Family • Annonaceae - Phaeanthus ebracteolatus (Presl) Merr.

Scientific names

Phaeanthus ebracteolatus (Presl) Merr.
Phaeanthus cumingii Miq.
Phaeanthus nutans F.-Vill.
Unona tripetala Blanco
Uvaria ebracteolata Presl
Uvaria tripetala Blanco

Common names

Alatauan (Tag.) Lanotan (Tag.)
Banatan (Tag.) Lanotang-itim (Tag.)
Banitan (Tag.) Lanutan (Tag.)
Batnitang (Tag.) Marasigiat (Gad.)
Dalinas (Tag.) Oyoi (Tag.)
Kalimatas (Tag.) Puropugai (Neg.)
Kalumatas (Tag.) Takulau (Ilk.)
Katinatau (Tag.) Yamban (Sbl.)
Langlañgas (Ilk.) Bien (Papua New Guinea)


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Studies on the possible mechanism of action of phaeantharine (Phaeanthus ebracteolatus (Presl.) Merrill) And pycnamine (Pycnarbena manilensis, (Vidal) / DAYRIT C, ANGELES LT, LIM PR. / J Philipp Med Assoc. 1962 Dec;38:1003-14.

(2) Spectrometric identification of phaenthine from the leaves of Phaenthus ebracteolatus (Presl.) Merr. (Annonaceae) / Aguinaldo, AM; Byrne, LT; Garcia, CP; Guevarra, BQ; Recio, BV / UST Journal of Graduate Research 15(1): 139-148(1985)

Kalimatas is a small tree growing up to 15 meters in height. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, 3.5 to 6.5centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, and borne upon 5-millimeter petioles. Flowers are solitary, or grow 3 to 4 together on the axils of the leaves, with 2- to 3-centimeter pedicels. Sepals are minute, triangular, and hairy. Petals are very unequal; the outer ones, oblong and 1.5 to 2 centimeters in length; the inner ones, ovate and smaller. Fruit are numerous, ovoid or ellipsoid-spiculate, yellowish when immature, reddish black when ripe, smooth, and borne in round clusters upon smooth stalks 2 to 3 centimeters long.

– Widely distributed in the Philippines at low and medium altitudes.
– Also occurs in Brunei, Sabah, East Kalimatan, Sulawesi, Moluccas, Kai Islands, Aru Islands, Papua and Papua New Guinea.


– Yields two alkaloids: one is a tertiary, nonphenolic, crystalline base, occurring in the amount of 0.7% with the formula C34H38N2O6 or C35H40N2O6, given the name phaeanthine. The other alkaloid has the properties of a quarternary base.
– Structure of phaeanthine is similar to that of oxyaeanthine and of berbamine.
– Study yielded another tertiary alkaloid in the form of fine crystals, kalimatine.

– The quarternary solution and galenical preparations (tincture and fluid extract) have shown important pharmacodynamic effects of lowering blood pressure and relaxing smooth muscle. The fall in blood pressure may be partly due to depression of the heart. Sufficiently large doses also depress the intestine, tracheal muscles, and uterus.

Parts used

– After the outer portion of the bark has been removed, very thin pieces of plant scrapings are placed in a small amount of water. The mixture is macerated and filtered through a piece of cloth, and dropped into sore eyes with inflamed conjunctiva, daily until the conjunctivitis is cured.

– Wood: Bark is used for tying purposes. Wood used for light house construction.

Study Findings
• Phaenthine / Leaves: Study of chloroform-soluble fractions of leaves of P. ebracteolatus isolated fine needle-like crystals identified as phaenthine by spectroscopy.