Family • Piperaceae - Piper betle - BETEL PEPPER - Ch'ing Chu
|Piper anisodorum Blanco|
|Piper anisumolens Blanco|
|Piper bathycarpum C. DC.|
|Piper betle Linn.|
|Piper blancoi Merr.|
|P. philippinense C. DC.|
|P. puberulinodum C. DC.|
|Chavica betle Miq.|
|Chavica siriboa Miq.|
|Gawed (Pang., It.)|
|ikmong Iloko (Tag.)|
|Mamin (Bis., Tag.)|
|Betel leaf pepper (Engl.)|
|Betel pepper (Engl.)|
|Betel vine (Engl.)|
|Ch’ing Chu (Chin.)|
Other vernacular names
|ARABIC: Tâmûl, Tanbul.|
|ASSAMESE: Paan, Paana.|
|BENGALI: Paan, Paana, Tambulaballi (plant), Parnakari (leaf).|
|BURMESE: Kun ya.|
|CHINESE: Ju jiang, Tu bi ba, Tu wei teng, Wei zi, Wei ye, Da geng teng.|
|FRENCH: Bétel, Poivrier betel.|
|GERMAN: Betelpfeffer, Betel-Pfeffer.|
|GUJARTI: Paan, Tanbolaa.|
|HINDI: Paan, Pan (leaf).|
|INDONESIA: Bakik serasa, Daun sirih, Sirih, Serasa, Séwéh, Seureuh.|
|KANNADA: Eleballi, Panu, Vileyadele.|
|MARATHI: Naagavalli, Naagvel, Paanvel, Pan, Vidyache pan.|
|NEPALESE: Naagavallii (plant), Paan (leaf).|
|PORTUGUESE: Alfavaca de cobra, Cobrinha.|
|SANSKRIT: Naagavall, Parna, Tambula.|
|TAMIL: Ilaikkoti, Taampulavalli, Vetrilai, Vettila, Veyyilai, Veyyilaikkoti.|
|TELUGU: Akutiga, Nagavalli, Nakabali, Tamala, Tambuli.|
|THAI: Phulu., Plu.|
|VIETNAMESE: Trầu, Trâu cay, Trâu không, Trâu luong.|
There is an estimated total of 1200 species of Piper in the pantropical and neotropical regions. Works on Philippine wild Piperaceae have been extensive. Candole (1910) reported 133 species of Piper and 26 of Peperomia; Merill (1923), 115 Piper, 25 Peperomia, and Quisumbing (1930), documented 87 Piper and 21 Peperomia.
Ikmo is a dioecious, smooth climbing vine reaching a height of 2 to 4 meters. Upper leaves are usually oblong-elliptic, oblong-ovate or ovate, 6 to 17.5 centimeters long, 3.5 to 10 centimeters wide, mostly 7-plinerved, smooth on both surfaces. Male spikes are subpendulous, slender, 7 to 13.5 centimeters long, and 2 to 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Rachis is hairy. Stamens are two, stalked, 0.75 to 1 millimeter long; and the anthers reniform. Female spikes, when mature, are red, fleshy, oblong to elongated oblong, 3 to 8 centimeters long, and 0.5 to 1 centimeter thick. Rachis is hairy, and the bracts stalkless, peltate, with a smooth disk, transversely oblong to suborbicular, and about 1 centimeter wide. Fruit is coalescing, fully embedded in the pulp and concrescent with the rachis. Seeds are smooth, oblong to globose-obovoid, 2.25 to 2.6 millimeters long, and about 2 millimeters in diameter. Stigmas are 4 to 6, and rarely, 3.
– Cultivated throughout the Philippines.
– Occurs wild in most provinces of Luzon.
– Also cultivated in Sri-Lanka, India, Malaysia, Indonesia, and East Africa.
– Chief constituent of the leaves is the volatile oil, Betel oil.
– Contains two phenols, betelphenol (chavibetol) and chavicol.
– Leaves reported to yield an alkaloid: arakene, with properties similar to cocaine.
– Volatile oil, 0.8 – 1.8% – chavicol, betelphenol, eugenol, allyl pyrocatechin, terpene, cineol, caryophyllene, cadinene, menthone.
