Family • Ericacea - Gaultheria cumingiana S. Vidal - WHOLE MOUNTAIN FRAGRANT - Pai-chu Shu
|Gaultheria cumingiana Vidal|
|Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume|
|G, leucocarpa Blume var. crenulata Kurz|
|G, leucocarpa var cumingiana (Vidal) TZ Hsu|
|Gaultheria crenulata Kurz|
|Brossaea leucocarpa (Blume) O. Kuntze|
|Cuming’s wintergreen (Engl.)|
|Common gaultheria (Engl.)|
|Whole mountain fragrant (Engl.)|
Other vernacular names
|CHINESE: Bai zhu shu.|
|FRENCH: Petit the des pois.|
|INDONESIAN: Gondopuro, Kering, Cantigi bodas.|
|VIETNAMESE: Ch[aa]u th[uj].|
Idsa is a small shrub growing to a height of 30 cm to 2 meters, prostrate, erect or climbing in habit. Leaves are ovate or lanceolate, 2 to 7 centimeters long, 1 to 2 centimeters wide, pointed at the tip, rounded or somewhat heart-shaped at the base, with toothed margins. Flowers are small, 3 to 5 millimeters across, borne on racemes at the axils of the leaves. Calyx is cup-shaped, the lobes ovate, triangular and ciliate, Corolla is bell-shaped, 3 to 6 millimeters long, with 5 blunt and recurved lobes about 1.5 millimeters long. Fruit is a capsule, rounded, 4 to 7 millimeters in diameter. Edible portion is the dark-blue, fleshy and enlarged calyx. Seeds are numerous.
– In thickets, ravines, and sometimes on open slopes at altitudes from 1,300 to 2,400 meters in Bontoc, Lepanto, Benguet, Quezon, Laguna; in Mindoro, Negros and Mindanao.
– Also occurs in Taiwan.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Gaultherin, a natural salicylate derivative from Gaultheria yunnanensis: Towards a better non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug / Bin Zhang, Xiao-Li He et al / European Journal of Pharmacology, Volume 530, Issues 1–2, 13 January 2006, Pages 166–171 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.11.030,
(2) Screening of anti-bacterial activity of extracts of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis / X J Ma, L Zhao, C F Du, Y J Gong, J H Zheng, X Z Chen / China journal of Chinese materia medica (2001), Volume: 26, Issue: 4, Pages: 223-226
(3) Study on antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of Gaultheria yunnanensis / Zhang Zhizhen; Guo Dean; Li Changling / NORTHWEST PHARMACEUTICAL JOURNAL, 1999-02/ DOI:cnki:ISSN:1004-2407.0.1999-02-010
(4) Gaultheria leucocarpa Blume / Vernacular names/ GLOBinMED
(5) Studies on resources of ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis / Ma XJ, Zheng JH, Chen XZ. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Feb;26(2):85-9.
(6) Simultaneous determination of active ingredients in ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis and its medicinal preparation by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection. / Zeng Y, Tang Z, Wang Q, He P, Fang Y. / J Chromatogr Sci. 2007 Oct;45(9):610-5.
– Leaf contains gaultherin, an essential oil, resembling the odor of wintergreen from the North American species, Gaultheria procumbens.
– Study of G. yunnanensis yielded two methyl salicylter glycosides, viz., methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-6)-O-β-D- gluco-pyranoside (J12122) and methyl benzoate-2-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl(1-2)[O-β-D- xylopyranosyl(1-6)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (J12123),
– Stem and roots of Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis yielded of seven active ingredients in the stems and roots, including (+)-catechin, rutin, gentisic acid, vallinic acid, salicylic acid, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid.
Parts used and preparation
– Edible portion is the enlarged calyx.
– In the Mountain Province, a decoction of leaves taken as tea, is stomachic.
– In traditional Chinese medicine, used for liver cirrhosis and ascites, traumatic injuries, rheumatoid arthritis, back and joint pains.
– In China, G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis is used to treat rheumatic arthritis, menstrual problems, cold, cough, asthma, eczema, ascites, wounds, amebic dysentery, prostatitis.
• Gaultherin: Gaultherin, from which methyl salicylate (oil of wintergreen) is released by mild hydrolysis has been reported from this species.
• Chemical Constituents: Study isolated four compounds: n-dotriacontaine and its homologous compound, ursolic acid, vanillic acid, and quercitrin.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Methyl Salicylate Glycosides: Study Gaultheria yunnanensis isolated two methyl salicylate glycosides. Both dose-dependently inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1ß, and IL-6. Results show anti-inflammatory properties through inhibition of production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, NO, and ROS.
• Gaultherin / Anti-Inflammatory: Gaultheria yunnanensis has yielded gaultherin, 2-[(6-O-β-d-Xylopyranosyl-β-d-glucopyranosyl)oxy] benzoic acid methyl ester, a natural salicylate derivative , has been shown to have analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. Study suggested gaultherin did not cause gastric ulcer, releasing salicylate in the intestine slowly, not in the stomach, leaving COX-1 unaffected, the source of cytoprotective prostaglandins in gastric epithelium.
• Antibacterial: Extracts of water, acetic ester and n-butanol showed anti-Staphylococcus aureus action, and the extracts from root and stem showed the same result. Two extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
• Antibacterial / Antiinflammatory / Analgesic: The volatile oil of roots of G. yunnanensis showed bacteriostatic activity. Acetate and butyl alcohol extracts exhibited strong anti-inflammatory activities in mice.
Studies on resources of ethnomedicine Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis. / Ma XJ, Zheng JH, Chen XZ. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2001 Feb;26(2):85-9.