Kawad-kawaran

Family • Gramineae - Cynodon dactylon Linn. - BERMUDA GRASS

Scientific names

Cynodon dactylon Linn.
Cynodon linearis Willd.
Cynodon rufescens LLanos.
Capriola dactylon O. Kuntz
Digitaria glumaepatula Miq.
Panycum dactylon Linn.
Panicum glumaepatulum Steud.

Common names

Balbalut (Bon.)
Barutbarut (Ilk.)
Galud-galud (Ilk.)
Grama (Span.)
Kawad-kawaran (Tag.)
Kawit-kawitan (Tag.)
Kolatai (Tag.)
Palot-galot (Tag.)
Florida grass (Engl.)
Bahama grass (Engl.)
Creeping-cynodon (Engl.)
Creeping finger grass (Engl.)
Bermuda grass (Engl.)
Couch grass (Engl.)
Dog’s tooth grass (Engl.)
Dub grass (Engl.)
Green couch (Engl.)

Other vernacular names

AFRIKAANS: Kweekgras.
BENGALI: Durba.
CAMBODIA: Smao anchien.
FIJI: Kabuta.
FRENCH: Chiendent dactyle, Chiendent pied-de-poule, Grand chiendent.
GERMAN: Hundezahngras.
HAWAII: Manienie.
HINDI: Doorva, Doob.
INDIA: Doob, Durva.
INDONESIA: Jukut kakawatan, Gigirinling, Rumput bermuda, Rumput grinting, Sukit grinting.
ISRAEL: Yablith..
KANNADA: Ambate-hullu, Graikae.
LAOS: Hnha:z phe:d.
MALAYALAM: Karuka-oulli.
MALAYSIA: Rumput minyak.
MARATHI: Doorva, Haryali.
MYANMAR: Mye-sa-myet..
NEPAL: Motie molulu, Dubo.
PORTUGUESE: Capim-bermuda.
PUNJABI: Dub, Kabbar, Talla.
SANSKRIT: Bhargavi, Doorwa, Granthi, Sveta.
SPANISH: Chepica brave, Came de niño, Pate de perdiz, Gramilla blanca..
TAMIL: Arugu, Aruvam-pillu, Mooyar-oul, Arugampull.
TELUGU: Garika, Gerike, Haryali
THAILAND: Ya-phraek.
URDU: Ghass.
VIETNAM: Cochi, Coong.

Botany
Kawad-kawaran is a tropical and subtropical creeping grass with slender, branched, prostrate, usually widely creeping stems, rooting at the nodes and forming matted tufts, sending up erect, slender, flowering branches, 8 to 20 centimeters high. Leaves are 1.5 to 3 centimeters long. Spikes, numbering 3 to 4, are 2 to 5 centimeters long, narrowly linear, spreading, green to purplish. Spikelets are imbricated, about 1.5 millimeters long.

Kawad-kawaran

Distribution
– Commonly found throughout the Philippines, in open grasslands, rice paddies, waste places, at low and medium altitudes.
– Bermuda grass is extensively used in urban and suburban lawns. In the rural areas, collected for supplementary feed for horses and carabaos.

Kawad-kawaran2

Constituents
– Contains starch and cynodin, a substance similar to asparagin.
– Plant yields crude proteins, mineral constituents, oxides of magnesium, phosphorus, calcium, sodium, and potassium.
– Whole plant yields sitosterol and carotene, vitamin C, cartone, palmitic acid, triterpenoids, alkaloids, ergonovine, and ergonovinine.
– Phytochemical screening of aqueous extract yielded flavonoids and glycosides.

Kawad-kawaran3

Properties
– Diuretic, pectoral, demulcent, astringent, hemostatic, laxative, styptic.
– In Ayurveda, pungent, bitter, fragrant, heating anthelmintic, antipyretic.
– According to Unani, bitter, laxative, tonic, aphrodisiac, emetic, emmenagogue, expectorant.

Parts used
Entire plant.