– Chemical compositions of essential oil differ: safrole in the leaf, stalk, stem and root, ß-phellandrene in the fruit.
– Younger leaves reported to yield more essential oil.
– Leaf and other plant parts have yielded active compounds: hydroxychavicol, hydroxychavicol acetate, allypyrocatechol, chavibetol, piperbetol, methylpiperbetol, piperol A and piperol B.
– Study of essential oil and ether soluble fraction of leaves yielded fourteen components including eight allypyrocatechol analogs. Major constituents were chavibetol (53.1%) and chavibetol acetate(15.5%). Other constituents were allypyrocatechol diacetate (0.71%), campene (0.48%), chavibetol methyl ester (methyl eugenol 0.48%), eugenol (0.32%), a-pinene (0.21%), ß-pinene (0.21%), a-limonene (0.14%), safrole (0.11%), 1,8-cineole (0.04%) and allypyrocatechol monoacetate.
– Hexane fraction of leaf stalks yielded four alipathic compounds in pure form i.e. pentadecyl 6-hydroxytridecanoate, pentatriacontanol, methyl hexacos-7-enoate and 6, 9-heptacosa diene.
– Pungent tasting and warming.
– Leaves considered antitussive, carminative, astringent (juice of leaves with oil), stimulant, expectorant, antiseptic, sialagogue, stomachic, febrifuge and aphrodisiac.
– Chavicol considered an antiseptic, twice as strong and isometric with eugenol.
– Characteristic odor of leaves and oil is due to chavicol.
– Betel oil is a light-yellow to dark-brown liquid, often aromatic, somewhat creosotelike in odor, with a sharp burning taste.
– As a masticatory, leaves described as warm, aromatic and bitter.
Vines, leaves, roots, fruits.
· In the Philippines, fresh, crushed leaves used as antiseptic for cuts and wounds.
· Leaves, together with lime and betel nut, constitute the Filipino’s masticatory. Its use believed to help preserve the teeth and a prophylactic against stomach complaints.
· Leaves greased with with lard or sesame oil, used by Filipinos as carminative; applied to the abdomen of children suffering from gastric disorders.
· Relieves gastrointestinal disorders. Juice of leaves used as stomachic.
· In China, roots, leaves and fruits considered carminative, stimulant, corrective, and prophylactic; used for the prevention and treatment of malaria.
· Used for rheumatic bone pains
· Gastric pain due to exposure to wind, indigestion.
· Flatulence or tympanism: Spread oil on leaf, warm, and apply on abdomen.
· Warm poultice of leaves and oil (coconut) applied to chest of children for catarrhal and pulmonary affections, congestion and other affections of the liver.
· Leaves used as resolvent for glandular swellings.
· Oil used as gargle or as inhalant in diphtheria.
· In India, leaves are warmed and applied in layers to arrest secretion of milk.
· Leaves applied to the temples to relieve headache.
· Chewing betel leaves early in the morning done to remove foulness of the mouth, sweeten the breath and improve the voice.
· In China, oil used as counterirritant in swellings, bruises, painful sores and enlarged glands.
· Used for bronchial asthma.
· Dosage: use 9 to 15 gms dried material or 30 to 60 gms fresh material in decoction.
· Juice of leaves used as stomachic and febrifuge.
· Applied as a poultice (dikdik-tapal) on the stomach of infants for colic; for skin inflammation.
· In India, leaves used for treating eczema, lymphangitis, asthma and rheumatism.
· Paste of crushed leaves applied to cuts and wounds.
· Roots with black pepper used to produce sterility in women.
· Oil used for inflammation of the throat, larynx and bronchi; also, used as a gargle and inhalation in diphtheria.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Influence of Piper betle on Hepatic Marker Enzymes and Tissue Antioxidant Status in Ethanol-Treated Wistar Rats / R Saravanan et al / Journal of Medicinal Food. December 2002, 5(4): 197-204. doi:10.1089/109662002763003348.
