Kamuning

Family • Rutaceae - Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack - ORANGE JASMINE - Jiu li xiang


Scientific names

Murraya paniculata (Linn.) Jack
Murraya exotica  Linn.
Murraya odorata  Blanco
Murraya banati  Elm.
Chalcas paniculata Linn.
Chalcas camuneng Burm. f.
Connarus foetens  Blanco
Connarus santaloides  Blanco

Common names

Banasik (Ilk.)
Banaasi (Ilk.)
Banaasi (Ilk.)
Banaot (Sbl.)
Banasi (Bik., Ibn.)
Banati (C. Bis., Buk., Mag., Mbo.)
Kamuning (Tag., Bik., Dis., Pamp.);
Vanaii (Iv.)
Chinese box (Engl.)
Common jasmine-orange
Cosmetic bark tree (Engl.)
Mock orange (Engl.)
Orange jasmine (Engl.)
Jiu li xiang (Chin.)

Other vernacular names

CHINESE: Shi gui shu, Qian li xiang, Yue ju, Kau lei heung.
FRENCH: Orange-jessamine, Buis de Chine.
HINDI: Gacharisha,Madhukamini.
INDIA: Kamini marchula, Pandari, Nagagolunga, Konji, Angarakana gida, Bian malika.
INDONESIAN: Kemoening, Djenar.
JAPANESE: Gekkitsu, Inutsuge, Kuribana, Gigicha, Gigichi.
KANNADA: Angara kina.
MALAYALAM: Kattukariveppu, Maramulla.
MALAYSIA: Kemuning putih, Kemuning.
NEPAL: Bajardante.
SINHALESE: Aetteriya, Etteriya.
SPANISH: Naranjo jazmín.
TAMIL: Cimaikkonci, Kattu karuveppilai, Konci.

Botany
Kamuning is a small, smooth tree, growing from 3 to 8 meters in height, and having a very hard wood. Leaves are 8 to 15 centimeters long, with usually 7 to 9 leaflets on each side, oblong to ovate, elliptic or subrhomboid, and 2 to 7 centimeters. Stems are hairy. Flowers are few, white, very fragrant, 1.5 to 2 centimeters long, and borne on short, terminal or axillary cymes. Fruits is fleshy, red when ripe, pointed or oval-shaped, 1 to 1.5 centimeters long.

Kamuning

Distribution
– Common in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
– Often cultivated.
– Also occurs in India to Malaya.
– Now pantropic.

Kamuning2

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Antiplatelet Aggregation Coumarins from the Leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa

(2) The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand / N. Sawangjaroen et al / Parasitology Research / Volume 95, Number 1 / January, 2005 / 10.1007/s00436-004-1264-8

(3) Highly oxygenated flavonoids from Murraya paniculata / Takeshi Kinoshita and Kurnia Firman / Phytochemistry Volume 42, Issue 4, July 1996, Pages 1207-1210/ doi:10.1016/0031-9422(96)00058-1

 

(4) Chemical composition of the leaf essential oils of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng and Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack / Jasim Uddin Chowdhury et al / Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2008; 3: 59-63

(5) Antinociceptive and bioactivity of leaves of Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack, Rutaceae / Shazid Md. Sharker et al / Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy, 19(3): 746-748, Jul./Set. 2009

(6) Studies on in vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal Property and Antioxidant Potency of Murraya paniculata / Mohana Sundaram, Sivakumar, Karthikeyan et al / Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 10

 

(7) Bioassay studies of 2ʹ-O-ethylmurrangatin isolated from a medicinal plant, Murraya paniculata / Azizuddin Shaikh, Muhammad Iqbal Choudhary / Turk J Biol 35 (2011)

(8) STUDY ON ANTIFERTILITY ACTION OF MURRAYA PANICULATA EXTRACT / Chen Qionghua, Wang Shuru, Zhang Zongyu et al / Journal of China Pharmaceutical University, 1987 / DOI CNKI:SUN:ZGYD.0.1987-03-016

(9) Sorting Murraya names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(10) Mini Review: Bioactivity studies and chemical constituents of Murraya paniculata (Linn) Jack / Ng, M. K., Abdulhadi-Noaman, Y., Cheah, Y.K., Yeap, S. K. and *Alitheen, N.B. / International Food Research Journal 19(4): 1307-1312 (2012)

(11) Studies on the hypoglycemic effects of Murraya paniculata Linn. extract on alloxan-induced oxidative stress in diabetic and non-diabetic models / MK Gautam, Anamika Gupta, M Vijaykumar, CV Rao3, RK Goel* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012)S186-S191

(12) Toxicological Evaluation of Murraya Paniculata (L.) Leaves Extract on Rodents / Gautam, M.K., A. Singh, C.V. Rao and R.K. Goel / American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 7 (2): 62-67, 2012

(13) Murraya paniculata / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

Kamuning3
Constituents 
– Leaves yield a volatile oil, 0.01%, with cadinene and sesquiterpene.
– Flowers yield murrayin (glucoside), murrayetin, and indol.
– Study yielded alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and saponins.
– Study yielded eight highly oxygenated flavones, identified as gardenin A, gardenin C, gardenin E, 5-O-desmethylnobiletin, umhengerin, 5,3–dihydroxy-6,7,4’5′–tetramethoxyflavone and new compound, 5,3′,5′-trihydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone.
– Study reported nine coumarins from the aerial parts of the plant. Of these three – murrmeranzin, 1’2′-O-isopropylidene murrangatin and murralonginal are new; one, pranferin was reported for the first time from the plant.
– Study yielded flavonoids, indole alkaloids, coumarins.
– Yielded 60 compounds from the volatile and essential oil extracted from the leaves.

