Karipata

Family • Rutaceae - Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. - CURRY LEAF - Ma jiao ye


Scientific names

Murraya koenigii Linn.
Bergera koenigii L.
Chalcas koenigii (L.) Kurz.

Common names

Karipata (Tag.)
Curry leaf (Engl.)
Curry leaf tree (Engl.)
South India soapnut (Engl.)
Sweet nim (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

ARABIC: Warak al kari. LITHUANIAN: Karis, Kvapioji murėja.
ASSAMESE: Bishahari, Narasingha, Narasihgha, Nor hing, Noroximh pat, Noroxingho pat. MALAY: Daun kari pla, Daun kari (Indonesia), Garupillai, Karupillam, Karwa pale, Kerupulai.
BENGALI: Barsunga, Barsanga, Kariaphulli, MALAYALAM: Kareapela, Karivepp, ariveppila, Kariveppalai, Veppila.
BURMESE: Kyaung-thwe, Pin do sin. MARATHI: Jhiranga, Kadhinimb, Karhilimb , Kudianim.
CHINESE: Ma jiao ye, Ga li cai, Ga li ye. NEPALESE: Meciyaa saag, Mitho niim (Mitho neem).
CZECH: Karí lístky. ORWEGIAN: Karriblader.
DANISH Karry blad. ORIYA: Bhersunga, Lesunadando, Merisinga potro.
DUTCH: Kerriebladeren. PORTUGUESE: Folhas de Caril.
ESTONIAN: Karrilehed. PUNJABI: Gandalu, Gandla, Karipata, Karipatta.
FINNISH: Currylehdet. RUSSIAN: List’a karri.
FRENCH: Arbre à curry , Arbre à feuilles de curry, Calou pilé, Kalou pilé, Carripoul). SANSKRIT: Alakavhayah, Girinimba, Kalasaka, Mahanimba, Surabhinimba, Suravi .
GERMAN: Curryblätter. SINHALESE: Karapincha.
GUJARATI: Mitha limbdo, Mitho limado. SLOVAKIAN: Karí list.
HEBREW: Ali kari. SLOVENIAN : Curry listi.
HINDI: Gandhel, Kadhipatta, Kadipatha , Karipatta, Karii pattaa, Meetha neem, Meetha neem patta, Mithinim, Katnim, Kitha neem. SPANISH: Hojas de Curry.
ICELANDIC: Karrílauf. SWAHILI: Bizari, Mchuzi.
ITALIAN: Fogli di Cari. THAI: Hom khaek, Samat; Som, Mo noi.
JAPANESE: Nanyou zanshou. TURKISH: Köri yaprağı.
KANNADA: Karibevu, Karibevu soppu. UKRAINIAN: Listi karri.
KHMER Xantroc. URDUL Kariapatm Kari patah.
KOREAN: Ko ri ri pu. VIETNAMESE: Cari, Lá cà ri, Cơm nguội, Ngệt quới koenig.
LAOTIAN: Dok kibi, Khi be.

Botany
Karipata is a small, tropical to subtropical tree or shrub growing to a height of 6 to 15 meters. Leaves are odd-pinnate, 11 to 21, thin, ovate, shiny and dark green. Leaflets are 2 to 4.5 centimeters long. Flowers are white, fragrant, about 1 centimeter across, in terminal cymes. Flowers are followed by 1-2 seeded, ovoid to oblong, bluish-black fruits, about 2 centimeters in diameter.

Karipata

Distribution
Cultivated.
Native to India and Sri Lanka.

Constituents
– Rich source of carbazole alkaloids.
– Study of stem bark yielded mahanimbine, girinimbine, murrayanine, murrayazoline, murrayacine and sucrose. Leaves yielded five compounds: Il-decylhenecosane and methoxydotriacontane isolated as a mixture, and mahanimbine, ethyl octadecanoate and mahanine. Roots yielded four compounds: girinimbine, murrayanine, together with 3-methylcarbazole and murrayafoline A.
– Leaves yielded carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid.
– Various extracts of leaves (petroleum ether, chloroform, and ethanol extracts) yielded carbohydrates, gums, mucilage, fats, oil, caumarin glycosides, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, anthraquinone glycosides, saponins, tannins, proteins, sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloids.