(2) Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats /
Shun-Chieh Young et al / Archives of Toxicology, Volume 81, Number 1 / January, 2007 / DOI 10.1007/s00204-006-0106-0
(3) Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro / N. Trakrangungsle et al / Research in Veterinary Science Volume 84, Issue 1, February 2008, Pages 80-84 / doi:10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.03.006
(4) Antioxidant and non-toxic properties of piper betle leaf extract: In vitro and in vivo studies / CHOUDHARY Dharamainder and KALE Raosaheb K. / PTR. Phytotherapy research • 2002, vol. 16, no5, pp. 461-466 /
(5) Pro-apoptotic effect of the landrace Bangla Mahoba of Piper betle on Leishmania donovani may be due to the high content of eugenol / Pragya Misra et al / J Med Microbiol 58 (2009), 1058-1066; DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.009290-0
(6) Bacteriostatic Effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava Extracts on Dental Plaque Bacteria / A.R. Fathilah, Z.H.A. Rahim et al / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences Year: 2009 | Volume: 12 • Issue: 6 • Page No.: 518-521 / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2009.518.521
(7) Antihyperglycemic activity of Piper betle leaf on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Santhaikumari P et al / J Med Food. 2006 Spring;9(1):108-12.
(8) Piper betle L. inflorescence causes allergic contact dermatitis during betel quid assembly / Bour-Jr Wang et al / Contact Dermatitis 2008:58; 368-370
(9) Antioxidant Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Piper betle Linn. on erythrocytes from patients with HbE-beta thalassemia / Indian Journal of Biochem & Biophysics, Vol 46, June 2009, pp 241-246
(10) MODULATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS BY TREATMENT WITH PIPER BETLE LEAF IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / P Santhakumari et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 373-378
(11) Piper betle: a potential natural antioxidant / Lakshmi Arambewela et al / International Journal of Food Science & Technology, Volume 41 Issue s1, Pages 10 – 14 / DOI 10.1111/j.1365-2621.2006.01227.x
(12) Carcinogenicity examination of betel nuts and piper betel leaves / H Mori et al / Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, Vol 35, No 3, March 1979
(13) Effect of Piper betle Leaf Extract on Alcoholic Toxicity in the Rat Brain / R Saravanan et al / Journal of Medicinal Food. October 2003, 6(3): 261-265. doi:10.1089/10966200360716689.
(14) Effectiveness of Piper betle leaf infusion as a palpebral skin antiseptic / Husnun Amallia, Ratna Sitompul, Johan Hutauruk et al / Universa Medicina, May-Aug 2009, Vol 28, No 2.
(15) Piper betle Linn. a maligned Pan-Asiatic plant with an array of pharmacological activities and prospects for drug discovery / Nikhil Kumar, Pragya Misra, Anuradha Dube et al / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 99, NO. 7, 10 OCTOBER 2010
(16) Sorting Piper names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(17) Piper betle shows antioxidant activities, inhibits MCF-7 cell proliferation and increases activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase / Noor N Abrahim, M S Kanthimathi, and Azlina Abdul-Aziz*/ BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:220 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-220
(18) Ethnoveterinary study for antidermatophytic activity of Piper betle, Alpinia galanga and Allium ascalonicum extracts in vitro / N. Trakranrungsiea, A. Chatchawanchonteerab, W. Khunkittic / Research in Veterinary Science, Vol 84, No 1, February 2008, Pages 80–84http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.03.006
(19) The anti-adherence effect of Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts on the adhesion of early settlers in dental plaque to saliva-coated glass surfaces / Fathilah Abdul Razak and Zubaidah Haji Abd Rahim / Journal of Oral Science, Vol. 45, No. 4, 201-206, 2003
(20) Studies on the Constituents of Philippine Piper betle Leaves / Agnes M Rimando, Byung Hoon Han, Jeong Hill Park, and Magdalena Cantoria / Arch. Pharm. Res 9(2). 93-97 (1986).
(21) Phytochemical Studies and In vitro Cytotoxicity Screening of Piper betle Leaves Extracts / Chaurasia, Sundeep; Kulkarni, Giriraj Tirupatirao; Shetty, Laxmi Narayan; Mishra, Brahmeshwar / Journal of Pharmacy Research;Nov2011, Vol. 4 Issue 11, p4187
(22) Piper betle Linn: As a Remedy for Diabetes Mellitus / Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi Hewageegana et al / IJRAP 2011, 2(5) 1601-1603.
