Kalapinai

Family • Sapindaceae - Dodonaea viscosa (Linn.) Jacq. - HOP BUSH - Che sang zi

Scientific names

Dodonaea viscosa (Linn.) Jacq.
Dodonaea angustifolia Linn.
Dodonaea burmanniana DC.
Ptelea repanda Schumach. & Thonn.
Ptelea viscosa Linn.

Other vernacular names

BRAZIL: Vassoura vermelha.
CHINA: Po liu, Ming you zi
HAWAII: A’ali’i, A ali’i’ ku makani.
HINDI: Walaytinahndi.
INDIA: Banda, Aliar, Vilayati mehandi.,
INDONESIA: Cantigi, Kayu mesen, Sikil.
MALAYSIA: Kayu berteh, Serengan laut, Gelam paya.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Lokai, Kelne, Ioia.
SANSKRIT: Sanatta.
SPAIN: Vrali.
THAILAND: Chumhet le, Mai pek.
VIETNAM: Ch[af]nh r[af]ng, R[uf] r[if].

Common names

Dumanai (Ig.)
Haguiui (Tag.)
Kalapinai (Tag.)
Kasirag (Sbl.)
Lugad (Kuy.)
Tabau (Tag.)
Takud (C. Bis.)
Tubu-tubu (C. Bis.)
Sagasa (P. Bis., C. Bis.)
Hopbush (Engl.)
Hopseed (Engl.)
Hopseed bush (Engl.)
Sticky hopbush (Engl.)
Switch-sorrel (Engl.)
Che sang zi (Chin.)

Botany
Kalapinai is a shrub or small tree. Leaves are alternate, oblanceolate, 4.0 to 12 centimeters long, 2.5 to 3 centimeters wide. Flowers are yellowish, very small, borne on terminal short racemes. Sepals are oblong. Petals are absent. Fruit is flattened, membranous, somewhat two-lobed, about 18 millimeters across, including the two wings. Wings are very thin, rounded, about 12 millimeters long. Seeds are dark brown or black.

Kalapinai

Distribution
– Throughout the Philippines, along the seashore and in regions subject to a pronounced dry season, extending inland and ascending to 2,000 meters.
– Also reported in China, Taiwan.
– Now Pantropic.

Kalapinai2

Constituents
– The active principle is an acid resin.
– Leaves contain two acid resins, gum, albumen, tannin, and ash.
– Study of leaves yielded an carbohydrates, flavonoids, fixed oil, proteins and amino acids, saponins, steroids and sterols, tannins, and triterpenoids.

Properties
– Bark considered astringent.
– Considered analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antifungal, anti-ulcerogenic, spasmolytic, laxative, anti-microbial, hypotensive.

Parts used
Bark, wood, leaves, fruits.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSA JACQ EXTRACT ON PATHOGENIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM SUPER FICIAL SKIN INFECTION / A J Pirzada, W Shaikh et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.3, July 2010, pp.337-340

(2) Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa used in Ethiopian traditional medicine / Teshome K, Gebre-Mariam T et al / Phytother Res. 2010 Jan;24(1):60-9.

(3) Antibacterial Activities of Dodonaea viscosa using Contact Bioautography Technique / Muhammad Khurram, Murad Ali Khan et al / Molecules 2009, 14, 1332-1341; doi:10.3390/molecules14031332

(4) Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Screening of Some Yemeni Medicinal Plants / Ramzi A A Mothana, Salah A A Abdo et al / eCAM 2010 7(3):323-330; doi:10.1093/ecam/nen004

(5) EVALUATION OF ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSA LEAVES IN NORMAL AND STZ­DIABETIC RATS / Jangra Meenu, Sharma Sunil, Kumar Manoh / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3 Suppl 3, 2011

(6) Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(7) Dodonaea viscosa / Common names / Earth Medicine Institute

(8) Anti-inflammatory Activity of Hautriwaic Acid Isolated from Dodonaea viscosa Leaves / David Osvaldo Salinas-Sánchez, Maribel Herrera-Ruiz, Salud Pérez, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer and Alejandro Zamilpa* / Molecules 2012, 17, 4292-4299 / doi:10.3390/molecules17044292

(9) STUDY OF THE PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSA / V. RAMAMURTHY*, D. MARIA RAJESWARI, R. GOWRI, M.K. VADIVAZHAGI, G. JAYANTHI AND S. RAVEENDRAN / J. Pure Appl. Zool., 1(2): 178-184, 2013

(10) ANTI-DIARRHEAL ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSA ROOT EXTRACTS / V. RAJAMANICKA, A. RAJASEKARAN, K. ANANDARAJAGOPAL, D.SRIDHARAN, K.SELVAKUMAR AND B.STEPHEN RATHINARAJ / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol.1, Issue 4/ Oct-Dec.2010

(11) Anti-Diabetic activity of Dodonaea viscosa (L) Leaf Extracts / P.Muthukumran* , V.Hazeena Begumand, P.Kalaiarasan / Int.J. PharmTech Res.2011,3(1)

(12) Pharma Studies Evaluation of anti fertility activity of Dodonaea viscosa seeds / Krupanidhi, A. M.; Vagdevi, H. M.; Shreedhara, C. S.; Vaidya, V. P.; Muralikrishna, K. S. / Biomed 2007 Vol. 2 No. 2 pp. 169-174

