Haras

Family • Umbelliferae - Anis - Foeniculum vulgare Mill. - FENNEL - Hsiao-hui

Other scientific names

Anethum foeniculum L.
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.
Foeniculum commune Bubani
Foeniculum foeniculum (L.) H. Kurst.

Common names

Anis (Span., tag.)
Haras (Tag.)
Fennel (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

ARABIC: Bisbas, Raziana. NORWEGIAN: Fennikel.
CHINESE: Hsiao-hui, Hui xiang, Xiao hui xiang. PERSIAN: Razianeh.
CZECH: Fenykl. POLISH: Fenkuł, Koper włoski.
DANISH: Almindelig fennikel, Fennikel. PORTUGUESE: Funcho.
DUTCH: Venkel. RUSSIAN: Fenchel’ obyknovennyj.
FRENCH: Fenouil. SANSKRIT: Madhurika, Shatapushpa.
GERMAN: Fenchel. SLOVENIAN: Sladki komarček.
HINDI Badi, Badishep, Bari saunf, Bari sanuf, Sanuf, Saunf, Sonp, Sont. SPANISH: Hinojo.
ITALIAN: Finocchio commune, Finocchio selvatico. SWEDISH: Fänkål.
JAPANESE: Fenneru, Uikyou. TAMIL: Perun siragum, Shombu, Sohikire.
KANNADA: Badi sopu, Badisepu, Sabbasige. TELUGU: Peddajilakurra, Sopu.
LAOTIAN: Phak si. THAI: Phak chi, Phak chi duen ha, Phak chi lom, Thian klaep, Yira.
NEPALESE: Madesi sauf.

General info
Raw fennel has a pronounced and distinct taste, close to anise or licorice. In olden times, fennel has been used both as an appetite suppressant and digestive aid, to counter witchcraft, as a culinary garnish, and varied medicinal uses.

Haras

Botany
Haras is a biennial plant with a thick rootstock, erect, much-branched, smooth, often 1 meter or more in height. Leaves are 2-, 3-, or 4-pinnate and about 20 centimeters long; the segments are filiform and 2 to 4 centimeters long. Umbels are 5 to 10 centimeters in diameter; the rays number 8 to 15, about 2 to 3 centimeters long, but longer in fruit, each with 20 to 30, pedicelled, yellow flowers. Fruit is ridged, very aromatic, oblong or ellipsoid, about 5 millimeters long. Seeds are somewhat dorsally compressed.

Haras2

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Mosquito repellent isolated from Foeniculum vulgare fruit / FPO, IP Research & Communities

(2) The effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomized, placebo-controlled study / Alexandrovich I, Rakovitskaya O, Kolmo E, Sidorova T, Shushunov S. / Altern Ther Health Med. 2003 Jul-Aug;9(4):58-61.

(3) Relaxant effect of Foeniculum vulgare on isolated Guinea pig tracheal chains

(4) Clinical effects of Foeniculum vulgare extract on primary dysmenorrhea / Sh Torkzahrani (.M.Sc) et al / Journal of Reproduction and Infertility • Volume 8, Issue 1, Year 2007, Number 30 /

(5) Fennel / Foeniculum vulgare / Herbs & Supplements / iHerb

(6) Comparison in Various Bioactive Compounds of Leaves and Seeds of Foeniculum vulgare / Gulfraz, M et al

(7) Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract: a double-blind placebo controlled study / Javidnia K, Dastgheib L, Mohammadi Samani S, Nasiri A. / Phytomedicine. 2003;10(6-7):455-8.

(8) Sorting Foeniculum names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(9) COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IN VITRO ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL. (UMBELLIFERAE) EXTRACT / Khadija Dahak and Moha Taourirte / OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences / DOI : 10.3844/ojbsci.2013.115.120

(10) Chemical constituents, antifungal and antioxidative potential of Foeniculum vulgare volatile oil and its acetone extract / Gurdip Singh*, Sumitra Maurya, M.P. de Lampasona, C. Catalan / Food Control 17 (2006) 745–752

(11) Effect of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Fruits in Obesity and Associated Cardiovascular Disorders Demonstrated in High Fat Diet Fed Albino Rats / Dr. Chanchal Garg, Prof. S. H. Ansari, Prof. S. A. Khan, Dr. Munish Garg / JPBMS, 2011, 8