(23) Antimalarial Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Piper betle L./ Abdulelah H. Al-Adhroey*, Zurainee M. Nor, Hesham M. Al-Mekhlafi, Adel A. Amran and Rohela Mahmud / Molecules 2011, 16, 107-118; doi:10.3390/molecules16010107
(24) Traditions in oral hygiene: Chewing of betel (Piper betle L.) leaves / SHARAD BISSA*, DIMPLE SONGARA, A. BOHRA / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 92, NO. 1, 10 JANUARY 2007
(25) In vitro antifungal activity of hydroxychavicol isolated from Piper betle L / Intzar Ali, Farrah G Khan, Krishan A Suri, Bishan D Gupta, Naresh K Satti, Prabhu Dutt, Farhat Afrin, Ghulam N Qazi and Inshad A Khan* / Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2010, 9:7 doi:10.1186/1476-0711-9-7
(26) Chemical investigation of aliphatic compounds of Piper betle (leaf stalk) / B. K. Dwivedi and B.K.Mehta / Scholars Research Library J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (2): 18-24
(27) ANTIMICROBIAL, ANTIOXIDATIVE AND ANTIHEMOLYTIC ACTIVITY OF PIPER BETEL LEAF EXTRACTS / DEVJANI CHAKRABORTY*, BARKHA SHAH / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 3, 2011
(28) Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Potential of an Extract of the Plant, Piper betle, and Its Active Constituent, Eugenol, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemia in Experimental Rats /
Karuppasamy Venkadeswaran, Arumugam Ramachandran Muralidharan, Thangaraj Annadurai, Vasanthakumar Vasantha Ruban, Mahalingam Sundararajan, Ramalingam Anandhi, Philip A. Thomas, and Pitchairaj Geraldine / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2014 (2014) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/478973
(29) Preliminary Study on the Effect of Piper betle on the Growth of Transplanted B16F10 Melanoma in Mice / GEETA PATEL, *U.K. PATIL, P. UMA DEVI / International Journal of Recent Advances in Pharmaceutical Research, January 2012; 2(1): 67-71
(30) Antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Pipe rbetle leaves in rats / L.S.R. Arambewela, L.D.A.M. Arawwawala, W.D. Ratnasooriya / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 102 (2005) 239-245
(31) Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Leaf of Piper Betle Linn as Immunomodulatory Agent: A Unique Role of Phytochemicals. / Biswajit Majumdar / Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 2, No 1, 2013
(32) Piper betle-mediated green synthesis of biocompatible gold nanoparticles / Jayasekhar Babu Punuri, Pragya Sharma, Saranya Sibyala, Ranjan Tamuli and Utpal Bora / Punuri et al. International Nano Letters 2012, 2:18
(33) Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Piper betle Leaves / Susmita Das and Bratati De / Pharmacologyonline 1: 700-704 (2011)
(34) Larvicidal efficacy of essential oil of betel leaf ( Piper betle ) on the larvae of the old World screwworm fly, Chrysomya bezziana in vitro / Wardhana AH, Kumarasinghe SW, Arawwawala L, Arambewela LS./ . Indian J Dermatol 2007;52:43-7
(35) Evaluation of antihistaminic activity of Piper betel leaf in guinea pig / Rahul Hajare*, V. M. Darvhekar, Ashish Shewale and Vijay Patil / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 5(2), pp. 113-117, February 2011 / DOI: 10.5897/AJPP09.376
(36) Radioprotective Property of the Ethanolic Extract of Piper betel Leaf / Sayanti BHATTACHARYA, Mahesh SUBRAMANIAN, Susri ROYCHOWDHURY, Ajay K. BAURI, Jaya P. KAMAT, Subrata CHATTOPADHYAY and Sandip Kumar BANDYOPADHYAY* / J. Radiat. Res., 46, 165–171 (2005)
(37) Healing property of the Piper betel phenol, allylpyrocatechol against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration and mechanism of action / S Bhattacharya, D Banerjee, AK Bauri, S Chattopadhyay, SK Bandyopadhyay / World J Gastroenterol 2007 July 21; 13(27): 3705-3713
– A ritual masticatory – The Filipinos, Hindus, Malays, Siamese, Cambodians, Annamites and Chinese use the leaves as a masticatory. In the Philippines, it is dabbed with small amounts of apog (lime) and wrapped around a (scraped) betel nut, chewed as “nga-nga.” Also known as buyo or hitsu.
