Family • Combretaceae - Terminalia edulis Blanco - BELLERIC MYROBALAN - Pi li lei

Scientific names

Myrobalanus bellirica Gaertn.
Myrobalanus laurinioides Kuntz.
Terminalia microcarpa Decne.
Terminalia augustifolia Blanco
Pentaptera mollis Presl
Terminalia mollis Rolfe
Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.
Terminalia javanica Miq.

Other vernacular names Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) Roxb.

BENGALI: Baheraa, Bhayraa.
CHINESE: Pi li lei.
FRENCH: Myrobalan belleric.
GERMAN: Baherabaum, Belerische myrobalane.
HINDI: Baheda, Bahedaa, Baheraa, Bahirda, Bhaira, Bhairaa, Bohera, Vibhitaka.
INDIA: Bahera.
JAPANESE: Taaminaria Beririka.
KANNADA: Santi, Thani, Thare.
MALAY: Jaha, Jaha Kebo.
MALAYALAM: Taanni, Taannikka.
MARATHI: Beda, Beheda, Berda.
RUSSIAN: Terminaliia belericheskaia.
SANSKRIT: Aksa, Bibhitaki, Kalidruma, Karshaphala, Vibhiitaka, Vibhitaki.
SPANISH: Belérico.
TAMIL: Taanni, Taanrikkaay, Thaanri, Thandri, Thani.
TELUGU: Tadi, Tani, Thandra.
THAI: Samo phi phek.
URDU: Baheraa.

Common names

Alupi (Ibn.)
Anagep (Ilk.)
Bajo (Tagb.)
Balisayin (Tag.)
Bango (Mbo.)
Baraus (Tagb.)
Basal (Tag.)
Basi (Itn.)
Bisi (Gad.)
Buluang (Bis.)
Dalinson (Tag.)
Disi (Gad.)
Gayumayen (Sbl.)
Gisit (Itn.)
Kalamai (Tag.)
Kalantit (Ilk.)
Kalaotit (Gad.)
Kalomagon (Bik.)
Kalomaog (P. Bis.)
Kalumagon (Bik.)
Kalumangog (Bik.)
Kalumanog (P. Bis.)
Kalumpit (Tag., Sbl.)
Kalupi (Neg., Ign.)
Kalupit (Ilk., Neg.)
Kalurig (Ibn.)
Kalusit (Ibn.)
Kamaris (Tagb.)
Kamaris (Tagb.)
Kotmok (Bik.)
Lumangog (S. L. bis.)
Magtalisai (P. Bis.)
Taya-taya (P. Bis.)
Bastard myrobalan (Engl.)
Belleric myrobalan (Engl.)

Kalumpit is a tree growing to a height of 25 meters and a diameter of 1 meter. Leaves are 6 to 15 centimeters long, smooth, and pointed at both ends. Flowers are small, yellowish-white, on slender spikes growing from the axil of the leaves. Fruit is about 3 centimeters wide, smooth, and dark red when ripe.


Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Terminalia names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE

(2) Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India / M Mobibbe Azam et al / Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol 29, No 4, October 2005, Pages 293-302 /

(3) Mechanisms underlying the antispasmodic and bronchodilatory properties of Terminalia bellerica fruit /
An ar Gilani, Tuba Ali, Saad Ajmal / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 116 (2008) 528–538

(4) Screening of Terminalia bellirica Fruits Extracts for its Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities / Uma Shankar Sharma*, Umesh Kumar Sharma, Abhishek Singh, Niranjan Sutar, Puspak Jyoti Singh / JJBS, Vol 3, No 3, June 2010

(5) Antinociceptive activity of chronic administration of different extracts of Terminalia bellerica Roxb. and Terminalia chebula Retz. fruits / Sarabjit Kaur & R K Jaggi / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 48, Sept 2010, pp 925-930

– Very common and widely distributed in primary forests at low altitudes from northern Luzon to southern Mindanao.
– Also reported from Java.

– Bark contains tannin, 42%.
– Seeds yield an oil content of 40%, with a fatty-acid methyl ester that meets major biodiesel requirements.
– Fruit yields ascorbic acid, enzymes, bioflavonoids.
– Rich in minerals like chromium, potassium, magnesium, B vitamins, and amino acids.

– Fruit pulp considered by Hindu physicians as astringent and laxative.
– Some reports consider the kernels as narcotic.

Parts used


Fruit is fleshy and makes a good preserve; also used to sweeten and age lambanog (coconut liquer).

– Fruit is used in eyewashes as the fruit of aroma – Acacia farnesiana.
– Fruit lotion also used in humid herpetism or eczema.
– In India, T. bellirica is traditionally used for diabetes.
– Hindu physicians prescribe the fruit pulp with salt and long pepper for throat and chest affections.


– Bark contains tannin, 42%, extract used in tanneries and manufacture of tannin extract.
– Leaves considered cattle fodder.
– Some tribes in the Indian subcontinent smoke dried kernels for its mind-altering properties.

Study Findings
• Angiogenesis Potential: Study evaluated the angiogenic activity of an ethanolic extract of T. bellirica Roxb. Results showed EETB significantly promoted the development of capillary networks in CAM and the newly synthesized vessels participated actively in the circulating blood vessels in-ova.
• Antidiabetic: Study showed aqueous extract stimulated basal insulin output and potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion concentration-dependently in the clonal pancreatic beta-cell line. Results showed components in the TB extract stimulated insulin secretion, enhance insulin action and inhibit both protein glycation and starch digestion.
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated T bellirica dry fruit extracts against 9 human microbial pathogens. Results showed strong inhibitory activity against S. aureus, the ethanol extract more effective than the crude extract. Results showed the dry fruit possesses potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
• Anti-Acne / Antibacterial / Terminalis chebula and Terminalia bellirica: Study evaluated the extracts of Terminalia chebula Retz and Terminalia bellirica Linn. for anti-acne property. The herbal anti-acne test extracts were prepared as single and combination formulations against Acne vulgaris. The combination of actives with 20% alcoholic T. bellirica and 20% T. chebula was found to be more effective against Acne vulgaris.
• Bronchodilatory / Antispasmodic / Fruit: Study evaluated a crude extract of Terminalia bellerica fruit for bronchodilator and antispasmodic properties. The crude extract exhibited protective effect against castor-oil induced diarrhea and carbachol-mediated bronchoconstriction in rodents. Results showed the fruit to possess a combination of anticholinergic and Ca++ antagonistic effects.
• Analgesic / Antipyretic / Fruit: Study on ethanolic and aqueous extracts of T. bellirica fruits showed significant analgesic and antipyretic properties.
• Antinociceptive / Fruits: Various extracts of T. chebula and T. bellerica were evaluated for analgesic activities using the tail immersion model in mice. Ethanolic extracts both exhibited an analgesic response. Results indicate the fruits could be potential candidate of isolation of natural analgesic agents for the management of chronic pain.