Karipata2

Properties
– Leaves are pungent and aromatic.
– Leaves considered tonic, stomachic, carminative, antidysenteric, anti-emetic.
– Considered antioxidant, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, antihypercholesterolemic

Parts used
Leaves, oils.

Karipata3

Uses
Culinary
– Leaves and fruits are edible.
– Leaves are dry roasted or fried to a crisp.
– Leaves widely used as spice and condiment.
– Essential ingredient of Indian cuisine.
– Leaves used to flavor various dishes, meat, seafood, chutney, relishes, marinades. (Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) is unrelated to the curry plant (Helichrysum italicum which also has a curry-like aroma.

Karipata4

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Sorting Murraya names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 – 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(2) Murraya koenigii / Botanical info / Missouri Botanical Garden

(3) Protective effect of aqueous Curry leaf (Murraya koenigii) extract against cadmium-induced oxidative stress in rat heart / Elina Mitra, Arnab K. Ghosh, Debosree Ghosh, Debasri Mukherjee, Aindrila Chattopadhyay, Santanu Dutta, Sanjib Kumar Pattari, Debasish Bandyopadhyay / Food and Chemical Toxicology 50 (2012) 1340–1353

(4) Murraya koenigii leaf extract inhibits proteasome activity and induces cell death in breast cancer cells / Bindu Noolu, Rajanna Ajumeera, Anitha Chauhan, Balakrishna Nagalla, Raghunath Manchala and Ayesha Ismail* / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:7 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-7

(5) Anti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii (L) and Olea europaea (L) leaf extracts on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. / El-Amin M, Virk P, Elobeid MA, Almarhoon ZM, Hassan ZK, Omer SA, Merghani NM, Daghestani MH, Al-Olayan EM. / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2013 Mar;26(2):359-65.

(6) Apoptosis Effect of Girinimbine Isolated from Murraya koenigii on Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro / Syam Mohan, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Shiau-Chuen Cheah, Mohd Aspollah Sukari, Suvitha Syam, Noorasyikin Shamsuddin, and Mohd Rais Mustafa / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/689865

(7) A REVIEW ON MURRAYA KOENIGII: MULTIPOTENTIAL MEDICINAL PLANT / HARISH K HANDRAL, ANUP PANDITH AND SHRUTHI SD / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 4, 2012

(8) EFFECT OF EXTRACTS OF MURRAYA KOENIGII LEAVES ON THE LEVELS OF BLOOD GLUCOSE AND PLASMA INSULIN IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / VINUTHAN M. K., GIRISH KUMAR V., RAVINDRA J. P., *JAYAPRAKASH AND **NARAYANA K. / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2004; 48 (3) : 348–352

(9) Acute Toxicity Study of Murraya Koenigii / Satish Chand Saini , Dr. GBS Reddy , Pankaj Birari / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Volume 2, Issue 9, September 2013, PP.34-36

(10) Antiaflatoxigenic food additive potential of Murraya koenigii: An in vitro and molecular interaction study / Kasi Murugana, K. Anandaraj, Saleh Al-Sohaibania / Food Research International, Volume 52, Issue 1, June 2013, Pages 8–16

(11) Anti-obesity and hypoglycemic effect of ethanolic extract of Murraya koenigii (L) leaves in high fatty diet rats / Sachin V. Tembhurne*, Dinesh M. Sakarkar / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease (2012), S166-S168

(12) Anti-inflammatory activity of Murraya koenigii Spreng on experimental animals / Vaibhav M. Darvekar*, Vijay R. Patil and Amol B. Choudhari / J. Nat. Prod. Plant Resour., 2011, 1 (1): 65-69

(13) Leaves extract of murraya koenigii linn for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity in animal models. / Gupta S, George M, Singhal M, Sharma GN, Garg V. / J Adv Pharm Technol Res. 2010 Jan;1(1):68-77

(14) Chemical Constituents of Murraya Koenigii (Rutaceae) and Their Biological Activities / Ahmad, Kartini (1999) / Masters thesis / Universiti Pertanian Malaysia.