Kawad-kawaran4

Uses
Folkloric
• Decoction of the entire plant used as diuretic.
• In India, crushed leaves used as styptic in minor wounds to stop bleeding. Also used for inflammatory conditions.
• Decoction of root used as diuretic in dropsy. and syphilis.
– In Sind, the roots are used as a substitute for sarsaparilla.
• Infusion of root to stop bleeding from piles.
• Juice of plant applied to fresh cuts and wounds.
• Paste of plant applied to forehead in headaches.
• Used internally for epilepsy, hysteria, bleeding in dysentery, hemorrhoids, hematuria, menorrhagia, syphilis, prostatitis.
• Used for toothaches.
• Mixed with clove (Syzygium aromaticum) used as anthelmintic.
• Folk remedy for cancer, epilepsy, cough, dysentery, warts, snakebites.
• In Morocco, used in treatment of kidney stones.

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings

(1) Evidence-based Critical Evaluation of Glycemic Potential of Cynodon dactylon / Santosh Kumar Singh / Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2008 December; 5(4): 415–420 / doi: 10.1093/ecam/nem044.

(2) Study on the Diuretic Activity of Cynodon dactylon root stalk Extract in Albino Rats / Shivalinge Gowda KP et al / Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2(2): April.-June. 2009 /

(3) Effect of Cynodon dactylon and tenoxicam on the lysosomal enzyme activities in the cartilage tissue of osteoarthritic guinea pigs / Poonguzhalik K P et al / Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition • 1998, vol. 24, no3, pp. 141-146

(4) Chemopreventive effect of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. extract against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in experimental animals / Arul Albert-Baskar and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu / Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology / doi:10.1016/j.etp.2009.06.003

(5) CURATIVE EFFECT OF CYNODON DACTYLON AGAINST STZ INDUCED HEPATIC INJURY
IN DIABETIC RATS
 / Santosh Kumar Singh et al / Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2009 / 24 (4) 410-413

(6) Cynodon Dactylon; An Ordinary Plant With Extraordinary Cardioprotective Effects / Moslem Najafi, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Alireza Garjani, Hamed Ghavimi and Afshin Gharakhani / Traditional & Complementary Medicine Exhibition 2007 (TCME 2007), Putra World Trade Centre (PWTC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

(7) An Updated Overview on Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. / Datta K Animesh et al / IJRAP 3(1), Jan-Feb 2012

(8) Preliminary Phytochemical Study and Antimicrobial Activity from Various Extract of Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers. (Bermuda) Against Selected Pathogens / Syahriel Abdullah, Januarius Gobilik, Khim Phin Chong / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (Impact Factor: 1.59). 12/2012; 4(5):227-230.

(9) A study on the protective effect of Cynodon dactylon leaves extract in diabetic rats. / Karthik D, Ravikumar S. / Biomed Environ Sci. 2011 Apr;24(2):190-9. doi: 10.3967/0895-3988.2011.02.014.

(10) Effects of Cynodon dactylon on Stress-Induced Infertility in Male Rats / VR Chidrawar, HR Chitme, and KR Vadalia / Journal of Young Pharm, 2011 Jan-Mar; 3(1): 28-35

(11) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Aqueous Extract of Cynodon dactylon / Vipin Kumar Garg and Sarvesh Kumar Paliwal / International Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Vol 7, Issue 3, Pp 370-375 / DOI: 10.3923/ijp.2011.370.375

(12) EVALUATION OF WOUND HEALING POTENTIAL OF CYNODON DACTYLON / PAYAL DANDE*, ANIS KHAN / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 5, Suppl 3, 2012

(13) Anticonvulsant activity of ethanolic extract of Cynodon dactylon / Vipin K. Garg*and Sarvesh K. Paliwal / Der Pharmacia Sinica, 2011, 2 (2): 86-90

(14) Indigenous Effect of Cynodon dactylon in Experimental Induced Ulcers and Gastric Secretions / Kondaveeti Suresh Babu, Ivvala Anand Shaker, Dabburu Kumaraswamy, S. Saleem Basha, Inampudi Sailaja / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 2012, 3(5)

(15) ANTIOXIDANT POTENTIAL OF ETHYLACETATE FRACTION OF CYNODON DACTYLON AGAINST ELA IMPLANTED SWISS ALBINO MICE / M.SAROJA, R.SANTHI* AND S.ANNAPOORANI / International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, Vol 3/Issue 2/April – June 2012

