol, as a component of volatile oils, has been shown to possess antimicrobial activities. Results suggest C. minima could be a potential source for antibacterial substances for food preservation.
• Antimicrobial / Chemical Composition: Study showed the extract to have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against all tested strains, esp Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia, Staph aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica. Twenty three compounds were identified. Results show the extract to be a good antimicrobial agent with a potential for public health applications.
• Allergic Rhinitis: Treatment with active extract in in an allergic-rhinitic animal model induced by ragweed pollen showed significantly decreased pathologic changes, with decreased infiltration of eosinophils and mast cells in the connective tissue. Results conclude that Cm is effective in treating allergic rhinitis.
• Antiinflammatory / Induced Pleural Effusion: Study showed the volatile oil of Centipeda minima to have a protective effect on acute pleural effusion in rats induced by an intrapleural injection of Car.
• Anti-Protozoal: Study isolated a sesquiterpene lactone, brevilin A, which was found to have antigiardial activity and similarly active in vitro against Entamoeba histolytica and against Plasmodium falcifarum. Three flavonoids were isolated: quercetin, quercetin 3-methyl ether and kaempferol 7-glucosylrhamnoside.
• Antiproliferative / Florilenalin / Nasopharyngeal CA: Study isolated a sesquiterpene lactone, IF (2B-(isobutylryloxy)florilenalin that showed a significant dose- and time-dependent inhibition on the growth of human nasophayngeal carcinoma epithelial cells. Overall, Cm showed potent antiproliferative effect on NPC cells and suggests further investigation of its medicinal potential.
• Antiasthmatic: Study on the essential oil of Centipeda minima showed a good therapeutic effect with significant prolongation asthma latency and gasping on a guinea pig model of spray-induced asthma.
• Molluscicidal Effect: Study of water and ethanol extracts against Oncomelania hupensis showed a molluscicidal effect, the aqueous extract higher than the ethanol extract. The main components were sesquiterpenes lactones and sterols.
• Antiproliferative / Volatile Oils: Study showed that SFE oil induced CNE cell death via induction of apoptosis by regulating expression of the Bci-2 family of proteins, with consequent mitochondrial dysfunction. Results provided strong evidence for the anti-NPC potential of the SPE oil from C. minima.
• Antiproliferative Effect: In this study, the n-hexane fraction showed broad spectrum of inhibitory effects on five human cancer cell lines, including breast CA MCF7 cells, prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells, nasopharyngeal CA CNE cells, and the acute promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways were activated.
• Antihistaminic / Antiulcer: Hydroalcoholic extract of bark demonstrated antihistaminic activity with a concentration-dependent inhibition of histamine-induced contractile response on guinea pig ileum.Various fractions also showed significant ulcer protective effect with inhibition of ulcer index.
• New Sesquiterpene Lactones / Minimolides G and H / Anti-Human Nasapharyngeal Cancer Cell Line: Study isolated two new sesquiterpene lactones, minimolides G and H. Both exhibited activity against human nasopharyngeal cancer cell line.
• Antibacterial Sesquiterpenoids: Study yielded two new guiaiane-type sesquiterpene lactones, with three known guaianolide- or psedoguaianolides from C. minima whole plant. All the compounds were found active against eight different microbial pathogens.
• Antibacterial Sesquiterpenoids: An aqueous extract exhibited antioxidant in the TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging assays and anti-inflammatory activity with concentration dependent inhibition of paw edema after Carr treatment in mice.
• 6-O-angeloylplenolin . Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells: 6-OAP was previously showed to inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma cells through mitotic arrest. Study evaluated the level of apoptosis in dexamethasone-sensitive, dexamethasome-resistant, and chemotherapy sensitive myeloma cell lines. 6-OAP-induced apoptosis showed to be caspase-dependent.

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