• Anti-Platelet Aggravating Factory: Evaluation of Piper betle on Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) Receptor Binding Activities: Results showed antagonistic activity towards the PAF (platelet activating factor) in rabbit platelet receptor binding studies.
• Phenolics / Anti-Photosensitizer: Inhibitory property of the Piper betel phenolics against photosensitization-induced biological damages: PB phenolics, allylpyrocatechol (APC) may play a role in protecting biological systems against damage by eliminating O2 generated from certain endogenous photosensitizers.
• Antioxidant / Hepatoprotective: Influence of Piper betle on Hepatic Marker Enzymes and Tissue Antioxidant Status in Ethanol-Treated Wistar Rats: Results indicate P. betle provide a significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect.
• Antibacterial: Study showed PB had a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against all test pathogens, including Rastonia, Xanthomonas and Erwinia. Test also showed that PB solvent extract had an action superior to streptomycin.
• Hepatoprotective / Chemopreventive / Anti-Liver Fibrosis: Protection effect of piper betel leaf extract against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis in rats: Study supports a chemopreventive potential of PB leaves against liver fibrosis.
• Antioxidant: Study showed a leaf extract to inhibit the radiation-induced lipid peroxidation process effectively, attributed to its ability to scavenge free radicals involved in initiation and propagation steps. with elevation of the antioxidant status in the study animals.
• Antioxidant / HbE-beta Thalassemia:The frequent blood transfusions in HbE-beta thalassemia cause an iron overload that triggers an enhanced generation of free radicals. The study showed the ethanolic extract of Piper betle has promising antioxidant activity against erythrocytes from patients with HbE-beta thalassemia.
• Chemical Constituents / Insect Attractant Property: Study yielded chavibetol and B-sitosterol from the petroleum ether extract and allylpyrocatechol from the methanol extract. Field tests in a cornfield using traps containing the extracts did not detect adult moths of Ostrinia salentialis.
• Pro-apoptotic Effect / Anti-Leishmaniasis: In a comparative in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts from two landraces of Piper betle. The PB-BM (P betle landrace Bangla Mahoba) selectively inhibited both stages of Leishmania parasites without macrophage cytotoxicity. The efficacy mediated through apoptosis is probably due to higher content of eugenol.
• Bacteriostatic / Dental Plaque: (1) A study investigating the bacteriostatic effect of Piper betle and P guajava showed both extracts have bacteriostatic effect on the plaque bacteria through suppression of growth and propagation of cells. Results suggest the decoction of plants would be a suitable if used in the control of dental plaque. Results of study showed the crude extract of P betle leaves may exert anticariogenic activities related to a decrease in acid production and changes to the ultrastructure of S mutans.
• Antihyperglycemic: Study evaluated the effect of P betle on glucose metabolism since it is consumed as betel-quid after meals. Results showed that P betle intake influences glucose metabolism beneficially.
• Antioxidant in STZ-Diabetic Rats: Study showed the leaf suspension of P betle showed significant antioxidant effects in STZ diabetic rats.
• Potential Natural Antioxidant: Study was carried out on CEE (cold ethanolic extract), HWE (hot water extract) and EO (essential oil) of the leaves of P betle grown in Sri Lanka. The initial free radical scavenging activity was higher in CEE. There were no deviation sin the the antioxidant activity of the 3 extracts up to 12 months. CEE extended the shelf-life of potato chips and increased the stability of Aloe gel.