(12) In-vitro Cytoprotection Activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Helicteres isora in Cultured Human Blood Lymphocytes and Antitumour Activity against B16F10 Melanoma Cell Line / Madhulika Pradhan*, S Sribhuwaneswari, D Karthikeyan, Sunita Minz, Pavani Sure, Atul N Chandu, Umesh Mishra, K Kamalakannan, A Saravanankumar and T Sivakumar / Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1(4): Oct.-Dec. 2008

(13) A NOTE ON THE VOLATILE SECONDARY METABOLITES OF FOENICULUM VULGARE MILL. (APIACEAE) / Niko S. Radulović, Polina D. Blagojevic / FACTA UNIVERSITATIS Series: Physics, Chemistry and Technology Vol. 8, No 1, 2010, pp. 25 – 37 / DOI: 10.2298/FUPCT1001025R

Distribution
– Planted here and there about houses.
– Nowhere spontaneous.
– Native of Europe.
– Now cultivated in all warm countries.

Haras3

Properties
• Considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, aromatic, emmenagogue, expectorant, hallucinogenic, stomachic.
• Warming, carminative, stomachic, antispasmodic, antidepressant, a weak diuretic, and a mild stimulant, galactagogue.
• Infused fruit considered carminative.
• Roots considered aperative and purgative.
• Shoots of young plants considered carminative and respiratory.
• Considered energizing, tranquilizing and anti-spasmodic.

Haras4

Constituents
• Fruit yields a volatile oil, 2.9% to 6%, 50 to 60 % of which is anethol; fixed oil, 8.9%; pectin, 1.3%; pentosan, 5.12%.
• The oil of fennel includes 50 – 60% anethol, also the chief constituent of anise oil and 18-22 percent fenchone. (Rodale’s Encyclopedia of Herbs)
• Volatile oil yielded 35 components, the major component of which was trans-anethole (70.1%). An acetone extract yielded nine components (68.9%) with major components of linoleic acid (54.9%), palmitic acid (5.4%), and oleic acid (5.4%).

Parts used
Whole plant, roots, seeds, oil of seed.

Uses
Culinary
– The fruit, seeds and young leaves are used for flavoring sweets, dishes and dainties.
– The young leaves, raw or cooked, used as flavoring.
– The seeds have an anise-like flavor.

Folkloric
– In the Philippines, infused fruit is carminative.
– Roots employed as aperative; also as purgative.
– Crushed fruit is inhaled to counter faintness.
– Infusion of fruit used for flatulence.
– Shoots of young plant used as carminative and respiratory.
– Juice of fruit used to improve eyesight.
– Decoction is gargled as a breath freshener or applied as an eyewash.
– Decoction of seeds help regulate menses.
– Used as diuretic and emmenagogue.
– Poultice has been used to relieve breast swelling in nursing mothers.
– Infusion of seeds used for stomatitis, abdominal cramps, colic, flatulence.
– Fennel water (aqua foeniculi) used for colic and flatulence in children.
– Hot infusion of fruit used for amenorrhea and suppressed lacteal secretion.
– Infusion of roots given for toothaches and postpartum pains.
– Hot infusion of roots given for amenorrhea
– Infusion of seeds used for flatulence in babies.
– Infusion of root used for urinary disorders.
– Oil used for flatulence.
– Oil of seeds used for intestinal deworming in 3-4 ml doses.
– Paste of seeds or fruit used in cooling drinks for fevers.
– Also used for increasing breast milk production, easing childbirth, soothing cough.
– Used to enhance libido.
– An ingredient of “gripe water” used for infantile colic.
– In Madras, fruits used for venereal diseases.
– In Mexico, decoction is used as galactagogue.
– In Antilles, used as a stimulant.

Cosmetic
– Infusion of ground seeds as a steam facial.
– Used as mouthwash and toothpaste.
– Used in skin-care products.
– Anticellulite massage oil: In a dark bottle, 8 drops of fennel, 8 drops of juniper, 10 drops of grapefruit, 5 tsps of sweet almond oil and 5 drops of jojoba oil; massage to affected area daily. (Illustrated Encyclopedia of Natural Remedies: C. Norman Shealy, MD)

Others
– Insect repellent.
– Crushed leaves used for dog fleas.

Preparation of infusion
• Infusion: Pour a cup of boiling water into 1-2 tsp of crushed seeds; cover and infuse for 10 minutes. For flatulence, take a cup, half an hour before meals.