(15) Protective Effect of Leaves of Murraya koenigii on Reserpine-Induced Orofacial Dyskinesia / Rupali Patil ; Kiran Dhawale; Hanmant Gound; Rajendra Gadakh / Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Article 27, Volume 11, Issue 2, Spring 2012, Page 635-641

(16) Effect of Storage Temperature on the Nutritional Value of Curry Leaf / Usha R. Palaniswamy, James D. Stuart, and Christian A. Caporuscio / Trends in new crops and new uses. ASHS Press, Alexandria, VA.. 2002, pp 567–569.

(17) Possible Mechanism of Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala With Reference to Antioxidants Activity / James Smerq*, Mukta Sharma / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2011; 3(3): 260-264

(18) ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII IN ALBINO RATS / DINESH KUMAR PATIDAR / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 2, No 1, Jan-Mar 2011

(19) Antigenotoxic effect of Murraya koenigii towards cyclophosphamide induced cytogenetic damage in mouse bone marrow cells / Deshmukh Swati*, Pathak A. K, Burande M.D. / International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2012; 4(2);59-63

(20) PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION AND EFFECT OF ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY ON MURRAYA KOENIGII SPRENG. LEAVES EXTRACTS / Md. Rageeb, Md. Usman* and SD. Barhate / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL AND CHEMICAL SCIENCES, Vol 1, No 1, Jan-Mar 2012

(21) Anti-Fungal Potential of Leave Extracts of Murraya koenigii / Mishra M K et al / IJRAP 2010, 1(2), 549-552

(22) HYPOGLYCEMIC EFFECTS OF FRUIT JUICE OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (L) IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC MICE / Tembhurne S. V. , Sakarkar D. M. * / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.1, No.4, pp 1589-1593, Oct-Dec 2009

(23) IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ROOT EXTRACT OF MURRAYA KOENIGII (LINN) SPRENG./ Ashish Pagariya *, Sarika Chatur, & Faimddum Nawab / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL INNOVATIONS

Karipata5
Folkloric
– Leaves ground to a paste, with tumeric as an option, and applied to acne.
– In Unani and Ayurveda, used for piles, leucoderma, blood disorders, and to allay body heat.
– Used of nausea and stomach upsets, skin irritations and poisonous bites.
– Oils used as insect repellent and to cure various skin disorders.
– Used for hemorrhoids and as anthelmintic..
– Crushed leaves applied externally to relieve burns and to cure skin eruptions