(16) ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CYNODON DACTYLON (L.) PERS. EXTRACTS IN ALLOXAN-INDUCED RATS. / S.SIVASANGARI RAMYA*, N. VIJAYANAND AND S. RATHINAVEL / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, Issue 4, 2014

(17) Evaluation of antiemetic effect of aqueous rhizome extract of Cynodon dactylon against all emetogenic stimuli / Imran Ahmad Khan, Abdul Aziz, Muzammal Sattar, Shaukat Hussain Munawar, Zahid Manzoor, Muhammad Asif Raza, and Ghayoor Fatima / Scientific Research and Essays, Vol 9 (14), pp 628-633, 30 July 2014 / DOI: 10.5897/SRE2014.6046

(18) Aerial parts of Aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon shows hypotensive effect in high fructose treated Wistar rats / Deepak Bharti, Pradnya Jagtap*, vaishali Undale and Ashok Bhosale / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 3 (2), April-June 2012

(19) Cynodon Dactylon Effect as Hepatoprotective on CCl4 Induced Experimental Mice / Uday Sasi Kiran Kantheti*, K. Sonali Chowdary, Y. Sudheer Kumar Reddy / Pharma Research Library

(20) FLUORIDE SORPTION USING Cynodon dactylon-BASED ACTIVATED CARBON / GANAPATY ALAGUMUTHU, VELLAISAMY VEERAPUTHIRAN, RAMASWAMY VENKATARAMAN / Hem. ind. 65 (1) 23–35 (2011) / DOI: 10.2298/HEMIND100712052A

(21) Antidiarrheal activity of Cynodon Dactylon. pers / DS Ravindra Babu, V Neeharika, V Pallavi, Madhava B Reddy / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009, Vol 5, Issue 19, Pp 23-27.

(22) Heavy Metal Bioaccumulation by Eisenia fetida, Cynodon dactylon and Vigna radiata in Single, Bi and Tri-Metal Soil Systems / Vaibhav Rathi, Swati .S. Sambyal, Himani Kulshreshtha and Pranveer S Satvat / International Journal of Technology And Engineering System(IJTES): Jan –March 2011- Vol.2.No.3.

(23) Inhibitory effects of Cynodon dactylon L. on inflammation and oxidative stress in adjuvant treated rats / G. Sindhu, M. Ratheesh, G. L. Shyni, and A. Helen / Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, December 2009, Vol. 31, No. 4 , Pages 647-653 / doi:10.3109/08923970902947325

(24) Protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract from rhizomes of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. on compensated right heart failure in rats / Alireza Garjani*, Arash Afrooziyan, Hossein Nazemiyeh, Moslem Najafi, Ali Kharazmkia and Nasrin Maleki-Dizaji / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009, 9:28 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-28

(25) PHYTOCONSTITUENTS INVESTIGATION BY LC-MS AND EVALUATION OF ANTI- MICROBIAL AND ANTI-PYRETIC PROPERTIES OF CYNODON DACTYLON / Zabin K. Bagewadi*, Siddanagouda R.S and Praveen G. Baligar / IJPSR, 2014; Vol. 5(7): 2874-2889.

(26) In vitro antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of isolated compounds from ethyl acetate extract of Cynodon dactylon and Piper betle / Thiruvengada Rajan V S, Ellaiah P, Madhusudhana Chetty C / Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res., Vol 01, Issue 04, Oct-Dec 2011

Kawad-kawaran5
Others
– Landscape:Bermuda grass is extensively used in urban and suburban lawns.
– Feed: In the rural areas, collected for supplementary feed for horses and carabaos. Reported to be highly nutritional for cattle.