• Carcinogenicity: Study of rats on rats fed a dry powder of betel nuts, leaves and lime showed epidermal thickening in the upper digestive tracts in rats fed the betel nut mixed with lime and the betel leaves diet. A forestomach papilloma was seen in one rat on betel leaves diet. The epidermal changes were scarcely seen in rats on either betel nut or normal diet alone.
• Allypyrocatechol / Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: The piper betel phenol, allypyrocatechol, its major antioxidant constituent, showed it can protect against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration due to its antioxidant and mucin protecting properties.
• Neuroprotective in Brain Alcohol Toxicity: The brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation and disturbances in antioxidant defenses. Study showed neuroprotective effects of P betle in experimentally induced alcohol toxicity.
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Essential Oil: Essential oil from common betel was against against E coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staph aureus and Strep pyogenes. The major compound in the oil from the leaf, stem, stalk and root was saffrole; from the fruit, ß-phellandrene. Antifungal activity against Clodosporium sp. indicate the essential oil possesses at least one fungicidal compound.
• Antihistaminic / Essential Oil: Study was done of P. betel ethanolic extract and essential oil on its effects on histamine aerosol-induced bronchoconstriction in whole guinea pig. Results conclude the ethanolic extract and essential oil possess antihistaminic activity.
• Skin Antiseptic: Study evaluated the effectiveness of a 20% Piper betle leaf infusion as an antiseptic solution in pre-surgery cataract patients. Results showed the infusion to have an antiseptic potential. However, the 10% povidone-iodine solution was more effective antiseptic capability.
• Anti-Ulcer / Wound Healing / Antioxidant: Study showed a significant healing effect on NSAID-induced peptic ulcer in albino rats. The healing action was attributed to the free radical scavenging activity of the plant extract. APC, one of the phenol constituents showed significant protection against indomethacin-induced ulcers in Sprague-Dawley rats. The protection was correlated with antioxidative and mucin-protecting properties.
• Antioxidant / Antiproliferative: An ethyl acetate extract showed the highest ferric reducing activity and radical scavenging activities against DPPH, superoxide anion and NO radicals, which was attributed to its high phenolic content. Analyses yielded catechin, morin, and quercetin in the leaves. The plant extract also showed highest inhibitory effect against proliferation of MCF-7 cells, with increased activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase.
• Antidermatophytic: Crude ethanolic extracts of P. betle leaves, A. galanga rhizomes, and A. escalonicum bulbs were tested against selected zoonotic dermatophytes (M. canis, M. gypseum, and T. mentagrophytes) and yeast-like Candida albicans. All the extracts caused concentration-dependent suppression of fungi growth. Testing showed Pb cream formulation with a potential therapeutic values for treatment of dermatophytosis.
• Anti-Adherence Effect of Dental Plaque on Saliva-Coated Glass Surfaces: Study evaluated aqueous extracts of P. betle and P. guajava for anti-adherence effect on adhesions of early plaque settlers (Strep. mitis, Strep sanguinis and Actinomyces sp.) using saliva-coated glass surface to simulate the pellicle-coated enamel surface of the oral cavity. Results showed adherence of early plaque settlers was inhibited to a certain extent by Piper betle and Psidium guajava extracts. The mechanism may involve the modification of hydrophobic bonding between bacteria and buccal salivary components.
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of fresh leaves for antimicrobial activity. Results showed effective inhibitory action against the tested organisms (E. coli, Vibrio cholera, S. typhi, and S. parathyphi A and B).
• Antigenotoxic / Gamma Irradiation and Cyclophsphamide Treatment: Study evaluated the antigenotoxic effect of P. betle leaves in gamma irradiation and cyclophosphamide treated animals. Results showed not drug toxicity at tested doses. A methanol extract 1/2 hour prior to irradiation protected the animals against gamma irradiation and cyclophosphamide treatment.
• Cytotoxicity / Anticancer Potential: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves to cytotoxicity studies on Hep-2 cell line. The mean CTC50 was 96.25 ug/ml suggesting potent cytotoxicity and probable anticancer property.
• Potential Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the possibility of P. betle as a neutraceutical for diabetes mellitus patients. Patients were treated with either P. betle or triphal (an herbal antidiabetic drug). Results demonstrated the ability of P. betle capsules made from spray dried powder of betel hot water extract as a potential treatment for type 2 diabetes patients.
