Family • Annonaceae - Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. - DWARF YLANG YLANG SHRUB - Chia ying chao
|Desmos cochinchinensis Lour.||Unona cochinchinensis Lour.|
|Desmos chinensis Lour.||Unona chinensis Lour.|
|Desmos hancei Merr.||Unona desmos Dunal|
|Desmos velutinus Hance||Unona velutina Hance|
|Unona cabog Blanco|
|Dwarf ylang-ylang shrub (Engl.)|
|Ilang-ilang gubat (Tag.)|
|Ylang-Ylang gubat (Tag.)|
|Chia ying chao (Chin.)|
Ilang-ilang gubat is a rather small erect or climbing shrub, 1.5 to 3 meters height. Leaves are oblong to oblong-ovate, 8 to 15 centimeters long, pointed at the tip and rounded at the base, and nearly smooth. Flowers are yellowish white, solitary on a 2- to 5-centimeter long peduncle, borne opposite or nearly opposite to leaflets. Calyx are 3, ovate, 3 to 5 millimeters long. Corolla are 6, fixed, arranged in 2 whorls, oblong or oblong-lanceolate, 3 to 4 centimeters long, the outer whorl bigger than the inner one; stamens numerous. Peduncle extra-axillary, about 5 centimeters long, with one flower. Sepals are ovate-lanceolate, about 1.5 centimeters long. Petals are somewhat hairy, yellow, fragrant, 4 to 5 centimeters long. Fruits are dehiscent, peduncled, arranged in dense clusters, 2 to 5 centimeters long, 1 to 7 seeded.
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1) Studies on the chemical constituents of the root of Desmos cochinchinensis Lour. / Liao SX, Han GY, Zhang YR, Zheng QT, He CH. / Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1989;24(2):110-3. /
(2) New Cytotoxic Fatty Acid from Desmos cochinchinensis (Annonaceae) / Nan-Jun Sun, David K. Ho et al / 10.1080/10575639508043184 / Natural Product Research, Volume 7, Issue 1 August 1995 , pages 35 – 41
(3) Phenolic Constituents with Inhibitory Activity against NFAT Transcription from Desmos chinensis / Phan Van Kiem et al / Arch Pharm Res Vol 28, No 12, 1345-1349, 2005
(4) New Cytotoxic Cycloartane Triterpenoids From Desmos Cochinchinensis (Annonaceae) / Nan-Jun Sun et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 1, Issue 2 September 1992 , pages 109 – 115 / DOI: 10.1080/1057563920804889
– In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes in Palawan, Basilan, Mindanao (Zamboanga).
– Also occurs in India, Assam, and Burma to southern China, and southwards throughout Malaysia and the Malay Peninsula.
· Roots, leaves.
· Collect the whole year round.
· Rinse, macerate, and sun-dry.
• Fragrant flowers yield a volatile oil. Fruit also yields oil.
• A new cytotoxic fatty acid, desmosic acid, was isolated from Desmos cochinchinensis.
• Desmosflavone – 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxy-6,8-di-C-methylflavone.
• Study yielded eleven compounds: lawimal, desmosal, desmethoxymatteucinol, unonal , isounonla, desmoflavone, allantoic acid, succinic acid, daucosterol, beta-sitosterol and stearic acid.
· Decoction of 15-30 g of dried leaves: Used for gastrointestinal distention, indigestion, nephritis-edema, bronchitis.
· Leaves used for treating bruises, pain, intestinal parasitism, rheumatism, diarrhea.
· Decoction of dried roots (15-30 g): Used for rheumatic muscular pain.
· In Malaya, roots used for dysentery and fever.
· Decoction of roots given after childbirth; also used for vertigo.
· In Chinese folk medicine, used for malaria.
· In Vietnam, used as antimalarial, insecticidal, antirheumatic and analgesic. Also, leaves are used for constipation.
• Anti-Malaria: Study isolated three flavonoids from the petroleum extract of the root of Desmos cochinchinensis. Pharmacologic study exhibited anti-malarial activity.
• Anti-Microbial : Study on the crude extracts of DC leaves showed strong antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S epidermis and B subtilis and strong inhibition against all dermatophytes
• Cytotoxic Fatty Acid: Study yielded desmosic acid, a novel cytotoxic fatty acid.
• Cytotoxic Cycloartane Triterpenoids: Study isolated desmosinal, a novel cycloartane triterpenoid from the stem of Desmos cochinchinensis Lour.
• Phenolic Compounds / NFAT Transcription Inhibition : Study yielded six phenolic compounds from the methanolic extract of the dried leaves of Dc. Of these, compounds 2 (negletein) and 3 (2′,3′-dihydroxy-4′,6′-dimethoxydihydrochalcone exhibited potent inhibitory activity against nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor.
• Flavones: Study isolated four compounds identified as 5-hydroxy-7-methoxy- 6,8-dimethylflavone (desmosflavone), unonal, desmethoxymatteucinol and beta-sitosterol.
• Hybrid Flavan-Chalcones / Antioxidant / Aromatase and Lipoxygenase Inhibitors / Cytotoxic: Study of leaves isolated hybrid flavan-chalcones, desmosflavans A and B, together with three known compounds, cardamonin, pinocembrin and chrysin. Compounds 3 and 5 exhibited potent antioxidant activity. Compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 were found to be inhibitors of aromatase. Desmosflavan A inhibited lipoxygenase and exhibited cytotoxic activity.