Study Findings
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic: (1) Study of ethanolic extract of defatted C dactylon on Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed high antidiabetic potential and a good hypolipidemic profile, with a lowering of blood glucose, reduction of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and an increase in HDL. Study of aqueous extract of CD showed high antidiabetic potential along with significant hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects.
• Antimicrobial: Screening of Antimicrobial Activity of Cynodon dactylon and Caesalpinia bonducella extracts: Results showed Cynodon extracts are efficient against Pseudomonas species.
• Chondroprotective / Anti-Inflammatory:Study showed a chondroprotective effect. The antiinflammatory effect may be due to stabilization of the lysosomal membrane.
• Diuretic: Study on aqueous extract on the root stalk of Cynodon dactylon showed diuretic activity, with increased excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. Results were comparable to furosemide.
• Cardioprotective / Inotropic: Study showed C dactylon exerted strong protective effect on right heart failure, partly through a positive inotropic action and improvement of cardiac functions.
• Chemopreventive / Antiproliferative: In a study of experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats, C dactylon showed to be antiproliferative and antioxidative and induced apoptotic cell death. Treatment with the methanolic extract increased levels of antioxidant enzymes and reduced the number of dysplastic crypts.
• Anti-Ulcer: Study yielded flavonoids and proteins. The alcoholic extract showed significant anti-ulcer activity, comparable to ranitidine, an effect attributed to the presence of flavonoids.
• Curative Effect on STZ-Induced Hepatic Injury: Study to evaluate the role of ethanolic extract of C. dactylon against hepatic complications in STZ-induced diabetic models showed a significant reduction of SGOT, SGPT, alkphos, creatinine and urine sugar. A high LD50 validates a high margin of safety.
• Immunomodulatory: In a study of mice immunized with sheep RBC, CD protein fraction enhanced the humoral antibody response to the antigen and significantly potentiated cellular immunity.
• Cardioprotective: Study evaluated the cardioprotective effects of the plant against cardiac arrhythmias. Results showed the protective effects of Can. Dad against arrhythmias in isolated rat heart. Steroidal saponins were confirmed on phytochemical screening. It may act like digoxin, and antiinflammatory and direct mechanisms may also be involved.
• Photorespiration: Study showed C. dactylon to possess phytohormones potential against defensible contaminated soil, fly ash, and aged petroleum sludge. It serves as a potential candidate for revegetation in heavy metal contaminated wastelands.
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated seven different solvents of Cynodon dactylon for antimicrobial activity against some pathogens (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumonia). Results showed an ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts showed broad spectrum activity to all tested pathogens.
• Antidiabetic / Reduction of Hyperlipidemia / Leaves: Study of extract of leaves of C. dactylon showed reduction of hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia risk and also reduction of oxidative stress in diabetic rats.
• Aphrodisiac and Male Fertility Effects: Study showed treatment of rats under stress with methanolic extract of C. dactylon showed a promising effect in overcoming stress-induced sexual dysfunction, sexual performance, fructose content of seminal vesicles, epididymal sperm concentration. Results showed the methanol extract to have aphrodisiac and male fertility effects.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of an aqueous extract of Cynodon dactylon using carrageenan, serotonin, histamine, and dextran induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet method. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity in all models studied. Activity was attributed to the presence of flavonoids.
• Wound Healing Potential: Study evaluated the wound healing potential of gel preparations of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C. dactylon on excision and incision wound healing models in albino wistar rats.Results showed significant wound healing potential with increased rate of healing in both models.
• Anticonvulsant: Study of an ethanolic extract of C. dactylon showed anticonvulsant effect against MES (maximal electroshock) and PTZ (pentylenetetrazol) induced convulsions in mice.
• Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of extracts of CD in male albino wistar rats. Results showed significant reduction of ulcer index in extract treated rats of pylorus ligation, aspirin induced and ethanol induced gastric ulcer models.
• Antioxidant / Ehrlich’s Lymphoma Ascites: Study evaluated the level of enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants in Ehrlich’s Lymphoma Ascite transplanted mice treated with EA fractions of C. dactylon. Results showed increased levels of enzymic and non enzymic antioxidants, suggesting lipid peroxidation inhibiting activity.
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated various solvent extracts of leaves of C. dactylon in alloxan induced diabetic rats. A methanolic extract produced steep decline in blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Other extracts also reduced elevated plasma cholesterol and urea levels in diabetic rats.
