Family • Moraceae - Ficus hauili Blanco - HAUILI FIG TREE - Leng guo rong

Scientific names

Ficus hauili Blanco
Ficus septica Burm. f.
Ficus laccifera Blanco
Ficus leucopleura F. Vill.
Ficus radiata F. Vill.
Ficus leucantatoma Merr.
Ficus philippinensis Bonard
Ficus altimeraloo F. Vill.
Ficus didymophylla Warb.
Ficus rapiformis Rolfe

Common names

Abnug (C. Bis.,P. Bis.) Liu-liu (Ting., If., Bon., Ilk,)
Auili (Tag.) Raya-raya (Ilk.)
Diudiu (Ig.) Reya-reya (Ilk.)
Hauili (Tag.) Ria-ria (Ilk.)
Kauili (Tag.) Sio (Bik.)
Labnog (P. Bis.) Tabung (Sul.)
Labnong (Tag.) Tuliao (Ibn.)
Lagmut (P. Bis.) Yabnoi (Iv.)
Lapting (Ilk.) Leng guo rong (Chin.)
Latayi (Bon.) Septic fig (Engl.)
Liliau (Ibn.) Hauli fig tree (Engl.)
Lio-lio (Pamp.)


Hauili is an erect, small tree, growing 3 to 8 meters high, smooth, with more or less hairy young shoots. Leaves are smooth and shining, not all roughened, oblong-ovate to elliptic-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with tip tapering to a rather sharp point, and the base pointed. Receptacles are axillary, solitary, depressed-globose or turbinate, obscurely ridged or angled, 1.5 to 2 centimeters in diameter, and shortly peduncled.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids from the Stems of Ficus septica / Amooru G. Damu, Ping-Chung Kuo et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2005, 68 (7), pp 1071–1075 DOI: 10.1021/np050095o

(2) Muscarinic Receptor Activity of Some Malaysian Plant Species / L.Y. Chung, K.F. Yap, M.R. Mustafa, S.H. Goh and Z. Imiyabir / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology / 2005, Vol. 43, No. 8, Pages 672-682

(3) Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Cheng-Wei Yang, Wei-Liang Chen, Pei-Lin Wu, Huan-Yi Tseng, and Shiow-Ju Lee / Mol Pharmacol 69:749-758, 2006 / DOI: 10.1124/mol.105.017764

(4) Scrutinising special qualities of phytochemicals / Anthony C. Dweck FLS FRSC FRSH – Technical Editor

(5) Immunomodulatory effects of hexane insoluble fraction of Ficus septica Burm. F. in doxorubicin-treated rats /
Nugroho AE, Hermawan A, Nastiti K, Suven, Elisa P, Hadibarata T, Meiyanto E. / Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13(11):5785-90.


– In thickets at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.


• Phytochemical study isolated isoflavones: ficusin A and ficusin B from the root bark.
• Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.

• Diuretic, sudorific, antiherpetic, antirheumatic.

Part utilized
Root, leaves, latex.

· In the Philippines, decoction of roots used as diuretic.
· Poultice of roots used for boils.
· Fresh leaves are sudorific; bruised with oil, used for headaches.
· Leaves applied externally as antirheumatic.
· Latex used for herpes.
· Used by the Ifugaos for diarrhea, cough, malaria and stomach problems.

• Phytochemicals / Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Stems / Cytotoxicity: Study yielded six known phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, eight new alkaloids – ficuseptines B-D, 10R,13aR-tylophorine N-oxide, 10R,13aR-tylocrebrine N-oxide among others – from the methanol extract of stems of Ficus septica. Cytotoxicity of the new alkaloids were assessed in vitro using HONE-1 and NUGC cell lines.
• Phenanthroindolizidine Alkaloids / Leaves / Cytotoxicity: Study yielded phenanthroindolizidine N-oxide, ficuseptine-A together with 18 known compounds from the leaves of FS. Some of the compounds exhibited strong cytotoxic activity against two human cancer cell lines.
• Mucarinic Receptor Activity: Malaysian study of 224 plant extracts from 50 plant families for muscarinic receptor binding activity showed the greatest inhibition, and with other extracts that exhibited significant muscarinic properties were suggested to be worthy of further investigation.
• Anti-inflammatory: Study examined the molecular mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory activity of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids isolated from the leaves of Ficus septica. Study suggests that it exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting expression of the proinflammatory factors and related signaling pathways.
• Antimicrobial / Antifungal / Antiprotozoal: Study of ethanol extracts of F septica and S foetida showed antibacterial activities, inhibiting the growth of S aureus and E coli. F septica inhibited Candia albicans and showed antiprotozoal activity against T vaginalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, quarternary base, tannins, 2-deoxysugars and benzopyrone nucleus. Results suggest the extracts can be used to produce alternative forms of antimicrobials.
• Antimicrobial Alkaloids: Study of methanolic extract displayed intense antimicrobial and antifungal activities. Study isolated two indolizidine alkaloids: a novel ficuseptine and antofine.
• Immunomodulatory / Anticancer: Previous study has shown anticancer effects singly or in combination with doxorubicin on T47D breast cancer lines. Study in thirty male Sprague Dawley rats showed HIF (hexane insoluble fraction) of leaves has a potential as protective agent combined with doxorubicin.
• Apoptosis / Chemopreventive: Study of ethanolic extract of leaves showed potential as chemopreventive agent with its activity on inducing apoptosis in liver cancer with p53-independent pathway.