Study Findings
• Antioxidant / Protective in Cadmium-Induced Cardiac Oxidative Stress: Study showed an aqueous extract of leaf protects rat cardiac tissue against cadmium-induced oxidative stress possibly through its antioxidant activity.
• Anti-Cancer / Leaves: Study evaluated a hydro-methanolic extract of curry leaves against two human breast carcinoma cell lines: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. The leaf extract decreased cell viability and dose-dependently altered the growth kinetics in both cell lines. The extract showed it to be a potent source of proteasome inhibitors that lead to cancer cell death.
• Anti-Diabetic / Hypolipidemic / Leaves: Study evaluated aqueous extracts of Murraya koenigii leaves and Olea europaea leaves for antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed both extracts exhibited potent antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects, attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as carbazole alkaloids and polyphenols.
• Girinimbine / Apoptosis Effect on Lung Cancer Cells: Girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from M. koenigii was investigated for anticancer effects on A549 lung cancer cells. Results showed girinimbine mediates its antiproliferative and apoptotic effects through up- and down-regulation of apoptotic and anti-apoptotic proteins, with significant involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. Results suggest girinimbine to be a potential agent for anticancer drug development.
• Plasma Insulin Effect / Hypoglycemic: Study of an aqueous and methanol extract of leaves showed significant reduction of blood glucose with significant increase in plasma insulin. Results suggest the hypoglycemic effect may be mediated through stimulation of insulin synthesis and/or secretion from the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans.
• Acute Toxicity Study: Acute toxicity study was carried out against Swiss albino mice. Results showed no mortality at the highest dose level, with no toxic effects at studied dose levels, and safe till the dose level of 9000 mg/k.
• Natural Preservative Potential / Anti-Aflatoxigenic Food Additive Potential: Study reported the antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic potential of M. koenigii and its culinary oil food additive potential. Frying oil with M. koenigii could lead to long storage reduction in aflatoxin and frying performance increase without nutritional loss.
• Anti-Obesity / Hypoglycemic Effect: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and anti-obesity activities of ethanol extract of M. koenigii leaves in high fatty diet induced obesity in rats. Results showed a potent anti-hyperglycemic effect, with a significant decrease in both cholesterol and triglycerides, and suggest potential use by the diabetic patient for controlling body weight and maintaining glycemic level.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of M. koenigii leaves. An ethanol extract showed significant anti-inflammatory effects using acute carrageenan induced paw edema method and yeast induced hyperpyrexia method.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic: Study evaluated a methanol extract of dried leaves of Murraya koenigii in healthy animals for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity. Results showed significant dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity with reduction in carrageenan-induced paw edema and analgesic activity with increased reaction time by eddy’s hot late method and percentage increase in pain by formalin test.
• Biologic Activities: The crude extracts of the roots isolated compound including mahanimbine, girinimbine, mahanine and murrayafoline A exhibited significant cytotoxicity activity against CEM-SS cell line. Girinimbine inhibited EBV-activation (100%) in the antitumor promoting assay . Pet ether and the chloroform crude extracts of the stem bark exhibited weak antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus.
• Orofacial Dyskinesia: Study evaluated the neuroprotective potential and in-vivo antioxidant effect of a methanol extract of leaves in reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia. Results showed significant inhibition of reserpine-induced vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusion, orofacial burst, and cataplexy. Treatment with the extract also restored the levels of protective antioxidant enzymes and inhibited haloperidol-induced cataplexy. Oxidative stress may play a role in the dyskinesia, and M. koenigii may have a role in the treatment of neuroleptic-induced orofacial dyskinesia.
• Storage Effect on Nutritional Value: Curry leaf is available fresh, dried, or frozen for long term storage. Fresh curry leaves showed the highest concentration of lutein, frozen leaves the lowest, while oven-dried and air-dried leaves yielded 60% less lutein compared to fresh leaves. Beta-carotene was highest in fresh leaves, lowest in oven-dried leaves.
• Antioxidant Effect: Study investigated Murraya koenigii and Cinnamomum tamala for antioxidant activity. M. koenigii showed higher activity than C. tamala which may be due to multiple factors: hydrogen or electron transfer, metal chelating activity, and synergistic activity due to high polyphenol content.
• Anti-Ulcer Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of M koenigii in pylorus ligated and NSAID induced ulcer model in albino rats. Results showed significant inhibition of the gastric lesion with reduced ulcerative lesion, gastric volume, free and total acidity, with raised pH of gastric juice in the pylorus-ligated model.
• Antimicrobial Effect: Study evaluated various root extracts of M. koenigii against four bacterial strains and three fungal strains. Root extracts in organic solvents showed good antimicrobial activity. S. aureus and T. rubrum were the most susceptible antibacterial and fungal strains.
• Antigenotoxic / Chemoprotective Effect: Study evaluated the chemoprotective activity of a methanolic extract of M. koenigii in Swiss albino mice bone marrow in-vivo model. Results showed the extract effectively prevented cyclophosphamide induced chromosomal aberration. No drug toxicity was noted at 100 mg/kbw dose.
• Antipyretic Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of M. koenigii leaves extract. Results showed an ethanol extract to possess significant antipyretic activity.
• Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of shade dried leaves and extracted essential oil from the leaves of M. koenigii for antifungal potential. Acetone extract showed highest activity against Aspergillus niger, benzene extract most active against Alternaria solani and Helminthosporium solani, and the 95% ethanol extract was most active against Penicillium notatum. The essential oil also showed moderate antifungal activity.
• Hypoglycemic / Fruit Juice: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic effect of M. koenigii fruit juice in alloxan induced diabetic mice. Results showed reduction in blood glucose level. The fruit juice may also exert a cytoprotective effect because of the presence of antioxidant phytochemicals.
• Anthelmintic / Roots: Study evaluated ethanolic and aqueous extracts of roots for anthelmintic activity against Eudrillus eugeniae, with albendazole as reference drug. Results showed potent anthelmintic activity in the parameters studied.
• Larvicidal, Pupicidal Repellent Against Malaria Vector: Study evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and anti-vector activity of aqueous extract of M. koenigii against the larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi. Results showed a potential for M. koenigii as an ideal eco-friendly approach for vector control.

Availability
Cultivated.
Seeds in the cybermarket.