Indian borage

Family • Boraginaceae - Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br.

Scientific names

Trichodesma indicum (Linn.) R. Br.
Trichodesma hirsutum
Trichodesma amplexicaule
Borago indica Linn.

Common names

Indian borage (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

GUJARATI: Undhanphuli.
HINDI: Chhota kalpa.
KANNADA: Katte tume soppu.
SANSKRIT: Adhapuspi.
TAMIL: Kavizhthumbai.

Trichodesma indicum is an erect, spreading, branched, annual herb, about 50 centimeters in height. Leaves are stalkless, opposite, lanceolate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, and heart-shaped at the base; the upper surfaces clothed with stiff hairs arising from circular tubercles, the lower surfaces less densely villous. Flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green, hairy, and 1 to 1.3 centimeters long, with pointed lobes. Corolla is pale blue, with the limb about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, and the lobes pointed. Fruit is ellipsoid, and enclosed by the calyx. Nutlets are about 5 millimeters long, and rough on the inner surface.

Indian borage

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Adhakpuspi, Indian Medicinal Plant / IndianetZone

(2) Anti-inflammatory activity of alkanoids and triterpenoids from Trichodesma amplexicaule Roth / Singh, B.; Sahu, P.M.; Lohiya, R.K.; Sharma, M.K.; Singh, H.L.; Singh, S. / Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy & Phytopharmacology / FreeLibrary by Farlex

(3) Indian Borage / Indian common names / Flowers of India

(4) Antimicrobial Potential of Tropical Plant Trichodesma indicum and Trichodesma sedgwickianum / S.S. Saboo, G.G. Tapadiya and S.S. Khadabadi / Research Journal of Microbiology, 2013, Vol 8, No 1, pp 63-69 / DOI: 10.3923/jm.2013.63.69

(5) Anti-venom potential of Pakistani medicinal plants: inhibition of anticoagulation activity of Naja naja karachiensis toxin / Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin Asad, Muhammad Tahir Razi, Durr-e-Sabih, Qazi Najamus-Saqib, Sheikh Jawad Nasim, Ghulam Murtaza,* and Izhar Hussain / CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 105, NO. 10, 25 NOVEMBER 2013

(6) Comparative Corrosion Inhibition Effect of Imidazole Compounds and of Trichodesma indicum (Linn) R. Br. on C38 Steel in 1 M HCl Medium / S. Alarmal Mangai and Subban Ravi / Journal of Chemistry, Volume 2013 (2013) /

Indian borage2
– In the Rizal, Quezon and Laguna Provinces in Luzon, as a weed in cultivated grounds, especially in peanut plantations.
– Also occurs in Iran, India, and Mauritius.

– Phytochemical screening yielded steroidal, ß-sitosterol and phenolics, catechin and gallic acid.
– Yielded hexacosane, ethyl hexacosanoate and 21,24-hexacosadienoic acid ethyl esters. Seed oil yield oleic, linoleic, palmitic, stearic, and linolenic acid.

– Acrid and bitter tasting.
– Considered thermogenic, emollient, alexeteric, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, carminative, constipating, diuretic, depurative, ophthalmic, febrifuge and pectoral.
– Flowers considered sudorific and pectoral.
– Leaves considered depurative.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, flowers.

– Leaves and flowers are edible.

Indian borage3

– In the Philippines, used in the same manner as Tichodesma zeylanicum.
– Leaves and roots are used as remedy for snake bites; also used as diuretic.
– Cold infusion of leaves considered depurative.
– Crushed roots, in decoction or infusion, used for dysentery in children.
– In Indian traditional medicine, decoction of roots used for diarrhea, dysentery and fever.
– In Deccan, plants is used as emollient poultice.
– In Chutia Nagpur, roots are crushed and made into a paste, and applied externally to swollen joints, inflammations and superficial skin injuries.
– Used for arthralgias, inflammations, dyspepsia, diarrhea, dysentery, dysmenorrhea.
– In Tamil Nadu, Southern India, root decoction taken internally to treat bloody dysentery.

Study Findings
• Antitussive: Study of methanol extract of the whole plant of Trichodesma indicum on sulfur dioxide-induced cough reflex in Swiss albino mice showed significant inhibition of cough frequency in all tested doses compared with the untreated control group, in an effect comparable to codeine phosphate.
• Anti-inflammatory / Alkane: Study isolated triterpenoids and aliphatic phytoconstituents. Results showed the alkanoic acid significantly inhibited the carrageenan-induced acute arthritis. Alkane, the major phytoconstituent in in vivo studies, suppressed the development of chronic arthritis induced by CFA.
• Anti-diarrheal: Extract study showed significant inhibition of castor oil-induced diarrhea and decreased propulsion of charcoal meal through the GI tract. There was also reduction of castor oil-induced enteropooling. Results support the use of the herbal remedy as a nonspecific treatment for diarrhea in folk medicine.
• Anti-Inflammatory: The chloroform extract of T. indicum root exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in acute and chronic inflammatory models.
• Antispasmodic / Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activity: Study of some Pakistani medicinal plants showed the extract of T. indicum caused reduction in spontaneous and acetylcholine-induced contractions, with 78% inhibition of intestinal contractions and good lipooxygenase inhibitory activity.
• Phytotoxic / Insecticidal: In a study for the agrochemical potentials of ethanolic extracts of selected plants, T. indicum showed excellent herbicidal activity against Lemna minor. It also showed good insecticidal activity against Rhizopertha dominica.
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated antimicrobial activity of Trichodesma indicum and T. sedgwickianum against bacteria and fungi. The ethanol extract of both species was more active against gram positive bacteria, S. aureus and B. subtilis while the aqueous extract showed strong inhibitory activity against gram negative bacteria like E. coli.
• Antivenom Potential: Study evaluated 29 Pakistani medicinal plants for antivenom potential antivenom potential. T. indicum extract showed restoration against anticoagulation behavior, i.e. decreased anticoagulation from 92% to 20%.
• Corrosion Inhibitor: Study evaluated the corrosion inhibitor effect on C38 steel of an alkaloid extract part of Trichodesma indicum compared with that of imidazole compounds. Results showed the plant extract acted as a better inhibitor in comparison to selected organic inhibitors and suggested a good green inhibitor.