(13) HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF DODONAEA VISCOSA LEAVES IN NORMAL AND ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS / Muhammad Shoaib Akhtar, Maqsood Ahmed, Kamran Gulzar, Humaira Adnan / Diabetologia Croatica 40-3, 2011

Kalapinai3

Uses 
Folkloric
– In the Philippines, decoction of bark used as effective astringent for humid eczema and simple ulcers. Also considered a good febrifuge.
– Decoction of wood also used as febrifuge.
– In Reunion, infusion of leaves used for sudorific effect.
– In Ethiopia, used for skin diseases.
– In Peru, the sour and bitter leaves are chewed for its stimulant effect, like coca leaves.
– In Madras, leaves are used as poultice.
– In Martinique, the aromatic leaves and fruits are used in bath preparations; lotion used as astringent.
– Decoction used for flatulent colic and as purgative.
– In La Reunion, used for gout and rheumatism. Also, used in baths and fomentations.
– Powdered leaves are applied on wounds which would then heal without scars.
– Leaves are applied to burns and scalds.
– In India, used for headaches, backaches, stomach pains, piles and simple ulcers. Leaves used in treatment of rheumatism, gout, hemorrhoids, fractures, and snake bites.
– In Australia, used for wound healing.

Studies
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed no inhibition of COX-2 and no effect on PGE2 production. Alternative mechanisms for anti-inflammatory activity is considered, such as the alternate arachidonic acid metabolite – 5-lipoxygenase.
• Antioxidant: The hot water extract showed the greatest antioxidant activity, followed by ethanol extracts. Activities were attributed to flavonoids and/or saponins.
• Wound Healing: Initial studies suggest extracts have a strong proliferative effect on fibroblast growth.
• Antifungal: Study showed solvent extracts of leaves and shoots of Dodonaea viscosa were effective against all tested fungi – Aspergillus niger, A flavus, Paecilomyces varioti, Microsporum gypseum and Tricophyton rubrum.
• Dermal Toxicity Studies: Study on dermatotoxicity showed that dermal application of D viscosa was not associated with any toxicologically relevant effects with data of a preclinical evidence of safety for clinical trials on the plant extracts.
• Antibacterial: Study showed promising antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and negative organisms.  Study of 16 selected plants from different localities in Yemen, the methanolic extract of D viscosa was one of eight that showed the highest antimicrobial activity and one of six with high free radical scavenging activity.
• Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant:Study water extract and polar fraction of ethanol extract of DV in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed dose-dependent reduction in glucose levels and restoration of altered lipid levels. Results suggest antioxidant effects might play a role in the observed antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities.
• Anti-Diabetic: Results of study of DVW and DVE-4 in high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance in rats showed pharmacologic evidence of DV in treatment of prediabetic conditions and the effects probably mediated by interacting multiple targets operative in diabetes mellitus – decreased oxidative stress by improving endogenous antioxidants, inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase, partial inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study of methanol extract of leaves in normal and STZ-diabetic rats indicated antidiabetic and antioxidant effect in diabetic rats.
• Gastroprotective: Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids, saponins, bitter principles and phenols. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. The hexane extract decreased the total amount of total acid in gastric juice. Toxicity studies showed no toxicological signs in rats.
• Chemopreventive in Lead Poisoning: Treatment with the flavonoidal drug, D viscosa to lead-poisoned rats resulted in decrease levels of glycoproteins and sialic acid contents in liver and plasma. Plant flavonoids are considered natural antioxidants, providing protection against membrane damages during hepatic and renal toxicity. Results suggest the flavonoids rich D viscosa leaves attenuate lead acetate-induced alterations and offer a potential as chemopreventive agent against lead poison in rats.
• Antifungal / Adherence to Oral Epithelial Cells: DV var angustifolia inhibited the adherence of C albicans to oral epithelial cells, which is the initial step of colonization in the infection process.
• Gastroprotective / Toxicity Study: A hexane extract dose-dependently inhibited ethanol-induced gastric lesions and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. Acute toxicity studies at higher doses did not manifest any toxicological signs in rats. Phytochemicals showed flavonoids, saponins, bitter principles and phenols.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study identified bioactive diterpene substance identified as hautriwaic acid (HA). The diterpene exhibited good anti-inflammatory activity in TPA mice ear edema models.
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts for antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma viride and Candida albicans. Leaf extracts showed the highest inhibitory activity.
• Anti-Diarrheal / Roots: Study evaluated alcohol and aqueous extracts of roots in castor oil induced diarrhea in mice. Results showed significantly reduced diarrhea in mice with reduction in weight of stools.
• Anti-Diabetic / Leaves: Study evaluate various leaf extracts for anti-diabetic activity in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant anti-diabetic activity comparable with that of glibenclamide.
• Antifertility Effect / Seeds: Study evaluated various extracts of seeds for anti-fertility activity in female albino rats. Ethanol extract and fractions showed significant anti-fertility activity which was reversible upon withdrawal of treatment.
• Neuropharmacological Effects / Seeds: Study of an ethanolic extract of seeds showed neuropharmacological effects with potentiation of phenobarbitone-induced sleeping time, reduced locomotion without motor incoordination.
• Hypoglycemic Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated leaf extracts in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels in both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
• Wound Healing Activity / Ointment: Topical administration of a methanolic extract of Dodonaea viscosa ointment showed wound healing activity with facilitation of healing as evidenced by increase tensile strength in the incision model and faster epithelizaton and higher wound contraction in the excision model.

Availability
Wild-crafted.