Study Findings
• Repellent: Mosquito repellent isolated from Foeniculum vulgare fruit: The fennel oil and E-9-octadecenoic acide are used as insect repellent components due to its lack of human toxicity.
• Anti-Infantile Colic: A randomized, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effect of fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare) seed oil emulsion in infantile colic. Fennel seed oil reduced intestinal spasms and increase small intestinal motility. Study on fennel seed emulsion was superior to placebo in decreasing intensity of infantile colic.
• Bronchodilator Effect: Relaxant effect of Foeniculum vulgare on isolated Guinea pig tracheal chains:Study showed bronchodilator effects of the ethanol extract and essential oil from FV.
• Hepatoprotective / Fixed Oil: Study investigation the hepatoprotective effect of Foeniculum vulgare fixed oil in rats: Results indicate that FV fixed oil has a potential hepatoprotective action against induced liver fibrosis in rats.
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Hepatic Damage: Study evaluated essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare in hepatotoxicity in chronic carbon tetrachloride induced liver fibrosis model in rats. Histopathological findings suggested F. vulgare essential oil prevents development of chronic liver damage.
• Anti-Dysmenorrhea: Study results suggest Foeniculum vulgare extract can be effective in reducing the severity of dysmenorrhea.
• Oculohypotensive Activity / Glaucoma: Aqueous extract of Fv possess significant oculohypotensive activity, comparable to timolol. Further studies are warranted before Fv finds its place in the arsenal of antiglaucoma drugs.
• Leaf and Seed Comparison: Results of analysis of leaves and seeds of Fv showed the leaves contained higher concentrations of fat and flavonoids whereas the seeds were higher in saponins, protein, amino acids and other organic compounds.
• Antioxidant: The antioxidant potential of the herb might explain some of its empirical uses in folk medicine. The study found the shoots to have the highest radical-scavengiing activity and lipid-peroxidation capacity in agreement with the highest phenolic and ascorbic acid contents in this part. The shoots also showed a high concentration of tocopherols and were the only part plants found to have flavonoids.
• Anti-Hirsutism / Toxicity Studies: Idiopathic hirsutism is the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women with normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. A double-blind placebo controlled study evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. A 2% fennel cream showed better efficacy than 1% cream, and was more potent than placebo.
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial effect of organic and aqueous leaves extracts of Foeniculum vulgare against S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus hirea, E. coli, and Candida albicans. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity. The aqueous extract was more effective on Candida albicans.
• Anti-Thrombosis / Essential Oil / Anethole: F. vulgare essential oil, and its main component anethole, showed safe antithrombotic activity that may be due to its broad spectrum of antiplatelet activity, clot stabilizing effect and vasorelaxant action.
• Antifungal / Antioxidative: Volatile oil yielded 35 components, the major component of which was trans-anethole (70.1%). An acetone extract yielded nine components (68.9%) with major components of linoleic acid (54.9%), palmitic acid (5.4%), and oleic acid (5.4%). Both volatile oil and extract showed strong antioxidant activity. The volatile oil showed strong inhibition against Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Fusarium grainearum and F. monoliforme.
• Anti-Obesity / Fruits: Study evaluated F. vulgare fruit extracts in high fat diet fed albino rats for possible role in obesity and associated cardiovascular disorders. Results showed promising action against obesity and cardiovascular disorders. Results provide scientific rationale for folkloric use of F. vulgare in the treatment of obesity.
• Anti-Obesity / Fruits: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of F. vulgare in experimental (PCOS) polycystic ovary syndrome in female rats. Results showed the extract had beneficial effect on renal function in PCOS rats.
• In-Vitro Cytoprotection / Anti-Tumor: Study evaluated the in-vitro activity of methanolic extract of F. vulgare and Helicteres isora against human blood lymphocytes and antitumor activity against B16F10 melanoma cell line. F. vulgare showed good antitumor activity at 200µg/ml. F. vulgare can be considered to be bothb antitumor and cytoprotective to normal cells.
• Anti-Diabetic / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare for hypoglycemic effect and antioxidant activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Essential oil corrected the hyperglycemia and pathological abnormalities in STZ-induced diabetic rats, partly through its antioxidative effect and restoring of redox homeostasis.
• Volatile Secondary Metabolites: Study of root and schizocarp essential oils and diethyl ether extracts yielded 89 different components. The most abundant were phenylpropanoids (69.5-85.5%) and monoterpenoids (11.7 to 26.9%). Dominant volatile metabolites of the schizocarps were fenchone and (E)-anethole; the roots, terpinolene and dillapiole.

Availability
Wildcrafted.
Capsules, fennel oil, capsules or teas in the cybermarket.