• Anticancer Activity on Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of C. dactylon in Swiss albino mice inoculated with EAC (Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma) cells. Treatment showed significant anticancer activities in the tested animal models, with enhancement of life span and restoration of hematological parameters.
• Antiemetic Effect / Rhizome: Study evaluated a crude aqueous rhizome extract for anti-emetic activity in various emetogenic models. C. dactylon showed remarkable emesis suppressant activity when compared with standard drugs chlorpromazine, domperidone and metoclopramide.
• Bronchodilatory Effect: A chloroform extract of Cynodom dactylon protected against acetylchloline (Ach) -induced bronchospasm in guinea pigs. The bronchodilator activity of CECD was attributed partly to the presence of scopoletin and mediated possibly through calcium channel blocking and phosphodiesterase inhibition.
• Anti-Nephrolithiatic: Study evaluated the preventive effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of C dactylon roots on calcium oxalate calculi in rats. Results showed the extract was able to reduce the growth of urinary stones in rat. Urine oxalate level decrease d in nephrolithiatic rats treated with the extract.
• Hypotensive Effect / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon on mean arterial pressure in rats with fructose induced hypertension. Chronic administration of the aqueous extract of C. dactylon in hypertensive rats significantly reduced men arterial blood pressure. It also showed a significant decrease in pressor response to NA and adrenaline. The antihypertensive effect is possibly achieved by partly improving peripheral vascular resistance.
• In-Vitro Anti-Cancer Activity / HEP-2, HeLa and MC Effect / Aerial Parts: Study supported the efficacy of Cynodon dactylon as an anticancer agent for HEP-2 laryngeal, HELA cervical and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Among the three cell lines CD showed more activity in HEP-2 laryngeal cell line.
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Toxicity / Leaves: Cynodon dactylon showed potent hepatoprotective activity attributed to its antioxidant property against CCl4 induced liver damage in mice. The effect was more significant than that of Silymarin.
• Fluoride Bioadsorbent / Dactylon-Based Activated Carbon: Study evaluated the effect of application of Cynodon dactylon based thermally activated carbon for fluoride toxicity. Results showed C. dactylon bioadsorbent can be utilized to remove fluoride selectively from water.
• Antidiarrheal: Study evaluated various extracts of Cynodon dactylon for antidiarrheal activity in castor oil induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal and enteropooling models in albino rats. A methanol extract showed good antidiarrheal activity with significant decrease in gastrointestinal motility by charcoal meal and decreased weight on intestinal contents in enteropooling models.
• Phytoremediation / Heavy Metal Pollution: Study showed Eisenia fetida, Cynodon dactylon and Vigna radiata can be used as effective indicators of soil health as they show positive accumulation results when exposed to heavily contaminated soils.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Arthritic: Study evaluated the effect of C. dactylon against rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis. Orally administered C. dactylon produced significant attenuation in the inflammatory response, oxidative stress and ameliorated the arthritic changes to near normal condition.
• Neuroprotective: Study evaluated the neuroprotective and antioxidant activities of an ethanol extract of C. dactylon against diazepam induced neurotoxicity in rat brain. Diazepam significantly increased levels of acetylcholinestrase, cholesterol, malondialdehyde (MDA) & superoxide dismutase (SOD) along with reduced level of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH) & glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The values are restored with administration of CD. Results suggest the ethanol extract may be a reliable adjuvant for neurotoxicity, with a potential as antioxidant and phytomedicine for neurodegenerative diseases.
• Inotropic / Protective on Right Heart Failure: Study evaluated the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of rhizomes of C. dactylon on cardiac contractility and cardiac functions in right heart failure in rats. Results showed a strong protective effect on RHF, in part by positive inotropic action and improvement of cardiac functions.
• Antimicrobial / Anti-Pyretic: Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of C. dactylon showed good inhibitory effect for all tested bacterial and fungal strains. Extracts yielded flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols and glycosides. Both extracts also showed significant dose dependent antipyretic effect in yeast induced fever in experimental rats.
• Antioxidant / Alpha-Amylase Inhibitory Activity: Selected isolates from ethyl acetate extract of Cynodon dactylon and Piper betle and the combination of both were found to have antioxidant activity alpha amylase inhibitory activity in different models. The selected isolates showed better activities in combined rather than individual form.

Availability
Wild-crafted.