• Antimalarial / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the phytochemical and antioxidant potentials of a crude extract for possible antimalarial effects. Phytochemical screening yielded antiplasmodial chemical constituents. The extract exhibited potent ability to scavenge free radicals and demonstrated significant schizonticidal activity in all three antimalarial evaluation models.
• Antifungal / Hydroxychavicol: Hydroxychavicol, isolated from the chloroform extraction of the aqueous extract of P. betle, was investigated for antifungal activity against 124 strains of selected fungi. Hydroxychavicol exhibited inhibitory effects on fungal species of clinical significance. It also exhibited an extended post antifungal effect for Candida species and suppression of mutant emergence. Results suggest a potential antifungal agent for topical applications, as well as a gargle for oral candida infections.
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidative / Anti-Hemolytic Activities: A study of leaf extract showed antibacterial, antioxidative, and anti-hemolytic activities. The bioactive molecule for antibacterial activity was presumed to be sterol, which was obtained in large quantities. The antioxidative and antihemolytic activities were attributed to the high concentration and combined activity of flavonoids and polyphenols.
• Anticholesterolemic / Eugenol: Study evaluated the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidative properties of an ethanolic extract of Piper betle and its active constituent, eugenol, in experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats. Results showed that eugenol possesses antihypercholesterolemic properties.
• Tumor Inhibitory Effect / Melanoma: Study of hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves showed a tumor inhibitory effect on transplanted mouse melanoma, by delaying tumor growth and prolonging mean survival time.
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study of Piper betle leaves in STZ-induced diabetic rats showed both hot water extract and cold methanolic extract to have strong antidiabetic activity. The extracts were devoid of unacceptable side effects on chronic administration.
• Immunomodulatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory effect of an ethanol extract of leaf of Piper betle. Results showed immunomodulatory activity with dose dependent increased in antibody production and enhanced the production of RBC, WBC, and Hb.
• Piper betle-Mediated Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles: Study reported the novel use of ethanolic leaf extract of P. betle for gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) synthesis. The AuNPs were nontoxic and presents a potential for an effective drug delivery tool and other biomedical applications.
• Anti-Cholinesterase Inhibitory Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated three leaf varieties—Kaliganga, Meetha, and Haldi— for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Aqueous extracts of both fresh and dry leaves of all varieties inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity in a dose dependent manner. The AChE inhibitory property of P. betle may have a beneficial effect on memory function.
• Larvicidal on Screwworm Fly (Chrysomya bezziana) / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study of essential oil of Piper betle showed effective larvicidal activity for first and second instar larvae in vitro, suggesting a potential for a natural and novel larvicide.
• Antihistaminic Activity / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the antihistaminic activity of P. betle. Results showed antihistamine activity, with a right shift of dose response curve of histamine and disturbed histamine induced bronchoconstriction in whole guinea pig. Chlorpheniramine was used as reference.
• Radioprotective: Study evaluated the radioprotective activity of Piper betle ethanolic extract using rat liver mitochondria and pBR 322 plasmid DNA as two model in vitro systems. Results showed prevention of g-ray induced lipid peroxidation and radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in a concentration dependent manner. The radioprotective effect was attributed to its hydroxyl and superoxide radical scavenging property along with its lymphoproliferative activity. The radical scavenging activity was attributed to constituent phenolics chevibetol and allyl pyrocatechol.
• Gastroprotective / Allylpyrocatechol / Antioxidative and Mucin Protecting: Study evaluated the gastroprotective activity of allylpyrocatechol (APC), the major antioxidant constituent of Piper betle, against indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration in a rat model. Results showed both APC and misoprostol effectively healed stomach ulceration. The protective activity was attributed to antioxidant activity and the enhancement of mucin content of gastric tissues.
• Contact Dermatitis: Betel quid assembly is commonly causes contact dermatitis, most of it is irritant caused by alkaline slaked lime (apog). Occasional cases are caused by the P betle inflorescence.
• Betel Chewer’s Cancer: Chronic users have been warned on observed cases of buccal cancer.