Kami

Family • Lauracea - Cinnamomum mindanense Elm. - MINDANAO CINNAMON - Yin xiang

Scientific names

Cinnamomum mindanense Elm.
Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees & T.Nees) Blume
Laurus burmannii Nees & T.Nees

Common names

Kaliñgag (Mbo.)
Kami (Bag.)
Indonesian cassia (Engl.)
Mindanao cinnamon (Engl.)
Padang cinnamon (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Xiang jiao ye, Shan rou gui, Yin xiang. KOREAN: Jyaba gyepi.
DANISH: Indonesisk kanel. MALAY: Kayu manis padang.
DUTCH: Indonesische kaneel, Korintje-cassia. POLISH: Cynamonowiec burmański.
FINNISH: Jaavankaneli. PORTUGUESE: Falsa-canforeira.
FRENCH: Cannelle de Padang, Cannelle de Java, Cannelier de Malaisie, Cannelier de Padang. RUSSIAN: Indoneziiskaya koritsa, Korichnik Burmana, Korichnik iavanskaia, Koritsa indonneziiskaia.
GERMAN: Birmazimt, Birmazimtbaum, Indonesisches Zimt, Padangzimt, Padang-Zimt, Padangzimtbaum. SPANISH: Canela de Java.
HUNGARIAN: Indonéz fahéj, Jávai kasszia. THAI: Op choei chawa, Op choei thai, Suramarit.
JAPANESE: Jawa nikkei, Kinamomumu burumanii. VIETNAMESE: Quế rành, Quế trèn.

Botany
Kami is a medium-sized tree, about 10 meters in height. Leaves are opposite or subopposite, smooth, leathery, oblong with the smaller ones sometimes lanceolate, 7 to 15 centimeters long, 3 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, on petioles less than 1 centimeter long. Inflorescence is about 15 centimeters long, bearing 1 to 2 small, greenish flowers at its end, about 5 millimeters long. Fruit is obovately ellipsoid, about 1.25 centimeters long and 7.5 millimeters wide, lucid green with minute whitist spots when unripe and a shinning steel blue when ripe.

Kami

Distribution
– In the Philippines, only in Surigao, Davao, and Zamboanga Provinces in Mindanao.
– In thickets and forests at low and medium altitudes.

Constituents
– Study has suggested the bark to be closely allied to Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and the bark, in appearance, taste and odor, is just like the cinnamon of commerce.
– The oil does not agree very closely with Ceylon cinnamon oil from Cinnamomum zeylanicum.
– Bark contains 60% cinnamic aldehyde.
– Constituent studies on C. burmannii have yielded cinnamyl alcohol, coumarin, cinnamic acid, cinnamaldehyde, anthocynin, and essential oils, together with sugar, protein, crude fates, and pectin among others.
– Study isolated a pigment from the peel of C. burmannii, scarcely soluble in water and all common organic solvents, and soluble only in alkaline aqueous and DMSO.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Cinnamomum mindanaense Elmer / The Plant List

(2) Sorting Cinnamomum names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 – 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.

(3) Pharmaceutical applications and phytochemical profile of Cinnamomum burmannii / Bandar E. Al-Dhubiab / Pharmacogn Rev. 2101 Jul-Dec; 6(12): 125-131

(4) Antimicrobial Activity and Synergic Effect of Cinnamomum burmannii’s Essential Oil & its isolated compound (Cinnamaldehyde) / Anis Fadhlina Izyani Binti Awang, Deny Susanti*, and Muhammad Taher / International Conference on Chemical, Agricultural and Medical Sciences (CAMS-2013) Dec. 29-30, 2013 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

(5) Inhibitory effects of Cinnamomum burmannii Blume stem bark extract and trans-cinnamaldehyde on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells; synergism with cisplatin / Maelinda Daker, Voon Yee Lin, Gabriel Akyirem Akowuah, Mun Fei Yam, Mariam Ahmad / Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine / DOI: 10.3892/etm.2013.1041

(6) Antibacterial Properties and Major Bioactive Components of Cinnamon Stick (Cinnamomum burmannii):  Activity against Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria / Bin Shan, Yi-Zhong Cai, John D. Brooks, and Harold Corke / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (14), pp 5484–5490 / DOI: 10.1021/jf070424d

(7) Isolation and characterization of pigment from Cinnamomum burmannii’ peel / Ming-xiong Tan, Dian-hua Gan, Liu-xin Wei, Ying-ming Pan, Shao-qing Tang, Heng-shan Wang / Food Research International , 2011 , 44 , 7 , 2289-2294

(8) Hydrogen potassium adenosine triphosphatase activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression by bioactive fraction DLBS2411 from Cinnamomum burmannii in gastric parietal cells / Tjandrawinata RR, Nailufar F, Arifin PF / Drug Design, Development and Therapy, Sept 2013; 6: pp:807-815 / DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S50134

Kami2
Kami3

Properties
– Leaves considered stimulant and carminative.
– Bark considered stomachic.
– Studies on Cinnamomum burmannii have demonstrated analgesic, antibacterial, anti-diabetic, antifungal, antioxidant, antirheumatic, anti-thrombotic, anti-tumor activities.

Kami4

Parts used 
Bark

Uses
Culinary
– Bark used in the same manner as Ceylon cinnamon.
– Dried inner bark of C. burmannii used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, etc. In Mexico, used for brewing chocolate and flavoring confectionary and liquors.
– Bark decoction described as very agreeable and hygienic drink.

Kami5

Folkloric
– Bark decoction with ginger, star anise (Illicium anisatum) and sugar as a stomachic beverage.
– Powdered bark used for treatment of nausea, flatulent dyspepsia, coughs, diarrhea, gripe and malaria.

Others
• Bark used in soap and perfume manufacturing.
• Bark sold in commerce as cinnamon; considered the best cinnamon bark produced in the Philippines by a wild species.

Study Findings
Studies were done on Cinnamomum burmannii
• Antibacterial: C. burmannii extract was evaluated for antibacterial activity against five common food-borne pathogenic bacteria viz. B. cereus, L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, E. coli and Salmonella anatum. Results showed significant antibacterial activity possibly significantly contributed to by (E)-cinnamaldehyde and proanthocyanidins.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated 20 different Indonesian medicinal herbs for anti-inflammatory activity using soybean lipoxygenase (SLO). The ethyl acetate fraction from the methanol extract of bark of C. burmannii showed the highest level of SLO inhibitory activity.
• Antimicrobial / Synergism of Essential Oil and Cinnamaldehyde: Study clarified the crucial role of cinnamaldehyde as a potent antimicrobial compound of the C. burmannii’s essential oil.
• Synergism of TCE (Trans-cinnamaldehyde) and Cisplatin on Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: Study investigated the effects of methanol extract stem bark and its main constituent, TCA, on human NPC cell lines. TCA showed an ability to scavenge nitric oxide. The combination of TCA and cisplatin produced synergistic anti-proliferative effects. Results suggested a potential use of TCA for the treatment of NPC.
• Gastroprotection / DLBS2411 / Anti-Secretory: Study evaluated the gastric antisecretory effect of DLBS2411 fractionated from C. burmannii. Results showed the fraction exhibited gastroprotective and antioxidant activity through hydrogen potassium ATP activity inhibition and downregulation of its expression, suggesting a promising agent for the management of dyspepsia and gastric diseases requiring gastroprotection.

Availability
– Wild-crafted.
– Essential oils in the cybermarket.