Properties
– Considered anti-herpetic, anti-diarrheal, aromatic, refrigerant, tonic and stomachic.
– Leaves are stimulant and astringent.
– Leaves and flowers considered tonic and stomachic.

Parts utilized
· Leaves, roots, root bark.

Uses
Culinary
· In Malaysia, widely used as food flavor additive for cuisine, in preparing meat, fish and soup.

Kamuning4Folkloric 
· Decoction of dried material (3 – 9 gms) or 0.3 – 0.9 gm of pulverized material by mouth with water: Used for gas pains. swelling pain due to sprain and contusions, rheumatic bone pain and poisonous snake bites.
· Poultice of fresh leaves used for swelling due to sprain and contusions; poisonous snake bites.
· Infusion of leaves used as tonic; also used for diarrhea and dysentery.
· Decoction of leaves also used as mouthwash for toothaches.
· Infusion of leaves and flowers is tonic and stomachic.
· Leaves and root bark used for rheumatism, cough, and hysteria.
· Used for abscesses, cellulitis, tapeworm disease, rheumatic fever, coughs, giddiness, hysteria, thirst, and burning of the skin.
· Infusion used for herpes of the stomach, and the sediment applied externally.
· In Malaysia, used to treat dysentery and morning sickness.
· In Yi medicine in China, used for common colds, fever, cough, sore throat, influenza.
· In the Gujarat region of India, used to regulate fertility.
· In Singapore, leaves are ingredient of a tonic given for irregularities in the regenerative organs of young women. Also similarly used in Java.
· In China, plant is widely used for stomachaches, toothaches, rheumatism, paralysis, and diabetes.

Others 
· Wood: Most useful part of the tree is the yellow wood, in demand for making canes. Also used for making kris handles.
· Crafts: Top branches, with the leaves, used for making wreaths and in giving body to bouquets.
· Cosmetic: In Thailand and Burma, powdered bark and root used as cosmetic. Flowers are sometimes put in the hair for their pleasant smell. In Java, flowers are used in making cosmetics.

Study Findings
• Antiplatelet Aggregation: Study isolated two coumarins-minumicroline acetonide and epimurpaniculol senecioate, both active in the platelet aggregation assay.
• Antiamoebic Activity: The anti-amoebic activity of some medicinal plants used by AIDS patients in southern Thailand: 12 Thai medicinal plants were screened against a Entamoeba histolytica strain. Murraya paniculata extracts were classified as “moderately active.”
• Anti-Giardial Activity: The in vitro anti-giardial activity of extracts from plants that are used for self-medication by AIDS patients in southern Thailand: Of 39 medicinal plant extracts studied, the chloroform extract from Murraya paniculata was “moderately active.”
• Insecticidal Activity: Leaf-derived petroleum ether fraction was found more toxic than ethyl acetate fractions were evaluated against adult male and female Callosobruchus maculatus. Males were more susceptible than females. It suggests further study for its potential as an insect-control agent.
• Essential Oil Composition: Oil of M. paniculata contained 58 compounds – caryophyllene oxide, ß-caryophyllene, spathulenol, ß-elemene, germacrene D, cyclooctene, 4-methylene-6-(propenylidene) among others.
• Antinociceptive / Bioactivity: Study of the ethanol extract of leaves showed a profound nociceptive dose-dependent effect. The extract also showed considerable brine shrimp toxicity.
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant: Study of the ethanol extract of leaves on STZ-induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of blood glucose, serum cholesterol, serum triglycerides. Study also showed significant reduction of TBARS, lipid peroxidation and increase in GSH. Results showed significant antidiabetic activity along with potent antioxidant potential in diabetic conditions. Supplementation of MP extracts may be beneficial in correcting hyperglycemia and preventing diabetic complications.
• Antifungal: Study showed activity against C. albicans, C tropicalis and C luteolus.
• Antibacterial / Antioxidant: M. paniculata showed antibacterial activity against E. coli, P. mirabilis, S. typhi, E. aerogenes, and S. flexneri. Ethanol extract demonstrated antioxidant activity.
• Analgesic: Extract of bark showed significant dose-dependent reduction in acetic acid induced writhing. The reduced writing may be through the same mechanism of action as aminopyrine. The analgesic activity in radiant heat method was attributed to a central anti-nociceptive activity like that of morphine.
• 2ʹ-O-ethylmurrangatin / Lipoxygenase and Respiratory Burst Inhibition: Study yielded a secondary metabolite, 2ʹ-O-ethylmurrangatin, from the leaves of M. paniculata. It exhibited significant activity against lipoxygenase enzyme and moderate respiratory burst activity.
• Antifertility: Murraya paniculata showed a prominent effect in preventing implantation, terminating early pregnancy and mid-pregnancy of mice, but could not prevent ova transport. Of the plant parts, the cortex of the root and stem was the most effective.
• Hypoglycemic: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of leaves showed hypoglycemic effects in oxidative stress condition. The mechanism may be through potentiation of insulin effect either by increased pancreatic secretion of insulin from beta cells of its release from the bound form.
• Toxicological Study on Leaves: Study in mice evaluated a 50% ethanolic extracts for acute and subacute toxicities . Results sowed M. paniculata to be safe in its oral effective dose.
• In Vitro Antioxidant Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated a 50% ethanolic extract of leaves in various in vitro antioxidant assays. Results showed strong antioxidant potential and an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants or food supplement.

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated for fragrant flowers.